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Faculty-Student Rapport in Teaching in Higher Education

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These slides were part of a session I did on the topic of Faculty-Student Rapport in Higher Education. The presentation starts with an introduction to the concept of rapport and then focusses on 3 different pedagogical approaches that can build rapport: the learner-centered syllabus, caring, and mid-course feedback from students. A panel of faculty members contributed their own approaches for each of the sub-topics (syllabus, caring, MCF).
The handout I used pulled examples from the Learner Centered Syllabus resource found here: https://wiki.ubc.ca/Documentation:Inclusive_Teaching/Learner_Centered_Syllabus

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Faculty-Student Rapport in Teaching in Higher Education

  1. 1. 1 FACULTY-STUDENT RAPPORT Isabeau Iqbal, PhD Centre for Teaching, Learning and Technology Laura Moss, Suzanne James, Tara Lee Department of English Literature October 18, 2018
  2. 2. RAPPORT https://flic.kr/p/aDjev
  3. 3. 3 FACULTY-STUDENT RAPPORT: AGENDA Rapport Building rapport 1. The syllabus 2. Caring 3. Midterm feedback from students Close
  4. 4. 4 RAPPORT: SCHOLARLY DEFINTIONS 1. relationship, 2. develops from positive interactions 3. involves reciprocity or mutuality, and 4. results from trust, caring, and/or a shared connection. (West et al., 2017)
  5. 5. BRINGING BACK https://flic.kr/p/BFxY9
  6. 6. CLASSROOM CLIMATE https://flic.kr/p/26cFEpE
  7. 7. CLASSROOM CLIMATE “the intellectual, social, emotional, and physical environments in which our students learn.” (Ambrose, Bridges, Lovett, DiPietro, & Norman, 2010, p.170)
  8. 8. 8 RAPPORT AND LEARNING: STUDENTS’ SELF PERCEPTIONS Academic performance Retention Participation ((Astin, 1993; McInnis Brown & Starrett, 2017)
  9. 9. 9 RAPPORT AND LEARNING Rapport does not result in learning, but it helps to create conditions conducive to learning. (Granitz, Koernig & Harich, 2009)
  10. 10. 10 FACULTY-STUDENT RAPPORT • higher motivation • increased participation • perceptions of increased quality • greater course satisfaction • enhanced communication and understanding (Granitz, Koernig & Harich, 2009; Wilson & Ryan, 2012)
  11. 11. BUILDING RAPPORT https://www.flickr.com/photos/snre/5114827399
  12. 12. INSTRUCTOR BEHAVIOURS THAT BUILD RAPPORT • Encouraging • Open minded • Creative • Interesting • Accessible • Happy • Have a ‘good’ personality • Promote class discussions • Approachable • Concern for students • Fair (Benson, Cohen, and Buskist , 2005)
  13. 13. 13 RAPPORT The learner-centered syllabus Caring Mid-course evaluations of teaching
  14. 14. 14 SYLLABUS
  15. 15. 15 A learner-centered approach focuses policies, pedagogy, and assessments on the needs of students rather than on the needs of the teacher. (Richmond, Slattery, Mitchell, Morgan & Becknell, 2016) LEARNER-CENTERED APPROACH
  16. 16. 16 LEARNER-CENTERED SYLLABUS …focuses more on student learning (in contrast to delivery of content), as well as the direct link between student outcomes and assessments. (Richmond,2017)
  17. 17. 17 Students perceived instructor as: • being more masterful teacher • having stronger student-instructor rapport (Richmond, Slattery, Mitchell, Morgan & Becknell, 2016) LEARNER-CENTERED SYLLABUS
  18. 18. 18 LEARNER-CENTERED SYLLABUS https://wiki.ubc.ca/Documentation:Inclusive_Teaching/Learner_Centered_Syllabus Positive tone Rationale How to succeed Academic success
  19. 19. 19 LEARNER-CENTERED SYLLABUS: TONE Version A (“cold tone”) “At some point in your life, you asked an expert for help with something. If you find yourself not understanding the assigned readings, lectures and assignment, please set up an appointment with me…” (Harnish and Bridges, 2011, p. 324)
  20. 20. 20 LEARNER-CENTERED SYLLABUS: TONE Version A (“warm-tone”) “We’ve all needed help in something at some point in our lives. If you find yourself not understanding the assigned readings, lectures and assignments, please set up an appointment with me…” (p. 324). (Harnish and Bridges, 2011, p. 324)
  21. 21. 21 LEARNER-CENTERED SYLLABUS: FACILITATES STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC SUCCESS • “Why”/big picture. • Rationale for course objectives and assignments. Positive tone Rationale How to succeed Academic success
  22. 22. 22 LEARNER-CENTERED SYLLABUS: FACILITATES STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC SUCCESS See Course Overview section of handout FNH 200 Exploring Our Foods Example
  23. 23. 23 LEARNER-CENTERED SYLLABUS: WHAT STUDENTS NEED TO DO TO SUCCEED Outlines expectations Positive tone Rationale How to succeed Academic success
  24. 24. 24 LEARNER-CENTERED SYLLABUS: WHAT STUDENTS NEED TO DO TO SUCCEED See Course Policy section.
  25. 25. 25 LEARNER-CENTERED SYLLABUS: WHAT STUDENTS NEED TO DO TO SUCCEED Outlines expectations Provides advice on how to tackle certain projects, assignments.
  26. 26. 26 LEARNER-CENTERED SYLLABUS: WHAT STUDENTS NEED TO DO TO SUCCEED See Assessment and Feedback section.
  27. 27. Positive tone Rationale How to succeed Academic success LEARNER-CENTERED SYLLABUS https://wiki.ubc.ca/Documentation:Inclusive_Teaching/Learner_Centered_Syllabus
  28. 28. https://flic.kr/p/o8CvTS
  29. 29. 29 RAPPORT: COMPONENTS • relationship, • develops from positive interactions • involves reciprocity or mutuality, and • results from trust, caring, and/or a shared connection. (West et al., 2017)
  30. 30. 30 EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION: 2 MAIN ROLES Instructional Role and Personal Role
  31. 31. 31 EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION: 2 MAIN ROLES Instructional Role knowledge preparation clarity Personal Role concern for students availability respectfulness answer questions foster interaction
  32. 32. 32 STUDENT/INSTRUCTOR Undergraduates has realistic expectations of students and is fair is knowledgeable about topic displays understanding is well prepared is approachable and personable (Buskist, Sikorski,Buckley & Saville, 2002)
  33. 33. 33 STUDENT/INSTRUCTOR (Buskist, Sikorski,Buckley & Saville, 2002) Undergraduates Faculty members has realistic expectations of students and being fair am knowledgeable about the topic is knowledgeable about topic am enthusiastic about teaching displays understanding promote critical thinking is well prepared am well prepared is approachable and personable am approachable and personable
  34. 34. 34 INSTRUCTOR/STUDENT (Buskist, Sikorski,Buckley & Saville, 2002) Undergraduates Faculty members has realistic expectations of students and is fair am knowledgeable about the topic is knowledgeable about topic am enthusiastic about teaching displays understanding promote critical thinking is well prepared am well prepared is approachable and personable am approachable and personable
  35. 35. Students care if instructors care about them (Meyers, 2009)
  36. 36. 36 EFFECTS OF CARE • enjoyment of class • attendance and attention • study time • course enrolment • motivation • attitude about instructor • student ratings of instructor (Benson, Cohen and Buskist, 2005; Wilson, 2006)
  37. 37. 37 TEACHER IMMEDIACY “refers to overt forms of communication that enhance the closeness between students and faculty” (Meyers, 2009,p.206)
  38. 38. 38 TEACHER IMMEDIACY: NONVERBAL / PHYSICAL • Gesture • Look at the class • Smile at the whole class & at individuals • Move around the room • Relaxed body position • Variety of vocal expressions (Meyers, 2009)
  39. 39. 39 TEACHER IMMEDIACY: VERBAL
  40. 40. https://flic.kr/p/o8CvTS
  41. 41. attending to the personal role in teaching is most effective when it is coupled with a focus on the instructional role
  42. 42. 43 MID-COURSE FEEDBACK (MCF) involves collecting feedback from students near the middle of a course in order to give the instructor an opportunity to make adjustments and improvements.
  43. 43. 44 MCF: BENEFITS FOR STUDENTS • Enhanced experience of learning • Input • Reflect • Practice giving feedback • Building rapport with their instructor
  44. 44. 45 MCF:BENEFITS FOR INSTRUCTORS • Time to make changes • Student engagement • Reflect on teaching • End of course evaluations • Rapport (Harris & Stevens, 2013)
  45. 45. 46 MID-COURSE FEEDBACK (McGowan & Osguthorpe, 2011) Read feedback 2 Read feedback discuss no changes 5 Read feedback discuss changes 9
  46. 46. https://flic.kr/p/o8CvTS
  47. 47. MAINTAINING RAPPORT https://flic.kr/p/aDjev
  48. 48. 49 BELONGING Higher education institutions have been described as “complex social systems defined by the relationship between people, bureaucratic procedures, structural arrangements, institutional goals and values, traditions, and large socio-historical environments” (Hurado et al. 1998, p.296 cited in Cook-Sather & Felten, 2017).
  49. 49. 50 BELONGING Higher education institutions have been described as “complex social systems defined by the relationship between people, bureaucratic procedures, structural arrangements, institutional goals and values, traditions, and large socio-historical environments” (Hurado et al. 1998, p.296 cited in Cook-Sather & Felten, 2017).
  50. 50. 51 What does it mean for students to feel a sense of belonging within these systems? (Cook-Sather & Felten, 2017)
  51. 51. Thank you! Contact: Isabeau Iqbal, PhD Educational Developer Centre for Teaching, Learning and Technology isabeau.Iqbal@ubc.ca Twitter: @isabeauiqbal isabeauiqbal.ca This work is Creative Commons Licensed: Attribution and Share-alike. Please attribute to Isabeau Iqbal, UBC Centre for Teaching, Learning and Technology
  52. 52. REFERENCES Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., Lovett, M. C., DiPietro, M., & Norman, M. K. (2010). How learning works: 7 research-based principles for smart teaching. Astin, A.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Benson, T. A., Cohen, A. L., & Buskist, W. (2005). Rapport: Its relation to student attitudes and behaviors toward teachers. Teaching of Psychology, 32, 237-239 Cook-Sather, A., & Felten, P. (2017). Where student engagement meets faculty development: How student-faculty pedagogical partnership fosters a sense of belonging. Student Engagement in Higher Education Journal, 1(2), 3. Granitz, N. A., Koernig, S. K., and Harich, K. R. (2009). Now it’s personal: Antecedents and outcomes of rapport between business faculty and their students. Journal of Marketing Education, 31 (1), 52-65. Harnish, R. J., & Bridges, K. R. (2011). Effect of syllabus tone: Students’ perceptions of instructor and course. Social Psychology of Education, 14(3), 319-330. Harris, G. L. A., & Stevens, D. D. (2013). The value of midterm student feedback in cross-disciplinary graduate programs. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 19(3), 537-558. How to make your syllabus more learner-centered. Retrieved from: https://wiki.ubc.ca/Documentation:Inclusive_Teaching/Learner_Centered_Syllabus McGowan, W. R., & Osguthorpe, R. T. (2011). Student and faculty perceptions of effects of midcourse evaluation. To Improve the Academy, 29(1), 160-172. McInnis Brown, M. & Starrett, T. (2017). Fostering student connectedness: Building relationships in the classroom. Retrieved from: https://www.facultyfocus.com/articles/teaching-and-learning/fostering-student-connectedness-building-relationships- classroom/
  53. 53. REFERENCES Meyers, S.A. (2009). Do your students care whether you care about them? College Teaching, 57(4), 205-210. Overall, J. U., & Marsh, H. W. (1979). Midterm feedback from student: Its relationship to instructional improvement and students’ cognitive and affective outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 71(6), 856-865. Richmond, A. (2017). A graduate student’s primer to model teaching. In R. Obeid, A. Schartz, C. Shane-Simpson, & P. J. Brooks (Eds.) How we teach now: The GSTA guide to student-entered teaching. Retrieved from the Society for the Teaching of Psychology web site: https://teachpsych.org/resources/Documents/ebooks/gstaebook.pdf#page=29 Richmond, A. S., Slattery, J. M., Mitchell, N., Morgan, R. K., & Becknell, J. (2016). Can a learner-centered syllabus change students’ perceptions of student–professor rapport and master teacher behaviors?. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology, 2(3), 159. West, K., Hoessler, C., Bennetch, R., Ewert-Bauer, T., Wilson, M., Beaudoin, J.-P., Ellis, D. E., Brown, V. M., Timmermans, J. A., Verwoord, R., & Kenny, N. A. (2017). Educational Development Guide Series: No. 2. Rapport-Building for Educational Developers. Ottawa, ON: Educational Developers Caucus Wilson, J. & Ryan, R. (2012). Developing student-teacher rapport in the undergraduate classroom. In W. Buskist & V.A. Benassi (Eds.) Effective College and University Teaching: Strategies and Tactics for the New Professoriate, 81-90 Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

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