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American studies 2016 02


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Poly 2016

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American studies 2016 02

  1. 1. What is American Studies?
  2. 2. Cumberland (National Road), 1811
  3. 3. Conestoga Covered Wagons Conestoga Trail, 1820sConestoga Trail, 1820s
  4. 4. Erie Canal System
  5. 5. Erie Canal, 1820s Begun in 1817; completed in 1825Begun in 1817; completed in 1825
  6. 6. Robert Fulton & the Steamboat 1807: The1807: The ClermontClermont
  7. 7. Principal Canals in 1840
  8. 8. Inland Freight Rates
  9. 9. Clipper Ships
  10. 10. The Railroad Revolution, 1850s  Immigrant laborImmigrant labor built the No. RRs.built the No. RRs.  Slave laborSlave labor built the So. RRs.built the So. RRs.
  11. 11. Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin, 1791 Actually inventedActually invented by a slave!by a slave!
  12. 12. Eli Whitney’s Gun Factory Interchangeable Parts RifleInterchangeable Parts Rifle
  13. 13. Oliver Evans First prototype of the locomotiveFirst prototype of the locomotive First automated flour millFirst automated flour mill
  14. 14. John Deere & the Steel Plow (1837)
  15. 15. Cyrus McCormick & the Mechanical Reaper: 1831
  16. 16. Samuel F. B. Morse 1840 – Telegraph1840 – Telegraph
  17. 17. Cyrus Field & the Transatlantic Cable, 1858
  18. 18. Elias Howe & Isaac Singer 1840s1840s Sewing MachineSewing Machine
  19. 19. Boom/Bust Cycles: 1790-1860 The blue line shows, for comparison, the price of a year’sThe blue line shows, for comparison, the price of a year’s tuition at Harvard College. In 1790 it was $24, but by 1860tuition at Harvard College. In 1790 it was $24, but by 1860 had risen to $104.had risen to $104.
  20. 20. Distribution of Wealth v During the American Revolution,During the American Revolution, 45% of all wealth in the top 10% of45% of all wealth in the top 10% of the population.the population. v 1845 Boston1845 Boston  top 4% owned overtop 4% owned over 65% of the wealth.65% of the wealth. v 1860 Philadelphia1860 Philadelphia  top 1% ownedtop 1% owned over 50% of the wealth.over 50% of the wealth. v The gap between rich and poor wasThe gap between rich and poor was widening!widening!
  21. 21. Polarization of Wealth in the 20c
  22. 22. Samuel Slater (“Father of the Factory System”)
  23. 23. The Lowell/Waltham System: First Dual-Purpose Textile Plant Francis Cabot Lowell’s town - 1814Francis Cabot Lowell’s town - 1814
  24. 24. Lowell Mill
  25. 25. Early Textile Mill Loom Floor
  26. 26. Early Textile Loom
  27. 27. New England Textile Centers: 1830s
  28. 28. New England Dominance in Textiles
  29. 29. Early “Union” Newsletter
  30. 30. American Population Centers in 1820
  31. 31. American Population Centers in 1860
  32. 32. National Origin of Immigrants: 1820 - 1860 Why now?Why now?
  33. 33. Industrialization, Urbanization, and Immigration 1865-1924
  34. 34. What is the Industrial Revolution about? Production Transportation Immigration Rise of Cities Decline in pop from rural areas Corruption Union Activism Racism/Nativism Reform- (Progressives- Fix the problems of industrial society)
  35. 35. When does the Industrial Revolution take place? Various periods of American History 1st Industrial Revolution 1800-1860 begins in early 1800’s with textile manufacturing and iron production 2nd IR really takes off in the latter part of 1800’s, ca 1870-1915
  36. 36. Sources of Industrial Growth 1. Raw materials 2. Large Labor Supply 3. Technological Innovation 4. Entrepreneurs 5. Federal Gov = eager to support business 6. Domestic Markets for goods 7. Business Organization
  37. 37. Iron and Steel 1870-1880s Iron Production soared Then Steel= 40,000 miles of track Aided by the Bessemer Process Blowing air and secret ingredients through molten iron to burn out impurities Blast Furnace Open Hearth Furnace I Beam allowed sky scrappers New Furnaces 500 tons per week
  38. 38. Western Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, Steel towns- Cleveland, Detroit, Chicago, Birmigham Michigan, Minnesota, Birmingham AL (Iron Ore)
  39. 39. Rail Roads: B and O, Pennsylvania, Reading, Short Line, Southern Pacific, Central Pacific Railroad Industry spurs development Iron for Engines, and rails, later steel Farms, lumber, Buffalo Hunters Employment- Chinese in West, and Irish in East Aids transportation, access to raw materials and markets, spurs construction Land is granted to RR companies in exchange for building the RR- esp Transcontinental RR Later RR will own tremendous amount of land and sell it to people moving WEST By 1880s there are 150,000 miles of Rail creating an national economy.
  40. 40. Rail Roads continued Standard Time (4 zones) Growth of Track 1860- 52,000 miles 1870- 93,000 miles 1890- 163,000 miles 1900- 193,000 miles Chicago is a major rail hub- Government paid subsidies, $ to RR in order to complete and aid in Western railroad development The Big 4 Famous RR executives Stanford, Huntington, Vanderbilt, Crocker
  41. 41. •Airplane- •Wright Bros •Orville and Wilbur •1903 Kitty Hawk, NC
  42. 42. Taylorism= Scientific Management Production process should be Divided into specialized tasks Each task speeds up production Train all workers to do unskilled jobs “Makes workers interchangeable”
  43. 43. Captains of Industry or Robber Barons? John D. Rockefeller Standard Oil Bought out competition 1881 Standard Oil Trust controlled 90% of oil refinery business Used horizontal integration to ruthlessly control and conquer the Oil industry Jim Fisk and Jay Gould Corrupt business practices Investments Andrew Carnegie (1873) Pennsylvania Steel Works Cut costs Made deals with RRs Bought rival copmanies Henry Clay Frick manager Owned coal mines Iron mines Ships Controlled from mine to market Used vertical integration Carnegie Steel 1901 (sold to J.P. Morgan$450 Million US Steel later worth $1.4 Billion)
  44. 44. Rise of Big Business By 1900 the American economy was dominated by business monopolies or trusts, huge business empires Trusts in sugar, cotton, tobacco, meat, flour, and even whiskey Number of industrial combinations rose from 12 to 305 between 1887 and 1903 2,600 smaller firms disappeared By 1900, 1 % of all companies produced 40% of the manufacturing output GAPE saw the rise of the modern corporation Used 14th Amendment to gain “personhood” and rights
  45. 45. Immigration Statistics 1860-1920 -- aprox. 30 million European immigrants 1880-1920 -- appox. 27 million European immigrants 2 “Waves” of immigrants 1860-1890 -- (approx. 10mil) Britain, Ireland, Germany, Scandinavia, Switzerland, Holland 1890-1920 -- (approx. 20mil) Italy, Greece, Austro- Hungary, Russia, Romania, Turkey
  46. 46. Chinese Immigrants In 1851, a racist from NC named Hinton Helper left his home state to get away from what he referred to as the “diversity of color” in America’s more settled regions. He traveled to California and was shocked to find Chinese people living there —so much so that he wondered out loud if the “copper” of the Pacific would cause as much discord and dissension as the “ebony” had on the Atlantic. Between 1850 and 1882 the Chinese pop in the U.S. soared from 7,520 to 300,000. Chinese comprised 8.6 percent of California’s total pop and an impressive 25% of its wage earners.
  47. 47. Chinese Exclusion In calling for Chinese exclusion, one San Francisco paper referred to them as morally inferior heathen savages who were overly lustful and sensual. Chinese women were condemned as a depraved class, which was attributed in large part to their physical appearance. Critics thought they looked like Africans. Chinese men were portrayed as a sexual threat to white women. Chinese also compared to Indians and referred to as the “new barbarians.”
  48. 48. How does this painting explain the attitude of Americans in the mid-1800s? Spirit of the Frontier/American Progress, 1872 by John Gast
  49. 49. How does this painting explain the attitude of Americans in the mid-1800s? Spirit of the Frontier/American Progress, 1872 by John Gast
  50. 50. The “BenevolentThe “Benevolent Empire”Empire”
  51. 51. ““Burned-Over” DistrictBurned-Over” District in Upstate New Yorkin Upstate New York
  52. 52. Steel Production
  53. 53. Vertical Integration Carnegie acquired all aspects of steel production Limited competition, maximized profits, lowered prices
  54. 54. Steel and Cities Buildings Skyscrapers Steel beams Infrastructure Railroads Bridges Brooklyn Bridge Urban Innovation Mass Transit Elevated rails Subways Elevators Central steam-heating systems
  55. 55. Home Insurance Building Chicago 1885 Flatiron Building/Fuller Building New York 1902
  56. 56. Urban Problems • Overcrowding • Tenement Living • Pollution • Crime • Sanitation/Water Treatment • Disease
  57. 57. Urban and Social Reforms Municipal services Social Gospel Settlement Houses Jane Addams and Hull House YMCA Salvation Army
  58. 58. Working Conditions Typical 12 hour days, 6 days a week Conditions Average of 675 workers killed each week Injured = fired No benefits, such as vacation days, sick leave, health insurance, workers’ compensation, pensions Women Earned half of what men earned in comparable or same jobs Child Labor As young as 5 years old 12-14 hours for $.27 ($6.65)
  59. 59. Unions vs. Management
  60. 60. National Labor Union (NLU) Founded in 1866 as the first national labor union Platform 8-hour workday Monetary reform, cooperatives Racial and gender equality Impact 8-hour workday for federal employees
  61. 61. Knights of Labor Founded in 1869 Open to blacks, women, most immigrants, Catholics, unskilled and semi-skilled workers Cooperatives and anti-trusts 8-hour workday, child labor laws Preferred arbitration over strikes Decline AFL
  62. 62. American Federation of Labor (AFL) Skilled workers Samuel Gompers “Bread and Butter” Unionism Higher wages Shorter working hours Better working conditions Tactics Used arbitration and strikes Avoided political radicalism and extremism
  63. 63. Captains of Industry OR Robber Barons: John D. Rockefeller and Oil Horizontal Integration Standard Oil Trusts and monopolies Sherman Anti-trust Act (1890) Gilded Age Society Social Darwinism Gospel of Wealth
  64. 64. Standard Oil Rockefeller established Standard Oil in 1870 Uses for Oil Kerosene lamps Fuel for railroads Used vertical integration to control oil industry then horizontal integration to control oil market Eventually controlled 95% of oil refining
  65. 65. Antitrust Movement Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) Prohibits any “contract, combination, in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy in restraint of trade or commerce” United States v. E.C. Knight Co. (1895) Sugar refining monopoly tested Sherman Antitrust Act Regulation applied to commerce and not manufacturing
  66. 66. Immigration Pushes Mechanization removing jobs, esp. in rural areas Overpopulation Persecution Pulls Political and economic freedoms and opportunities Old Immigrants Northern and Western Europe New Immigrants Southern and Eastern Europe; Asia Catholics, Jews
  67. 67. Immigrant Issues Sociopolitical Enemies Nativists Josiah Strong - Our Country Legislation Page Act of 1875 Forbade forced labor Asians, prostitutes, convicts Immigration Acts of 1882, 1891 $0.50 tax Forbid convicts, lunatics, idiots, diseased, disabled Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) Chinese immigration ban for 10 years Chinese prevented from becoming citizens United States v. Wong Kim Ark (1898) All people born in U.S. are citizens Political Machines Employment, housing, social services for votes Ethnic Neighborhoods Little Italy Chinatown
  68. 68. Ellis Island “…Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore…” Emma Lazarus - The New Colossus, 1883
  69. 69. Laissez-Faire and Social Darwinism Laissez-Faire Economics Economy driven by the “invisible hand” of market forces (supply and demand) Government should refrain from regulation or interference Social Darwinism Herbert Spencer “Survival of the fittest” Wealth a result of hard work and brilliance Poor and unfortunate were lazy William Graham Sumner Absolute freedom to struggle, succeed, or fail State intervention is futile Gospel of Wealth Andrew Carnegie Guardians of the nation’s wealth “All revenue generated beyond your own needs should be used for the good of the community.”
  70. 70. Horatio Alger Myth “Rags to riches” stories Young American men, through hard work and virtue, will succeed Also used a supporting wealthy philanthropic character Seemingly propaganda of the American Dream under free enterprise and capitalism
  71. 71. Morganization J.P. Morgan and Co. Financial capital and investment Directly and indirectly pursued inventions and innovations Mergers and Consolidations Railroad industry Interlocking directorates Corporate board of directors sitting on boards of multiple corporations
  72. 72. Electricity Thomas Edison The Wizard of Menlo Park Incandescent light bulb Safer than kerosene lamps New York City Direct current (DC) Edison developed system of power stations Nicola Tesla Alternate current (AC) Transfer of electricity faster and farther
  73. 73. Gilded Age Innovation Sewing Machine (1855) Isaac Singer Transatlantic cable (1866) Cyrus Field Dynamite (1866) Alfred Nobel Typewriter (1867) Christopher Scholes Air brakes (1868) George Westinghouse Mail-order catalog (1872) A.M. Ward Blue jeans (1873) Levi Strauss Barbed wire (1873) Joseph Glidden Telephone (1876) Alexander Graham Bell* Phonograph (1877) Thomas Edison Light bulb (1879) Thomas Edison* Cash register (1879) James Ritty Universal stock ticker (1885) Thomas Edison Transformer (1885) Nikola Tesla Gasoline automobile (1885) Karl F. Benz Skyscraper (1885) William Le Baron Jenney Film roll and Kodak camera (1889) George Eastman* Motion picture camera (1891) Thomas Edison* Radio (1895) Guglielmo Marconi Subway (U.S.) (1895) X-ray (1895) Wilhelm C. Rontgen Powered flight (1903) George and Wilbur Wright Alkaline battery (1906) Thomas Edison Model T (1908) Henry Ford
  74. 74. Number of Patents Issued
  75. 75. CorporationsAmerican Telephone and Telegraph Co. (1885) J.P. Morgan Co. financed merger of Bell and communication companies General Electric (1892) J.P. Morgan merged Edison General Electric and Thomas-Houston Electric Company U.S. Steel (1901) J.P. Morgan bought Carnegie Steel and merged with other steel companies Becomes first billion dollar company in world
  76. 76. Corporate Mergers - 1895-1910
  77. 77. Consumerism Wide variety of mass produced goods led to new marketing and sales Brand names and logos Department stores R.H. Macy’s Chain stores Woolworth’s Grocery stores Mail order catalogs Montgomery Ward Sears, Roebuck, Co.
  78. 78. Realism and NaturalismRealism Objective reality Depict accurate and true characters and settings Absent of emotional embellishment Naturalism Depiction of objects in natural settings Time and place accuracy Brooklyn Bridge at Night Edward Willis Redfield 1909
  79. 79. Gilded Age Art Ashcan School Depiction of New York City urban life George Bellows James M. Whistler Winslow Homer Mary Cassatt Both Members of This Club George Bellows 1909
  80. 80. Winslow Homer’s Breezing Up
  81. 81. George Bellow’s New York
  82. 82. James Whistler’s Arrangement in Grey and Black No. 1 (Whistler’s Mother) (1871)
  83. 83. Mary Cassat’s The Child’s Bath (1893)