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History Of Measurement: PowerPoint Presentation

  1. 1. HISTORY OF MEASUREMENT By: Ishaq Shah Ms. Hamrani’s Intro To Eng. Class Block: 4A
  2. 2. HOW MEASURING UNITS CAME TO EXISTENCE  Many civilizations needed measurements to construct, make clothing, barter food, and even raw materials. The Egyptians amongst many other civilizations were the first to (The begin recording measurements. Due to the Amazing Pharaoh's excessive need for monuments and Pyramids worship from his peasants, Egyptians began and the recording measurements around 3200 BC. We Phoenix) see this as evidence through the pyramids of today, the Phoenix, and other monuments in Egypt today.
  3. 3. SPECIFIC TOOLS USED FOR MEASUREMENTS  In ancient Egypt, lengths were measured by cubit rods. As evidence these rods were found in the tombs of officials. Greeks measure of length were based on the human Cubit Rods body such as the foot and the finger segments. Which the Roman Empire Greek’s adapted or refined into a larger foot. measurements of the Human Body.
  4. 4. MAJOR CONTRIBUTORS  THE INDONESIANS, EGYPTIANS, MESOPOTAMIANS, ELAM, AN D THE INDUS VALLEY PEOPLES, WERE ALL MAJOR CONTRIBUTERS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE DEVICES AND UNITS.
  5. 5. BLUNDERS OF FAULTY MEASUREMENTS  The Great Kersten Blunder – Kersten was a programmer who programmed the Vigor space probe and sent it towards Venus. He made a very small error of conversion from millimeter to inches, and the The Great Kersten probe missed Venus and was sent hurling in space. Blunder This caused 2 billion dollars of technology to be abolished.  The Mars Climate Orbiter suffered a dramatic The Mars disaster when programming teams from Europe and Climate USA worked in two different measurement systems to Orbiter program the Orbiter. It missed Mars and completely vanished into space.
  6. 6. QUESTIONS & ANSWERS 1. According to archeological records, which civilizations were the first to record measurements? The Egyptians were the first, and were followed by the Sumerians, and then the Chinese. 2. Around the time of the Roman Empire the terms inch, foot, and yard were refined. What was the length of a foot based on? The term “Foot” came to existence when someone unknown measured a standard person’s foot. Some say it was a king’s foot, but however some feet were smaller and sometimes larger than 12 inches.
  7. 7. QUESTIONS & ANSWERS 3. For what reason did the French Academy of Science create the metric system? The main reason for the invention of the metric system by the French Academy of Science was to create a measurement system that could be used internationally by standards of weight, distance, volume and temperature. 4. What was the Treaty of the Meter (May 20, 1875)? It was an agreement to oversee the standards of the metric system. Numerous countries were involved. 5. How was the length of a standard meter defined in the year 1791? It was defined by the dimensions of the planet Earth. 6. How was the length of a standard meter redefined in the year 1983? On October 20, 1983, the meter was officially redefined by the distance traveled by light.
  8. 8. QUESTIONS & ANSWERS 7. What was the significance of the Metric Act of 1866? It was significant because it recognized the Metric System as a legal system of measurement in the United States. 8. What were some of the early tools to help aid in measurement? The human body, and the cubit rods were some of the earliest tools in aiding measurements. 9. What major engineering blunders were results of faulty measurement? The error in conversion of mm. to in., resulting in the loss of the Venus Probe. Different use of measuring systems (metric and standard) of the USA and Europe, caused the Mars Climate Orbiter to be abolished.
  9. 9. RESOURCES  http://inventors.about.com/od/mstartinventions/a/Measur ement.htm  http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?hist oryid=ac07  ( Inventors.about.com – historyworld.net )

Editor's Notes

  • he Great Kersten Blunder. (Kersten was the programer that made the error). The Vigor space probe was sent towards Venus, but because of a computer programing error installed on it, a convertion from millimeters to inches was incorrect. It divided by 24.5 instead of 25.4. This error caused it to miss Venus completely and was sent hurling into space. Over 2 billion dollars of technology was lost because of one simple error. The Mars Climate Orbiter had a problem when trajectory programming teams from Europe and USA were working in two different measurement systems, imperial and metric. It missed the planet completely and was lost. Not exactly engineering but it was an aviation blunder. An Air Canada flight was fuelled in Toronto using pounds instead of liters of fuel. The pilot calculated how much he needed thinking he was getting his fuel in liters and eventually ran out of fuel near Winnipeg. He successfully landed the plane safely at a semi-abandoned WW2 airstrip at Gimli Manitoba. The Hubble Space Telescope or HST originally had an incorredtly ground mirRead more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_major_engineering_blunders_were_results_of_faulty_measurement#ixzz1cJ2wsf12
  • The term "Foot" came when someone measured a standard person's foot. Though it was said it was a king's foot, some feet are smaller or larger than 12 inches. The term "inch" came from the Latin word uncio. The word uncio means, 1/12. And an inch is 1/12 of a foot. "Yard" came from middle English word meaning "rod or staff; yard measure". It is said that it was measured from a man's neck to his finger tips.Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/2_Around_the_time_of_the_Roman_Empire_the_terms_inch_foot_and_yard_were_refined_What_was_the_length_of_a_foot_based_on#ixzz1cJ9EizMi
  • In the 18th century it was felt that a standard unit of length was needed. The French Academy of Sciences decided in 1791 that the meter would be defined by the dimensions of the planet earth.
The metre would be a unit of length such that Earth's meridian line (a line linking the equator with the north pole) was equal to ten million meters. Over the following years measurements of the meridian line that passes through Paris were attempted, so that a standard meter could be cast in metal.<a href="http://altfarm.mediaplex.com/ad/nc/16024-128483-16064-"> <imgsrc="http://altfarm.mediaplex.com/ad/nb/16024-128483-16064-" alt="Click Here" border="0"> </a>Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_was_the_length_of_a_standard_meter_defined_in_the_year_1791#ixzz1cJC6rEcz
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