IAU_KU_2011_Siddiqui

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IAU_KU_2011_Siddiqui

  1. 1. By,Muhammad Ayub Siddiqui &Professor Zahid Mahmood Bahria University PAKISTAN 1
  2. 2. OUTLINE OF THE PRESENTATIONIntroductionIntellectual context of the present studyFactors leading to educational inequality in South Asia(SA)Problems related to educational inequality in PakistanMeasures taken to overcome inequality in Pakistan.Propositions of the present studyMethodologyFindings of the studyRecommendations 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONThis study measures educational inequality amongst the Pakistaniyouth for the last decade in comparison with other South AsianEconomies.The study relates income inequality and poverty with educationalinequality, comparing the case of Pakistan with the rest of SouthAsian countries.Objective of the study is to explore the problems of access toeducation in Pakistan in comparison with other countries of SouthAsia. 3
  4. 4. INTELLECTUAL CONTEXT OFTHE PRESENT STUDYBudget Allocation to the Educational Sector is not basedon per-pupil requirement and the level of poverty.Centralized and egalitarian school system helps inreducing the cost of education for the poor families.Access to education is increased due to reduction in theincome inequality (Checchi et al. 1999).Higher education and re-distribution of country’sresources have two-way causation (Moore, 1982). 4
  5. 5. COMMON FACTORS LEADING TOEDUCATIONAL INEQUALITY IN SA
  6. 6. PROBLEMS RELATED TO EDUCATIONALINEQUALITY IN PAKISTAN Lack of Equity and Justice Gender Discrimination Reduction in the Budget Allocation RS. 259.5 BILLION RS. 153.5 BILLION 2009-10 2010-11 War against terrorism in Afghanistan Military operations in Swat & Waziristan Floods in 2010 Floods in 2011 6
  7. 7. PROBLEMS RELATED TO EDUCATIONALINEQUALITY IN PAKISTAN (cont.) Infrastructural Problems in Primary Education 9.8 % schools are without building 7
  8. 8. PROBLEMS RELATED TO EDUCATIONALINEQUALITY IN PAKISTAN (cont.) Infrastructural Problems in Primary Education 9.8 % schools are without building 32.7% are without boundary walls 33.6 % are without drinking water 35.4 % are without restrooms 59% are without electricity 8
  9. 9. MEASURES TAKENTO OVERCOME INEQUALITY INPAKISTAN Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP): PRSP guidelines are being followed by the Govt. of Pakistan, which aim at: Consistent Economic growth of 5-7 percent to curb poverty. Enhancement of employment. Reduction of inequalities. Other measures by the Govt.: Benazir Income Support Program (Cash Grant) Waseela-e-Haq (Interest free loan) Pakistan Baitul Mal (Poverty alleviation Govt. Body) Peoples Works Programme (Local Community Development Program) Microfinance Schemes (Small Loans Scheme) 9
  10. 10. MEASURES TAKENTO OVERCOME INEQUALITY INPAKISTAN Measures by Bahria University: Scholarships awarded worth Rs.17m / pa, benefiting 10% of the BU-students Need Based Scholarships Merit Scholarships Afghan Nationals being enrolled at par with local students in terms of fee structure. Tuition fee waiver for Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs). Special quota of 2% has been allocated for the students with disability by relaxing admission criteria [based on equity-principle]. 10
  11. 11. MEASURES TAKENTO OVERCOME INEQUALITY INPAKISTAN (cont.) Measures taken by Bahria University: Community Services Floods in Pakistan in 2010: Contribution of Rs.2.0 million for flood affectees. 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. MEASURES TAKENTO OVERCOME INEQUALITY INPAKISTAN (cont.) Measures by Bahria University: Community Services Floods in Pakistan in 2011: Contribution of Rs.2.0 million. Clothing, food, shelter and Medical services provided in several affected areas. 13
  14. 14. PROPOSITIONS OF THEPRESENT STUDY There is gender disparity in terms of access to education. There is regional disparity in terms of access to education. Income inequality leads to the educational inequality. Increased budget allocation to educational sector may increase equity access to education. 14
  15. 15. METHODOLOGYTo test the propositions of the present study, followingstatistical techniques have been employed. Gini-Coefficient Universally accepted & widely used statistical technique to measure inequalities. The value ranges between 0 and 100, in terms of percent. 0 means maximum equality 100 means maximum inequality KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) Key Performance Indicators are the data reported in either percent or ratio form by different accredited national & international organizations. 15
  16. 16. FINDINGS OF THE STUDY Sources of Data: ○ World Bank ○ UNESCO ○ Economic Survey of Pakistan ○ Higher Education Commission of Pakistan Target Population: ○ Pakistan ○ India ○ Bangladesh ○ Nepal 16
  17. 17. Findings Based on Gini-Coefficient Average Years of Schooling During 1999-2010 – Age 15+ (Gender-Wise) 80.11 Color Code Pakistan India Bangladesh NepalFemale Male Total 17
  18. 18. Findings Based on Gini-CoefficientAverage Years of SchoolingDuring 1999-2010 – Age 15+ (Quantile) Color Code Pakistan India Banglades h Nepal 18
  19. 19. Findings Based on Gini-Coefficient Average Years of SchoolingDuring 1999-2010 – Age 15+ (Region-Wise) Color Code Pakistan India Bangladesh Nepal Rural Urban 19
  20. 20. Findings Based on KPI’s Literacy Rate:Youth of Age 15 & Above (Gender Wise) Color Code Pakistan India Bangladesh NepalFemale Male Total 20
  21. 21. Findings Based on KPI’s Literacy Rate:Youth between Age 15-24 (Gender Wise) Color Code Pakistan India Bangladesh Nepal Female Male Total 21
  22. 22. Findings Based on KPI’sPublic Spending on Education (% of GDP) 4% 4% 3% 2% 22
  23. 23. Findings Based on KPI’sPublic Spending on Education (% of Government Expenditure) 15% 15% 13% 10% 23
  24. 24. Findings Based on KPI’sExpenditure on Higher Education (RS. BILLION) - Pakistan 24
  25. 25. Findings Based on KPI’sStudent-Teacher Ratio: 46 40 42 Color Code37 38 33 Pakistan 31 33 India Bangladesh Nepal Primary Secondary 25
  26. 26. Findings Based on KPI’s Ratio of Female to Male Enrolment 105 104 Color Code 90 Pakistan 82 84 78 79 77 India75 69 Bangladesh 51 Nepal 34 Primary Secondary Tertiary 26
  27. 27. RECOMMENDATIONS Budget allocation to the education should be rationalized in all the countries of SA. Educational inequality can be reduced through the measures of income redistribution in these countries. Social equity, justice and social development can lead to reduced gender inequality in accessing education. Rural areas of the countries should be paid special attention in terms of access to education. 27
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