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  1. 1. OER in AfricaAlternative Modes of Access to Higher Education 2011 IAU International Conference Strategies for Securing Equity in Access and Success in Higher Education Safari Park Hotel, Nairobi, Kenya Friday, 18th November 2011 1
  2. 2. Who we areOER Africa 2
  3. 3. The OER Concept• Educational resources that are freely available for use by educators and learners, without an accompanying need to pay royalties or licence fees.• OER is not synonymous with online learning or e- learning;• Within an African context, it is anticipated that many of the resources produced – while shareable in a digital format (both online and via offline formats such as CD-ROM) – will be printable. 3
  4. 4. Setting the Scene• African universities are dealing with significant pressure to increase access to HE programmes• Most institutions are having to increase enrolments despite structural under-funding to discharge this core function effective• Most programmes (including many at postgraduate level) rely heavily on lecturing as a primary mode of transmission of content 4
  5. 5. Five Challenges for EducatorsLaurillard, D. (2001). Rethinking University Teaching: A Framework for the Effective Use of Learning Technologies.Routledge Falmer 5
  6. 6. Some Challenges to Higher Education in AfricaDependence on lectures:• Too few learning resources for learners and lecturers in African universities, and many of those available are too expensive to be purchased by universities or students.• Limited ICT infrastructure to gain access to up-to- date information available on the Internet and participate in inter-institutional, geographically dispersed collaborative activities. 6
  7. 7. What are we learning?OER & improved teaching and learning:• effective use of teaching and learning resources (RBL) can be more effective than some forms of contact, e.g. rote transfer of content via lectures.• judicious mix of teaching strategies may serve to free up time of academics from delivery of content, to instead, investing time in curriculum and resource development, more problem-based interaction and more varied assessment strategies that do not focus on rote recall of content. 7
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  9. 9. Nursing Education in Africa Resource Details University Certificate in Resource Name : Midwifery Kamuzu College of Nursing This CD ROM has been developed to support the UCM and upgrading midwifery programmes. It combines a number of new strategies that are being Resource Description : piloted by MCH department to respond to the national needs within the Health sector. These include reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in relation to Millennium Development Goals 4, 5 & 6. Resource Author : University of Malawi, Kamuzu College of Nursing Resource Source : University of Malawi, Kamuzu College of Nursing nursing, Problem Based Learning, maternal Resource Tags : and neonatal morbidity, Computer based education, Resource Type : Modules, Training Notes/Materials/Tutorials Resource Year : 2009 Resource Licensing Creative Commons: Attribution-Non Commercial Condition : Share Alike 2.5http://www.oerafrica.org/ResourceResults/tabi Resource Media Type : Text/HTMLd/1562/mctl/Details/id/37994/Default.aspx Resource Language : English 9
  10. 10. The UNESCO OER Platform Find, Compare, Build and Share: stakeholders can freely use the UNESCO base product to find and compare content, copy and build their unique content, and share their adaptation on the UNESCO OER Platform Translations: significantly higher than the 6 languages from UNESCO Localization: incorporating the more relevant and superior quality and quantity of the national or regional literature base on the subject area; Innovation: the creation of new, customized versions, e.g. Guide on Internet Access for Disabled Journalists based on the original UNESCO “The Net for Journalists” Offline editing: critically important for countries with poor internet Mobile phone access: taking advantage of 5 billion access points
  11. 11. The 1st UNESCO OER Product “UNESCO Model Curricula for Journalism Education” Generic, adaptable, fully-prescriptive Curricula: – Course descriptions – Pedagogical approaches – Mode, weekly class agenda, number of teaching hours – Recommended text – Grading and assessment protocols Available in 6 official languages + Nepali, Portuguese Adapted by 65+ institutions in 54 countries with backlog The OER Platform allows a new journalism school to: – easily find courses, – compare how other schools have adapted them, and – freely copy and adapt the most suitable courses
  12. 12. OER has the Potential1. To increase availability of high quality, relevant and need- targeted learning materials;2. To reduce the cost of accessing educational materials;3. To allow adaptation of materials and possibly contribute to enabling learners to be active participants in educational processes;4. To achieve collaborative partnership of people working in communities of practice, preferably across/within institutions;5. To build capacity in African higher education institutions by providing educators with access, at low or no cost, to the tools and content required to produce high quality educational materials. 12
  13. 13. Why institutionalize OER?• Open licensing provides a cost-effective means to increase investment in creating more effective teaching and learning environments using resource-based learning.• To be effective and sustainable, such strategic decisions will likely need to be accompanied by review of institutional policies. 13
  14. 14. Conditions for institutionalizing OER• Policy Review – an OER policy should aim to encourage academics to publish their materials by focussing on incentives and also providing opt- out provisions. In terms of implementation, it is important to work with the willing.• Champions – individuals or units that demonstrate passion and credibility, are critical if OER is to take hold. Need for both Senate level and implementation level involvement.• Skills – not all academics necessarily have the skills to develop educational resources – whether openly licensed – or otherwise. Academics are usually employed as discipline experts not materials developers with the knowledge of how to search or tag. 14
  15. 15. A Vision for Higher Education in Africa:• Vibrant, sustainable African higher education institutions that play a critical role in building and sustaining African societies and economies, by producing the continent’s future intellectual leaders through free and open development and sharing of common intellectual capital. 15
  16. 16. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. Thank you Catherine Ngugi OER Africa Project Director catherine.ngugi@oerafrica.org 16