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  1. 1. Government support for UniversityEducation: which way for Women’s University in Africa? Handsen Tibugari Lecturer Women’s University in Africa Zimbabwe handsentibugari@gmail.com
  2. 2. OUTLINE• The University Education Sector• Public Universities• Private Institutions• Women’s University in Africa• Major Trends• Lessons• Recommendations
  3. 3. Zimbabwe University Education• 14 universities: • 9 public (state), 5 private universities• Administered by Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education’s Division of University Education• Links local & international universities, compiles & maintains databases on university education
  4. 4. • Zimbabwe Council for Higher Education monitors quality of university education• Universities have Internal Quality Assurance Departments to monitor quality
  5. 5. • Access - one university in each province• The Ministry targets to increase access to university education from the current 40% to 60% by 2012 and 60% to 90% by 2013• Government policy also allows establishment of private universities
  6. 6. Public Universities• Public universities receive Government grants• Students in public universities can be cushioned by the Cadetship Scheme, which covers 75% of fees• Upon completion of studies, recipients serve the country and are bonded for a period equal to the duration of the period they are engaged as cadets
  7. 7. Private Institutions• Private schools & private teachers’ colleges receive per capita and salary grants from government• Private universities not government funded• 4 church based• High fees - large portion of their income• Additional income from churches
  8. 8. The Women’s University in Africa• Not-for-profit university• Not church based• Established to address gender disparity and foster equity in university education• 85% women and 15% men• Reasonable fees to accommodate economically disadvantaged
  9. 9. Institution Fees/semesterState Universities 400.00 – 700.00Catholic University 750.00Africa University 1 250.00Solusi University 1 400.00Women’s University in 700.00Africa
  10. 10. • Student population – 2 000• Graduation rate – 95%• Vision 2015 - Growth with Quality• Target enrolment – 4 500• Flexible lecture timetables• Plans for satellite campuses, University to the people
  11. 11. WUA Sources of Income• 95% of income from students’ fees• 5% from gifts and donations• Grant - African Capacity Building Foundation• 9 PhD scholarships for academic staff• More than 90 scholarships for women students• Is equipping Agriculture Laboratory• Bus for students, computers, E-books• Staff exchange/contact visits
  12. 12. • Limited revenue sources• Lessons from public universities?
  13. 13. Major Trends Social transformation ESAPResuscitation UnderfundingImproved funding Near collapseImproved conditions
  14. 14. 1980s• Socialist ideology• One public university• High expenditure 14 - 23% in 1979/80 – 1980/81 (Nherera, 2005)
  15. 15. 1990s• Shift towards capitalist society• Growing debt• ESAP-1991• Cutbacks in education expenditure• Expenditure not to exceed 18%• 4 new public universities
  16. 16. University EstablishedNational University of Science 1991and TechnologyBindura University of Science 1996EducationZimbabwe Open University 1998Midlands State University 1999Africa University 1992Solusi University 1994Competition for government resources
  17. 17. 2000-2009• Land reform• Economic isolation• Price controls• Recession• Reduced HE expenditure• (40% of income 2009)• More public universities – competition for resources
  18. 18. 2000 - 2009Institution EstablishedChinhoyi University of Technology 2001Great Zimbabwe University 2002Lupane State University 2004Harare Institute of Technology 2005Catholic University in Zimbabwe 2001Women’s University in Africa 2002
  19. 19. Effects on educationEconomic hardships• High student dropout rates >20% in 5• Temporary suspension of programmes – lack of qualified lecturers• Temporary closure of institutions (e.g.. UZ)• Closure of students’ halls of residence
  20. 20. • Government budgetary constraints and hyperinflation – salaries unattractive• Mass exodus of skilled academics (Prof I.D.T. Mpofu - IDT Feed Formulation Software 2006 – University of Namibia)• Many universities recruited Teaching Assistants to assist with practicals• Ended up teaching full course loads
  21. 21. Lessons• Reliance on limited revenue sources not sustainable• Can compromise access and quality• Government funding policies can change
  22. 22. Recommendations• Need for universities to diversify revenue• Room for WUA to diversify revenue e.g.: - Strategic Business Unit projects, Research - Consultancy, Alumni (VP)• Government extend cadetship scheme – needy students - salary grants for staff