Bowlingalone 090427111720-phpapp01

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Bowlingalone 090427111720-phpapp01

  1. 1. Bowling Alone The collapse and Revival of American Community
  2. 2. Section I: Introduction
  3. 3. Chapter 1: Thinking about Social Change in America  P. 15 “Kids today just aren’t joiners.”  Is this true?  How many groups/clubs/organizations do you belong to?  People are less trusting of those around them today.  What do you think? Can you trust people, generally?  Membership in community groups increased up to the 1960s.  Why is that?  Membership in community groups declined over the last several decades  Why this has occurred is the central question of the book.  What do you think?
  4. 4. Social Capital  P. 18 “the core idea of social capital theory is that social networks have value.”  What does that mean?  P. 19 “social capital refers to connections among individuals – social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them.”  How is this “capital”?  Why might it be useful?  Can we measure social capital?  How much do you have?  Do you find that your social capital helps you in your everyday life?
  5. 5. Physical vs. Human vs. Social  What is physical capital?  Money or other tangible resources (what you can own)  What is human capital?  Collectively, people to accomplish some end  Individually, the skills and abilities an individual has  Which is more important when it comes to jobs?  P. 20 “most of us get our jobs because of whom we know, not what we know…”  Private aspect of social capital: We benefit from having a network of connections  Public aspect of social capital: Others benefit from connected communities  How?
  6. 6. Reciprocity  We tend to be willing to reciprocate actions – if someone does something for you, you are willing to return the favor  What about generalized reciprocity?  What is it?  How many of you engage in it and how do you do so?  Includes the idea of the Golden Rule  Examples: Driving, picking up trash, getting vaccinations  Is generalized reciprocity a good thing or bad thing?
  7. 7. Bridging vs. Bonding  Social capital can be used to bridge social divides  Getting to know people in an outgroup reduces prejudice  It also spreads information and provides additional opportunities  Examples?  Paper with John Stinespring; he’s an economist  It can also be used to forge stronger bonds between members of a homogeneous group  Spending time with people in your ingroups increases solidarity  Also useful for getting ahead  Examples?  Book chapter in book for James Richardson and Stuart Wright
  8. 8. Community Decline  What do you think…  Which generation is better at being a concerned citizen, involved in helping others in the community, yours or your parents?  Do you think people are more less involved in community activities.  Is there a breakdown in community in the US?  Is selfishness a problem in the US?  Is the honesty and integrity of the average American improving or growing worse?  Are people becoming more or less civil?  Are social and moral values higher now or were they higher in the past?
  9. 9. Data  Lots of sources (see references in the back)  Uses the “I may not be able to prove this authoritatively, but I can provide overwhelming evidence to support my argument” approach  Is this a valid approach?
  10. 10. Section II: Trends in Civic Engagement and Social Capital
  11. 11. Chapter 2: Political Participation  How are we doing compared to other countries?  Americans are less likely to vote and are less engaged politically than most other democratic countries  How are we doing compared to our own past?  Same story, to some degree…
  12. 12. Figure 1: Trends in Presidential Voting (1828-1996), by Region 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 PercentageofEligibleAdultsVoting Outside South Jim Crow laws introduced Civil rights movement Is the decline in voting generational?
  13. 13. % Voted in Presidential Elections by Cohort (GSS) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 1880-1900 1901-1920 1921-1940 1941-1960 1961-1980 1981+ Does this data agree with the generational argument?
  14. 14. Figure 2: Political Organizations with Regular Paid Staff, 1977-1996 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 OrganizationsperMillionPopulation Implications?
  15. 15. Figure 3: Citizen Participation in Campaign Activities, 1952-1996 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1950 1952 1956 1960 1962 1964 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 PercentageofVotersWhoParticipatedin IndicatedWayduringcampaign Attended Political Meeting
  16. 16. Other declines  How interested are you in politics?  What about current events?  Fraction of Americans uninvolved in any political activities has increased by nearly one-third over the last 30 years  P. 40 “On reflection, then, the contrast between increasing party organizational vitality and declining voter involvement is perfectly intelligible. Since their “consumers” are tuning out from politics, parties have to work harder and spend much more, competing furiously to woo votes, workers, and donations and to do that they need a (paid) organizational infrastructure.”  Has he reversed the causal direction here?Decline in Participation Increase in Professionalizati on Decline in Participation Increase in Professionalizati on
  17. 17. Figure 4: Trends in Civic Engagement I: Partisan Activities 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 Attended Political Rally or Speech Worked for a Political Party
  18. 18. Figure 5: Trends in Civic Engagement II: Communal Participation 0 5 10 15 20 25 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 Attended a Public Meeting on Town or School Affairs Served as an Officer of Some Club or Organization Served on a Committee for Some Local Organization Member of Some Group Interested in Better Government
  19. 19. Figure 6: Trends in Civic Engagement III: Public Expression 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 signed a petition wrote politician wrote a letter to the paper made a speech wrote an article for a magazine or newspaper
  20. 20. Table 1. Trends in political and community participation Activity Relative change 1973- 74 to 1993-94 Served as an officer of some club or organization -42% Worked for a political party -42% Served on a committee for some local organization -39% Attended a public meeting on town or school affairs -35% Attended a political rally or speech -34% Participated in at least one of these twelve activities -25% Made a speech -24% Wrote congressman or senator -23% Signed a petition -22% Was a member of some “better government” group -19% Held or ran for political office -16% Wrote a letter to the paper -14% Wrote an article for a magazine or newspaper -10%
  21. 21. Chapter 3 – Civic Participation  Americans are pretty good “joiners” compared to most countries, though less prolific than Europeans  Any guesses as to why?  Three types of voluntary associations:  Community based, church based, work based  Numbers of groups have increased, but not the memberships  Average sizes of memberships is falling  Many are simply professionally staffed advocacy groups based in D.C.  No meetings; no chapters; just asking for donations  How many of these types of groups do you belong to?
  22. 22. Figure 7: The Growth of National Nonprofit Associations, 1968-1997 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 NationalNonprofitAssociationsperMillionPopulation
  23. 23. Figure 8: Average Membership Rate in Thirty-Two National Chapter-Based Associations, 1900-19971900 1904 1908 1912 1916 1920 1924 1928 1932 1936 1940 1944 1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 membership rate mean membership
  24. 24. Figure 9: The Rise and Fall of the PTA, 1910-1997 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1900 1904 1908 1912 1916 1920 1924 1928 1932 1936 1940 1944 1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1997 Membersper100Familieswith Kids18andUnder
  25. 25. Figure 10: Active Organizational Involvement, 1973-1994 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 PercentWhoHaveServedasOfficeroronCommittee (orBoth)forLocalCluborOrganizationinthePastYear
  26. 26. Figure 11: Club Meeting Attendance Dwindles, 1973-1994 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 MeanNumberofClubMeetingsperYear
  27. 27. Time Diaries  Amount of time people spend in organizational life has declined based on time diary data  3.7 hours per month in 1965  2.9 in 1975  2.3 in 1983 and 1995  On average day, percentage spent time in a community organization:  7% in 1965  3% in 1995  Money spent on club and fraternal dues  6 cents/dollar spent in 1929  3 cents/dollar spent in 1997  Primarily due to generational changes
  28. 28. Chapter 4: Religious Participation  Church affiliation has increased over time in the US  Though identifying as religious hasn’t really  In recent years it is declining, though most of the decline has occurred since this book was published  Additionally, participation in informal groups (not worship services) is down by about 20%  Is the decline of religion a good thing? Bad thing?  ½ of all associational membership in America are church related  ½ of all personal philanthropy is religious in character  ½ of all volunteering occurs in a religious context  Religious people have more social capital; they know more people
  29. 29. Figure 12: Church Membership, 1936-1999: Church Records and Survey Data 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 1930 1933 1936 1939 1942 1945 1948 1951 1954 1957 1960 1963 1966 1969 1972 1975 1978 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 ChurchMembersper100Population gallup Poll Church Records
  30. 30. Figure 13: Trends in Church Attendance, 1940-1999 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 1940 1943 1946 1949 1952 1955 1958 1961 1964 1967 1970 1973 1976 1979 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 AverageWeeklyChurchAttendanceAs FractionofAdultPopulation This is a misleading… See the same slide without zooming in on the Y-axis…
  31. 31. Figure 13: Trends in Church Attendance, 1940-1999 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1940 1943 1946 1949 1952 1955 1958 1961 1964 1967 1970 1973 1976 1979 1982 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 AverageWeeklyChurchAttendanceAs FractionofAdultPopulation Reported church attendance hasn’t declined much at all…
  32. 32. Religious Beliefs  Claims that beliefs are not reflecting the same declines  P. 69 “Measured by the yardstick of personal beliefs, Americans’ religious commitment has been reasonably stable over the last half-century – certainly much more so than one might assume from some public commentary about the secularization of American life. Virtually all Americans say they believe in God…”  Simply inaccurate (see ARIS 2008) 2.3 4.3 5.7 12.1 69.5 5.3 0.8 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 There is no such thing. There is no way to know I'm not sure There is a higher power but no personal God There is definitely a personal God Don't know Refused
  33. 33. Declines in Religiosity  P. 75 “The result is that the country is becoming ever more clearly divided into two groups – the devoutly observant and the entirely unchurched… This is the sociological substratum that underlies the much discussed “culture wars” of recent years.”  Some evidence for this  Implications?
  34. 34. Chapter 5: Connections in the Workplace  How many belong to a union?  How many would join a union?  What about work-related sports team?  Other work-related groups?  Work-related groups are also on the decline  Clearest illustration is union membership  Putnam suggests it is not due to “virulent employer resistance, flaccid union strategy” etc. but rather to people not wanting to join unions  Why, in light of Marx, might people not want to join unions? What have corporations done to prevent this?
  35. 35. Figure 14: Union Membership in the United States, 1900-1998 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 1900 1904 1908 1912 1916 1920 1924 1928 1932 1936 1940 1944 1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1997 PercentofNonagriculturalLaborForce
  36. 36. Figure 15: Average Membership Rate in Eight National Professional Associations, 1900-19971900 1904 1908 1912 1916 1920 1924 1928 1932 1936 1940 1944 1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1997 membership rate mean membership
  37. 37. Organic Solidarity  What about workplace friends?  How many of your friends are people with whom you work?  Have workplaces become the institutions of social solidarity advocated by Durkheim to provide social capital?  Job satisfaction is down  When asked, “Which do you enjoy more, the hours when you are on your job, or the hours when you are not on your job?”  1955 – 44% said on the job; 1999 – 16% said on the job
  38. 38. Chapter 6: Informal Social Connections  Machers – individuals who invest lots of time in formal organizations  Tend to follow current events, attend meetings, participate in clubs, give to charity, read the paper, follow politics, etc.  Tend to be better educated and have higher incomes; also tend to be older and more likely to be married; long time residents and homeowners  Schmoozers – individuals who spend lots of time in informal conversation  Tend to host people, hang out with friends, play cards, frequent bars, and send greeting cards; tend to be younger, more frequent movers; women are more likely to be schmoozers  Tend to overlap, but not necessarily
  39. 39. Informal Social Connections  The amount of time spent with other people is also on the decline  Part of this is due to density of social networks being lower in cities than in rural areas; city dwellers know fewer neighbors than country dwellers
  40. 40. Figure 16: Social and Leisure Activities of American Adults (1986-1990) 0 20 40 60 80 100 %ofAdultsWhoEngagedinGivenActivity atLeastOnceinthePastMonth
  41. 41. Figure 17: Frequency of Selected Formal and Informal Social Activities, 1975-1998 0 5 10 15 20 25 Attended Church Services Visited Relatives Ate Dinner at a Restaurant Sent Greeting Card Wrote Letter to Friend or Relative Entertained at Home Played Cards Attended a Club Meeting Went to Bar or Tavern Gave or Attended Dinner party Went to Movies Attended Sporting Event worked on Community Project Played Team Sport Wrote Letter to the Editor Average Number of Times per year
  42. 42. Figure 18a: Social Visiting Declines, 1975- 1999 – Entertained at Home Last Year 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 AverageTimesEntertainedatHomeLastYear
  43. 43. Figure 18b: Social Visiting Declines, 1975- 1999 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Have friends in for Evening at Least Twice a Month Went to Home of Friends during Past Week
  44. 44. Figure 19: Family Dinners Become Less Common, 1977-1999 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Definitely Agree Generally or Moderately Agree Disagree
  45. 45. Family Time 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 vacationing together watching TV together attending religious services together just sitting and talking together 1976 1997
  46. 46. Figure 20: Bars, Restaurants, and Luncheonettes Give Way to Fast Food, 1970-1998 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 1970 1980 1990 1998 Other Eating and Drinking Outlets Coffee Bars/Shops Bars and Taverns Restaurants Luncheonettes Fast Food Implications for social capital?
  47. 47. Figure 21: The Rise of Card Games in America, 1900- 1951 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1900 1902 1904 1906 1908 1910 1912 1914 1916 1918 1920 1922 1924 1926 1928 1930 1932 1934 1936 1938 1940 1942 1944 1946 1948 1950 PacksofPlayingCardsSoldAnnuallyper 100AmericansAged14andOver
  48. 48. Figure 22: Card Playing and Other Leisure Activities, 1975-1999 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 MeanTimesperYear Played Cards Attended Movie Played Home Video Game
  49. 49. Figure 23: The Decline of Neighboring, 1974-1998 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 PercentageWho“SpendaSocialEveningwithSomeoneWho LivesinyourNeighborhood…AboutOnceaMonth”orMore Often Single Married
  50. 50. Figure 25: Stagnation in Fitness (Except Walking) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 AverageTimesperYear Walked for Exercise Attended Exercise Classes Attended Health Club
  51. 51. Rise and Decline of League Bowling
  52. 52. Figure 27: The Growth of Spectator Sports, 1960-1997 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 AttendanceatMajorSportingEvents per1,000Population Total live attendance (standardized for total U.S. population) at all NCAA football and basketball games, all Major League baseball, football, basketball, and hockey games, and NASCAR auto races.
  53. 53. Informal Social Connections  Time diaries support the declines in time spent schmoozing  65% spent time schmoozing in 1965 every day; 39% did in 1995  Average daily time devoted to schmoozing fell from 85 minutes in 1965 to 57 minutes in 1995  Americans are also spending less time DOING sports, but more time watching  Exception may be bowling…  Ironically, nobody “bowls alone”, though bowling alleys are adding TVs  Good thing? Bad thing?  We also spend more time observing (museums) and less time doing (church)  Good thing? Bad thing?
  54. 54. Chapter 7: Altruism, Volunteering, and Philanthropy  People who are involved in social groups are more likely to give money and volunteer for charities  P. 117 “As Andrew Carnegie, one of the new millionaires who emerged from the period of rapid growth following the Civil War, proclaimed in his 1889 essay “The Gospel of Wealth,” wealth was a sacred trust which its possessor was bound to administer for the good of the community.”  What does this suggest?  A divine right to wealth; that this is how the social order should be.  By 1995 – 654,186 public charities in the US (not churches)  ½ of Americans engage in volunteer work  $143.5 billion donated in 1997  74% donate money; 35% donate time; 23% donate blood
  55. 55. Altruism, Volunteering and Philanthropy  Do the wealthy give more than the poor?  In absolute numbers, yes  As a percentage of their wealth, no.  In 1996 - 73% of members of secular organizations and 55% of members of religious groups volunteered  Of those with no group memberships, only 19% volunteered  In 1996 – 87% of members of secular organizations and 76% of religious organizations donated to charity  Of those with no group memberships, only 37% donated  People involved with religious organizations tend to volunteer within their organization, whereas people involved in secular groups tend to volunteer in the community  Joiners are nearly ten times more generous with their time and money than are nonjoiners
  56. 56. Figure 28: Volunteering Fostered by Clubgoing and Churchgoing Never Less Than Monthly Monthly or More 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 Monthly or More Less Than Monthly Never ClubAttendance MeanTimesVolunteeringperYear Church Attendance
  57. 57. Figure 29: Schmoozing and Good Works 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 None 1-4 Times 5-8 Times 9-11 Times 12-24 Times 25-51 Times 53 or More Times TimesperYearVolunteeredor WorkedonCommunityProject How Many Times in the Past Year Did You Entertain Friends at Home Volunteered
  58. 58. Figure 30: Blood Donation Fostered by Clubgoing and Churchgoing No Yes 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Yes No 13.8 10.8 15.2 14.5 AttendsClubMeetingsatLeast Monthly? WhatFractionofEachCategoryAre RegularBloodDonors? Attends Church at Least Twice Monthly? This is another misleading graph in the book… Here’s how it looks in the book…
  59. 59. He changed the scale on the left to accentuate the difference – look back at the previous slide to compare
  60. 60. Altruism, Volunteering and Philanthropy over time  People are giving more now than in the past, even when adjusted for inflation  1960 - $280 per capita; 1995 - $522 per capita  But people are giving less of their personal income as a percentage  1964 – 2.26% of income; 1.61% in 1998
  61. 61. Figure 33: Reported Charitable Giving Declined in the 1980s and 1990s 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Give to Religious Organizations at Least Occasionally Contributed to Charity in Last Month
  62. 62. Figure 34: Volunteering Up, Community Projects Down, 1975-1999 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 TimesLastYear Volunteered Worked on Community Project Tricky issue here: People have redefined volunteering to include doing personal favors for other people
  63. 63. Figure 35: Trends in Volunteering by Age Category, 1975-1998 -50 0 50 100 150 200 25 or Less 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 61-65 66-70 71-75 Over 75 Percent Change, 1975-98 Those doing the volunteering are older
  64. 64. Figure 36: Trends in Participation in Community Projects by Age Category, 1975-1998 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 25 or Less 26-30 31-35 36-40 41-45 46-50 51-55 56-60 61-65 66-70 71-75 Over 75 Percent Change, 1975-98 Why are the elderly doing most of the volunteering?
  65. 65. Chapter 8: Reciprocity, Honesty, and Trust  Touchstone of social capital is generalized reciprocity – golden rule  Generally being able to trust people improves health and reduces stress  Why?  Examples of how not trusting people causes stress?  Tit for Tat  Respond in kind  Tit for Two Tats  Respond in kind with extra generosity  People who trust are better citizens and more involved.  Why are city-dwellers less trusting than non city- dwellers?
  66. 66. Figure 37: Declining Perceptions of Honesty and Morality, 1952-1998 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1952 1965 1976 1998 Do You Think People in General Today Lead as Good Lives – Honest and Moral – as They Used To?
  67. 67. Figure 38: Four Decades of Dwindling Trust: Adults and Teenagers, 1960-1999 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 PercentWhoSay“MostPeopleCan BeTrusted”Insteadof“YouCan’tBe TooCarefulinDealingwithPeople” Adults (Multi-Survey Average) High School Students
  68. 68. Figure 39: Generational Succession Explains most of the Decline in Social Trust 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Agree“MostPeopleAreHonest” Born before 930 Born 1930-1945 Born 1946-1960 Born after 1960
  69. 69. Decline in Trust  Thick trust may be the same – the close trust with friends  What do you think? Can you still trust your closest friends/acquaintances?  Thin trust – generalized reciprocity – may be declining  Are you less likely to trust a store employee?  What about picking up a hitchhiker or stopping to help someone?  How many of you do that? Is this a decline in thin trust?  P. 142 “People under forty-five are twice as likely to screen calls as those over sixty-five, who are more trusting and more civically inclined. Superficially one might respond that technological development enabled all these changes, but those technologies themselves were surely a response to market demand.”  I’m not sure I buy this. I screen my calls because it comes with my phone, not because I want to. I basically answer every call that comes in.
  70. 70. Figure 40: The Changing Observance of Stop Signs 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 FractionofDrivers No Stop Rolling Stop Full Stop
  71. 71. Implications?
  72. 72. What does this suggest?
  73. 73. Chapter 9: Against the Tide? Small Groups, Social Movements, and the Net  There may be some movement against the decline in social capital  Self help groups – 2% of all US adults involved in some sort of group; lifetime usage is 3% (not a lot, but something)  Social movement activism is a way to strengthen social capital  How many are involved in a social movement? How many have protested something? Anything?  Too young to have been involved in the Civil Rights Movement or Women’s Rights (ERA); what about environmental movements? Anyone?  Even if people are involved in the environmentalist movement, most are members, not activists – send money, don’t give time  Many of these groups allocate 20%-30% of funds to fund- raising and advertising  Lots of dropping out
  74. 74. Figure 43: Explosive Growth of National Environmental Organizations, 1960-1998 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Membersper1,000AdultPopulation
  75. 75. New vs. Old Groups  Members of older groups are more likely to stay  Why?  They are part of a community, not just a member of a mailing list  Many of the mailing list members don’t consider themselves members, just donors.  This is a little different for the Christian Right (Moral Majority)  They did seem to be more united, but they have fallen apart in recent years  Ralph Reed was involved in fund-raising scandals; Jerry Falwell is dead; Pat Robertson has alienated moderates  Even so, evangelicals are very involved politically (though this is beginning to change)  What about the growth of initiatives on statewide ballots?  Mostly in 5 states and primarily driven by professional firms  People don’t pay attention to what the ballots are…
  76. 76. Figure 44: Initiatives on Statewide Ballots in the US, 1900-1998 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1900 1904 1908 1912 1916 1920 1924 1928 1932 1936 1940 1944 1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 NumberinEachBiennium
  77. 77. Figure 45: The Graying of Protest Demonstrations 0 5 10 15 20 25 ParticipationinProtest Demonstrations Age 30-59 Age under 30 Age over 59
  78. 78. One Possible Reversal - Technology  Technology may have the power to increase social capital  The telephone allows people to remain in contact and develop social networks  It’s widespread  It appears to reduce loneliness, but also reduce face-to- face socializing  Good thing? Bad thing?  Actually seems to reinforce local ties over long-distance ties as people call neighbors more often than people far away  40% to 50% of all phone calls are within a 2 mile radius  Transformed but didn’t replace local social networks  Think this has changed with free long distance? How many of you even think about long distance calls anymore?
  79. 79. Figure 46b: Trends in long-Distance Personal Phone Calls and Letters 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Mean Number of Phone Calls in past Month to Friends or Relatives Over 100 Miles Away Mean Number of Personal Letters in Past Month to Friends and Relatives
  80. 80. Virtual Social Capital  The book obviously predates social networking sites (a.k.a. social capital sites)  Do these sites create, maintain, or transform social networks?  Did he not foresee the potential transformation of social networks online?  Facebook has 200 million users  Other sites have hundreds of millions as well (MySpace, Orkut, LinkedIn, etc.)  Can you have legitimate social networks through a website?  I’m co-authoring a paper right now with 2 people I’ve never met in person – just through the internet  Do you behave differently online? Are you less respecting of peoples’ social status? (flatter hierarchies)  Might the internet simply reinforce social capital networks and inequalities?  Where do you spend your time online? With whom?  Is it just making previously active groups more active?
  81. 81. Section III: Why?
  82. 82. Chapter 10: Introduction  If education increases civic engagement,  And educational attainment has increased over the last 40 years,  Then why hasn’t civic engagement gone up? 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 educational attainment in years
  83. 83. Chapter 11: Pressures of Time and Money  What about being too busy?  Do you think you’re too busy to participate in all of the activities we’ve talking about?  People say they feel busier and more rushed now than in the 1960s  Most people say they work hard most of the time and we’re more likely to say we stay late at work  The most harried:  Full-time workers, women, people between 25 and 54, parents of younger children, single parents  What about job insecurity, declining real wages, and growing economic inequality?
  84. 84. Are we working longer?  On average, we’re working about the same number of hours  But we actually have more leisure time, primarily thanks to time-saving devices (dishwashers, washers and dryers, ovens, microwaves, etc.); about 6.2 hours more per week (more for men than women)  But “average” does not mean “universal”  People with more education are working more hours  The “average” includes men taking early retirement  Dual earner couples spent about 14 hours more at work per week in 1998 than they did in 1969  Thus, it’s precisely the people who used to contribute the most time to social capital activities who are working more hours; especially women
  85. 85. Other Time Issues  Busy people tend to forego TV watching – no time for TV either  Despite feeling like they have less time, involvement has dropped across groups, including among those who have more time  This suggests that it isn’t a time issue that explains the decline in social activity, though it may contribute
  86. 86. Money?  People are under more pressure today than they used to be to make money:  No social safety net  Men don’t make as much as they used to  Economy is more volatile  People don’t feel as financially secure  74% said “our family income is high enough to satisfy nearly all our important desires” in 1974; dropped to 61% in 1999  When people are worried about money, they don’t spend it on social activities (e.g., movies, etc.)  Though they do watch TV; the only leisure activity positively correlated with financial anxiety is watching TV  However, the decline in social activity has been linear while financial security has gone up and down.  Probably not a money issue.
  87. 87. Women in the Paid Labor Force?  Number of women working outside the home in the 1950s was less than 30%  By the 1990s it was more than 67%  Does this translate into less social activity?  Working full-time (after controlling for age, education, financial security, marital and parental status), leads to:  10% less home entertaining  15% less club and church attendance  25% less informal visiting with friends  50% less volunteering  Husbands of wives who work full time are also less likely to do these activities
  88. 88. Figure 47: Working by Choice and by Necessity Among American Women, 1978-1999 Necessity (Kids/Money) Satisfaction 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 8 11 31 29 10 11 PercentageofAllWomen Why are women working outside the home?Virtually all the increase in full-time employment of American women over the last twenty years is attributable to financial pressures, not personal fulfillment.
  89. 89. Figure 48: More Women Work Because They Must, 1978-1999 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 PercentageofAllWomen Work Full-time for Financial Reasons Work Full-time for Personal Satisfaction
  90. 90. Figure 49: Working Full-Time Reduces Community Involvement Necessity (Kids/Money) Satisfaction 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 ClubMeetingsperYear(ComparedwithallMen) Women who work full- time because they have to are the least involved. One practical way to increase community engagement in America would be to make it easier for women (and men too) to work part-time if they wished.
  91. 91. Chapter 12: Mobility and Sprawl  Residential stability is strongly associated with civic engagement  Why?  People who have recently moved into an area are:  Less likely to vote, have supportive networks of friends and neighbors, belong to civic organizations, attend church, attend club meetings, volunteer, or work on community projects  Could the declines in civic engagement be due to rising mobility?  Simple answer: No. Mobility hasn’t increased over the last 50 years. It’s actually declined.
  92. 92. Rural vs. Urban  What about where you live?  Are people who live in urban areas less likely to be involved?  Why might that be the case?  It’s not who you are but where you are.  And more people live in urban areas now than they used to.
  93. 93. Figure 50: Community Involvement Is Lower in Major Metropolitan Areas 0 5 10 15 20 25 Rural and Towns under 10,000 Town of 10,000 to 50,000 Suburb of City 50,000 to 250,000 Central City of 50,000 to 250,000 Suburb of City 250,000 to 1 Million Central City of 250,000 to 1 Million Suburb of City 1 Million and Over Central City 1 Million and Over Percentage of Population Active in Last Year Served as Officer or Committee Member of Local Group Attended a Public Meeting on Town or School Affairs
  94. 94. Figure 51: Church Attendance Is Lower in Major Metropolitan Areas 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Rural and Towns Less than 50,000 Metro Area 50,000-500,00 Noncentral City Metro Area 50,000-500,000 Central City Metro Area 500,000 - 2 Million Noncentral City Metro Area 500,000 - 2 Million Central City Metro Area More than 2 Million Noncentral City Metro Area More than 2 Million Central City Church Attendance per Year
  95. 95. Figure 52: The Suburbanization of America, 1950-1996 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1950 1952 1954 1956 1958 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 FactionofTotalPopulation Suburb Central City Nonmetro
  96. 96. Mobility and Sprawl  What about within gated communities; is there more civic engagement?  Evidence suggests that exclusive, homogenous gated communities aren’t all that involved, civically. Why?  Nothing to get people riled up.  What about commuting?  Average American spends 72 minutes per day behind the wheel  Does that eat into civic engagement time?  Each additional ten minutes in daily commuting time cuts involvement in community affairs by 10%.
  97. 97. Chapter 13: Technology and Mass Media  The primary question in this chapter is whether technology and mass media have led to a decline in civic engagement  First you have to establish the widespread adoption of mass media…
  98. 98. Table 2: Pace of Introduction of Selected Consumer Goods Technological Invention Household Penetration Begins (1 Percent) Years to Reach 75 Percent of American Households Telephone 1890 67 Automobile 1908 52 Vacuum cleaner 1913 48 Air conditioner 1952 ~48 Refrigerator 1925 23 Radio 1923 14 VCR 1980 12 Television 1948 7 Not included is internet access – about 75% of US homes have internet access. Basically, most people in the US are exposed to mass media.
  99. 99. Figure 53: Generational Succession Explains the Demise of newspapers 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 ReadNewspaperDaily Born before 1929 Born 1929-1945 Born 1946-1960 Born after 1960 Fewer people are reading newspapers, but those who do are more civically engaged, even after controlling for age, education, and rootedness.
  100. 100. Figure 54: Newshounds Are a Vanishing Breed 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 PercentageWho“Definitely”or“Generally” Agree“INeedtoGettheNewsEveryDay” Born before 1929 Born 1929-1945 Born 1946-1960 Born after 1960 How many of you qualify as “newshounds”?
  101. 101. Television  We’ve already discussed how many watch TV, but what is the problem with it?  Pervasive and addictive  Another interesting issue – TV news isn’t necessarily “news” – often includes advertisements as well  (see Today show clip from April 18th, 2009)  Watching TV increases materialist attitudes – people want more when they watch more TV  It was rapidly adopted in the US:  1950 -10% had TVs  1959 - 90% had TVs  Average American watches 4 hours per day (maybe a little less); still consumes about 40% of American’s free time
  102. 102. Figure 55: A Half Century’s Growth in Television Watching, 1950-1998 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1950 1952 1954 1956 1958 1960 1962 1964 1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 AverageDailyHouseholdViewing(Hours)
  103. 103. Figure 56: Screens Proliferate in American Homes: VCRs, PCs, Extra TV Sets, and the Net, 1970-1999
  104. 104. Figure 57: TV Becomes an American Habit, as Selective Viewing Declines 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1979 1985 1989 1993 I Have the TV on Only If I'm actually Watching It I Turn the TV on Only If I Want to Watch a Specific Program Habitual viewing is as detrimental to civic engagement as is watching TV at all (turning it on in the background)
  105. 105. Figure 58: Channel Surfing Is More Common Among Younger Generations 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 1909-1945 1946-1964 1965-1980 FractionWhoareChannelSurfers Channel surfers watch more TV; more habitual viewers
  106. 106. Figure 59: America Watches TV All Day Every Day 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 AdultsWatchingTelevision Just Background Mainly Entertainment Mainly Information
  107. 107. Figure 60: In the Evening Americans, Above All, Watch TV 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Which of These Things Do You Do Most Weeknights after Your Evening Meal and before Bedtime?
  108. 108. Figure 61: More TV Means Less Civic Engagement (Among College-Educated, Working-Age Adults)
  109. 109. Figure 62: TV Watching and Volunteering Don’t Go Together 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Definitely Disagree Generally Disagree Moderately Disagree Moderately Agree Generally Agree Definitely Agree Volunteered(TimesLastYear) TV Is My Primary Form of Entertainment
  110. 110. Figure 63: TV Watchers Don’t Keep in Touch 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Definitely Disagree Generally Disagree Moderately Disagree Moderately Agree Generally Agree Definitely Agree NumberofLettersWrittento FriendsandRelativesLastYear TV Is My Primary Form of Entertainment
  111. 111. Figure 64: TV Watching and Club Meetings Don’t Go Together 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Definitely Disagree Generally Disagree Moderately Disagree Moderately Agree Generally Agree Definitely Agree ClubMeetingsLastYear TV Is My Primary Form of Entertainment
  112. 112. Figure 65: TV Watching and Churchgoing Don’t Go Together 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Definitely Disagree Generally Disagree Moderately Disagree Moderately Agree Generally Agree Definitely Agree AnnualChurchAttendance TV Is My Primary Form of Entertainment
  113. 113. Figure 66: TV Watching and Comity Don’t Go Together 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Definitely Disagree Generally Disagree Moderately Disagree Moderately Agree Generally Agree Definitely Agree MeanTimesLastYear TV Is My Primary Form of Entertainment Gave Finger to Another Driver Worked on Community Project
  114. 114. Television and Civic Engagement  How does television so substantially reduce civic engagement?  Competes for scarce time  Has psychological effects that inhibit social participation  Programmatic content on television undermines civic motivations  TV viewers are anchored at home and are “homebodies”  One hour less viewing TV is the equivalent of five or six more years of education on civic engagement  Can be addictive; people are unwilling to give it up  This is despite the fact that it is less satisfying than other activities, including work!
  115. 115. Figure 67: Americans Began Cocooning in the 1970s -40 -20 0 20 40 60 Spending Time at home Watching TV Reading Books Visiting with Friends or Relatives Who Live Quite Nearby Entertaining Friends at Home Eating out at Restaurants Visiting with Friends or Relatives Who Do Not Live Nearby Going out to Places of Public Entertainment Which of These Activities Are You Doing More Now than You Used To? Which Are you Doing Less Now than You Used To?
  116. 116. Figure 68: TV Watchers Don’t Feel So Great 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 RankHighonReported headaches,Indigestion,and Sleeplessness TV Is My Primary Form of Entertainment Why so much TV? Not it’s pleasures but its minimal costs…
  117. 117. Figure 69: Types of Television Programs and Civic Engagement, Controlling for Time Spent Watching TV 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 ProbabilityofatLeastOneCivic Activity News Programs Daytime Television Does the type of TV you watch matter?
  118. 118. Chapter 14: From Generation to Generation  So, TV is a culprit…  But, even those who don’t watch much TV are less likely to be civically engaged  This suggest something else, like inter-generational decline  While this is, in a sense, an explanation, isn’t it just moving the explanation one step back?  What caused the change in younger generations?  Until you explain this, all you’ve done is pushed it back one step  So, the real question is: Why the decline between generations? Decline in civic engagement Something causes decline ???? Decline in civic engagement Intergeneration al decline Something causes decline ????
  119. 119. Figure 70: Membership in Associations Rises and Falls with Age
  120. 120. Table 3. All Forms of Civic Disengagement Are Concentrated in Younger Cohorts activities Years 18- 29 30-44 45- 59 60+ Read newspaper daily 1972-75 49% 72% 78% 76 % 1996-98 21% 34% 53% 69 % Relative change -57 -52 -31 -10 Attend church weekly 1973-74 36% 43% 47% 48 % 1997-98 25% 32% 37% 47 % Relative change -30 -25 -22 -3 Signed petition 1973-74 42% 42% 34% 22 % 1993-94 23% 30% 31% 22
  121. 121. Table 3. All Forms of Civic Disengagement Are Concentrated in Younger Cohorts Activities Years 18- 29 30-44 45- 59 60+ Union member 1973-74 15% 18% 19% 10 % 1993-94 5% 10% 13% 6% Relative change -64 -41 -32 -42 Attended public meeting 1973-74 19% 34% 23% 10 % 1993-94 8% 17% 15% 8% Relative change -57 -50 -34 -21 Wrote congressman 1973-74 13% 19% 19% 14 % 1993-94 7% 12% 14% 12 %
  122. 122. Table 3. All Forms of Civic Disengagement Are Concentrated in Younger Cohorts Activities Years 18- 29 30-44 45- 59 60+ Officer or committee member of local organization 1973-74 13% 21% 17% 10 % 1993-94 6% 10% 10% 8% Relative change -53 -53 -41 -24 Wrote letter to newspaper 1973-74 6% 6% 5% 4% 1993-94 3% 5% 5% 4% Relative change -49 -18 -9 -4 Worked for political party 1973-74 5% 7% 7% 5% 1993-94 2% 3% 4% 3% Relative change -64 -59 -49 -36
  123. 123. Table 3. All Forms of Civic Disengagement Are Concentrated in Younger Cohorts Activities Years 18- 29 30-44 45- 59 60+ Ran for or held public office 1973-74 .6% 1.5% .9% .6% 1993-94 .3% .8% .8% .5% Relative change -43 -49 -8 -22 Took part in any of twelve different forms of civic life* 1973-74 56% 61% 54% 37 % 1993-94 31% 42% 42% 33 % Relative change -44 -31 -22 -11 *Wrote Congress, wrote letter to editor, wrote magazine article, gave speech, attended rally, attended public meeting, worked for political party, served as officer or as committee member of local organization, signed petition, ran for office, and/or belonged to good-government organization.
  124. 124. Figure 71a: Generational Trends in Civic Engagement (Education Held Constant) The Long Civic Generation The Post Civic Generatio n
  125. 125. Figure 71b: Generational Trends in Civic Engagement (Education Held Constant) The Long Civic Generation The question is: What is it about this generation that increased and maintained their civic engagement? The Post Civic Generatio n
  126. 126. Other characteristics of disengagers…  Baby boomers disengaged from political life  But also were:  Slow to marry and quick to divorce  More likely to leave religions  Less loyal to particular companies  Less comfortable in bureaucracies  Greater emphasis on individualism and tolerance for diversity  Less respect for authority, religion, and patriotism  More self-centered  More materialistic  More comfortable on their own  Less moralistic about drug use  More open-minded about race, sex, and political minorities Good? Bad?
  127. 127. Baby Boomers vs. Generation X  Is the decline in civic engagement the fault of baby boomers (1946-1964) or of Generation X (1965-1980)?  What about Generation Y (1980~2000)?  Coming with these declines are:  Increases in depression and suicide  Depression strikers earlier and more pervasively in each generation since the 1940s  Born before 1955 – 1% suffered depression by 75  Born after 1955 – 6% suffered depression by 24  Between 1950 and 1995 suicide rate among 15-19 year olds more than quadrupled; tripled for young adults just older  Sound familiar?  Durkheim and social connectedness anyone?  Typical American teenager spends 3.5 hours alone every day; fewer friends; more fluid friendships
  128. 128. Figure 72: Greed Trumps Community Among College Freshmen, 1966-1998 How would you respond?
  129. 129. Figure 73: Age-Related Differences in Suicide Rates, 1950-1995
  130. 130. Figure 74: Growing Generation Gap in Malaise (Headaches, Insomnia, Indigestion)
  131. 131. Limitations of This Explanation  The following are almost entirely attributable to generational changes:  Church attendance, voting, political interest, campaign activities, associational membership, and social trust  Schmoozing activities are not generational: they have declined in all age groups  Card playing, dinners with friends, club meetings, dining with family, neighboring, bowling, picnicking, visiting with friends, and sending greeting cards
  132. 132. What lies behind the changes?  So, generational declines exist  But what causes them?  P. 268 “Of men born in the 1920s, nearly 80% served in the military.”  Could this be an ingroup/outgroup solidarity issue?  Having put your life on the line for your ingroup, you value them more?  Advertising and the media encouraged solidarity (recycling steel and rubber for the war effort; buying war bonds)  When was the last time you saw the media encourage solidarity? (Iraq?)  Being united behind a common cause leads to greater social solidarity and more civic engagement.  But extended periods of conflict with an outgroup can lead to backlashes  Do we have a common cause in the US today? Do we have anything to bring people together?  What might do this?  How can YOU change the world?
  133. 133. Figure 75: From Generation to Generation, Patriotism Wanes, Materialism Waxes 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Patriotism Money Self-fulfillment SayValueIs“VeryImportant” Born before 1934 Born 1934-1948 Born 1949-1968 Born after 1968
  134. 134. Figure 76: Materialism Grows in the Final Decades of the Twentieth Century 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 PercentofAdultsnamingValueAspartof“theGoodLife” Happy Marriage Children Material Luxuries A Lot of Money Job That contributes to Society 2 per. Mov. Avg. (Job That contributes to Society)
  135. 135. Figure 77: The Meaning of Community for Successive Generations
  136. 136. Chapter 15: What Killed Civic Engagement? Summing Up  Another possible explanation – high divorce rates and decline in nuclear family  P. 278 “Americans who are married and those with children are much more likely to be involved in religious activities, including church membership, church attendance, and church-related social activities.”  However, divorce is unrelated to civic engagement  No direct evidence for declining nuclear family leading to less civic engagement  Maybe a cause for concern for other reasons, but not for civic engagement
  137. 137. Other causes?  Not racial progress  Not big government  Globalization?  Maybe, but not a direct link between globalization and hanging out with friends
  138. 138. Figure 78: Government Spending, 1947-1998: State and Local Government Up, National Defense Down
  139. 139. Figure 79: Guesstimated Explanation for Civic Disengagement, 1965-2000 Work 10% Sprawl 10% Other? 17% TV 12% TV Generation 13% Generational Change 38%
  140. 140. Causal Model Decline in Civic Engagement Generational Change TV Generation (both combined) TV Work Sprawl Other? Change in culture and society TV Generation (both combined) Technological innovation Lower real wages; higher desired standard of living Technology; cars; poor urban planning; desire for space Other? What caused all of these to change?
  141. 141. Section iv: so what?
  142. 142. Chapter 16: Introduction  Are there “good old days”?  Maybe if you are the descendent of aristocracy  Otherwise, they are more mythical than anything else  Think about your “good old days”…  Okay, so, benefits of social capital  1) allows citizens to resolve collective problems more easily  How? Why?  Government resolves lots of problems we would have a hard time managing on our own  2) greases the wheels that allow communities to advance smoothly  Trust is key to societal development  3) widening our awareness of the many ways in which our fates are linked  Why is this important?  4) operates through psychological and biological processes to improve individuals’ lives  How? Why?  To illustrate this, he creates a social capital index…
  143. 143. Table 4: Measuring Social Capital in the American States Components of Comprehensive Social Capital Index Correlation with Index Measures of community organizational life Served on committee of local organization in last year (percent) 0.88 Served as officer of some club or organization in last year (percent) 0.83 Civic and social organizations per 1,000 population 0.78 Mean number of club meetings attended in last year 0.78 Mean number of group memberships 0.74 Measures of engagement in public affairs Turnout in presidential elections, 1988 and 1992 0.84 Attended public meeting on town or school affairs in last year (percent) 0.77
  144. 144. Table 4: Measuring Social Capital in the American States Components of Comprehensive Social Capital Index Correlation with Index Measures of community volunteerism Number of nonprofit (501[c]3) organizations per 1,000 population 0.82 Mean number of times worked on community project in last year 0.65 Mean number of times did volunteer work in last year 0.66 Measures of informal sociability Agree that “I spend a lot of time visiting friends” 0.73 Mean number of times entertained at home in last year 0.67 Measures of social trust Agree that “Most people can be trusted” 0.92 Agree that “Most people are honest” 0.84
  145. 145. Figure 80: Social Capital in the American States Notice any patterns here?
  146. 146. Chapter 17: Education and Children’s Welfare  Well, there are some specific positives that are likely tied to social capital, for instance…  P. 296 “Social capital keeps bad things from happening to good kids.”  How? Why?  To illustrate, he creates a Kids Count Index of Child Welfare and then contrasts that with his social capital index  P. 297 “…social capital is second only to poverty in the breadth and depth of its effects on children’s lives.”
  147. 147. Table 5: Kids Count Index of Child Welfare Percent of low-birth-weight babies Infant mortality rate (deaths per 1,000 live births) Child death rate (deaths per 100,000 children ages 1-14) Deaths per 100,000 teens ages 15-19 by accident, homicide, and suicide Teen birth rate (births per 1,000 females ages 15-17) Percent of teens who are high school dropouts (ages 16-19) Juvenile violent crime arrest rate (arrests per 100,000 youths ages 10-17) Percent of teens not attending school and not working (ages 16-19) Percent of children in poverty Percent of families with children headed by a single parent What does this index tell us?
  148. 148. Figure 81: Kids Are Better Off in High- Social-Capital States
  149. 149. Figure 82: Schools Work Better in High- Social-Capital States
  150. 150. Figure 83: Kids Watch Less TV in High- Social-Capital States
  151. 151. Chapter 18: Safe and Productive Neighborhoods  P. 308 “Higher levels of social capital, all else being equal, translate into lower levels of crime.”  This may explain higher rates of violent crime in the South – lower levels of social capital.
  152. 152. Figure 84: Violent Crime is Rare in High- Social-Capital States
  153. 153. Figure 85: States High in Social Capital Are Less Pugnacious
  154. 154. Chapter 19: Economic Prosperity  What about simply making more money?  P. 319 “People who grow up in well-to-do families with economically valuable social ties are more likely to succeed in the economic marketplace, not merely because they tend to be richer and better educated, but also because they can and will ply their connections. Conversely, individuals who grow up in socially isolated rural and inner-city areas are held back, not merely because they tend to be financially and educationally deprived, but also because they are relatively poor in social ties that can provide a “hand up.””
  155. 155. Economic Prosperity  Helps people find jobs:  85% of young men used personal networks to find employment  54-58% use state agencies and newspapers  P. 323 “In areas where residents vote, sustain vibrant neighborhood associations, feel attached to their neighborhood, and see it as a good place to live, other people want to move in, and housing values therefore remain comparatively high.”  Why?
  156. 156. Chapter 20: Health and Happiness  Social capital also translates into health  P. 326 “The more integrated we are with our community, the less likely we are to experience colds, heart attacks, strokes, cancer, depression, and premature death of all sorts. Such protective effects have been confirmed for close family ties, for friendship networks, for participation in social events, and even for simple affiliation with religious and other civic associations. In other words, both machers and schmoozers enjoy these remarkable health benefits.”  Why?  Tangible assistance, emotional support, reinforce healthy norms, organize for first-rate medical service  Creates another index to capture health and contrast it with social capital
  157. 157. Table 6: Which State Has the Best Health and Health Care? Morgan-Quitno Healthiest State Rankings (1993-1998): 1. Births of low birth weight as a percent of all births (- ) 12. Estimated rate of new cancer cases (-) 2. Births to teenage mothers as a percent of live births (-) 13. AIDS rate (-) 3. Percent of mothers receiving late or no prenatal care (-) 14. Sexually transmitted disease rate (-) 4. Death rate (-) 15. Percent of population lacking access to primary care (-) 5. Infant mortality rate (-) 16. Percent of adults who are binge drinkers (-) 6. Estimated age adjusted death rate by cancer (-) 17. Percent of adults who smoke (-) 7. Death rate by suicide (-) 18. Percent of adults overweight (-) 8. Percent of population not covered by health insurance (-) 19. Days in past month when physical health was “not good” (-) 9. Change in percent of population uninsured (-) 20. Community hospitals per 1,000 square miles (+) 10. Health care expenditures as percent of gross state product (-) 21. Beds in community hospitals per 100,000 population (+) 11. Per capita personal health expenditures (-) 22. Percent of children aged 19-35 months fully immunized (+)
  158. 158. Figure 86a: Health Is Better in High-Social- Capital States
  159. 159. Figure 86b: Health Is Better in High-Social- Capital States p. 331 “As a rule of thumb, if you belong to no groups but decide to join one, you cut your risk of dying over the next year in half. If you smoke and belong to no groups, it’s a toss-up statistically whether you should stop smoking or start joining.”
  160. 160. Figure 87: Americans Don’t Feel As healthy As We Used To 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 Agree“IAminGoodPhysical Condition” Is this necessarily the result of declining social capital?
  161. 161. Figure 88: Social Connectedness (at Least in Moderation) Fosters Happiness
  162. 162. Social Connectedness  Do you have to go a lot of meetings to get the health benefits of social capital?  No, diminishing returns once you are somewhat active  About once a month is just about as good as more often than that
  163. 163. Chapter 21: Democracy  P. 336 “The ideal of participatory democracy has deep roots in American political philosophy. With our experiment in democracy still in its infancy, Thomas Jefferson proposed amending the Constitution to facilitate grassroots democracy. In an 1816 letter he suggested that “counties be divided into wards of such size that every citizen can attend, when called on, and act in person.” The ward governments would have been charged with everything from running schools to caring for the poor to operating police and military forces to maintaining public roads. Jefferson believed that “making every citizen an acting member of the government, and in the offices nearest and most interesting to him, will attach him by his strongest feelings to the independence of his country, and its republican constitution.”  Do you buy it?  Would this work today?
  164. 164. Democracy  When fewer people are involved, those who remain are more polarized and extreme  Does this seem accurate of politics today?
  165. 165. Figure 89: Tax Evasion Is Low Where Social Capital Is High
  166. 166. Chapter 22: The Dark Side of Social Capital  Social capital has a lot of benefits, but can also have some drawbacks  Uses another index to illustrate this…
  167. 167. Table 7: Indexes of Tolerance for Racial Integration, Gender Equality, and Civil Liberties A. Tolerance for racial integration (whites only) 1. White people have a right to keep [Negroes/blacks/African Americans] out of their neighborhoods if they want to, and [Negroes/blacks/African Americans] should respect that right. (agree/disagree) 2. Do you think there should be laws against marriages between [Negroes/blacks/African Americans] and whites? (yes/no) 3. During the last few years, has anyone in your family brought a friend who was a [Negro/black/African American] home for dinner? (yes/no) 4. Suppose there is a community-wide vote on the general housing issue. There are two possible laws to vote on. One law says that a homeowner can decide for himself whom to sell his house to, even if he prefers not to sell to [Negroes/blacks/African Americans]; the second law says that a homeowner cannot refuse to sell to someone because of his or her race or color. Which law would you vote for? 5. If your party nominated a [Negro/black/African American] for president, would you vote for him if he were qualified for the job? (yes/no) 6. If you and your friends belonged to a social club that would not let [Negroes/blacks/African Americans] join, would you try to change the rules so
  168. 168. Table 7: Indexes of Tolerance for Racial Integration, Gender Equality, and Civil Liberties B. Tolerance for feminism 1. Women should take care of running their homes and leave running the country up to men. (agree/disagree) 2. Do you approve or disapprove of a married woman earning money in business or industry if she has a husband capable of supporting her? (approve/disapprove) 3. If your party nominated a woman for president, would you vote for her if she were qualified for the job? (yes/no) 4. Most men are better suited emotionally for politics than are most women. (agree/disagree) 5. It is much better for everyone involved if the man is the achiever outside the home and the woman takes care of the home and family. (agree/disagree)
  169. 169. Table 7: Indexes of Tolerance for Racial Integration, Gender Equality, and Civil Liberties C. Tolerance for civil liberties 1. There are always some people whose ideas are considered bad or dangerous by other people. For instance, someone who is against all churches and religion. If such a person wanted to make a speech in your community against churches and religion, should he be allowed to speak or not? 2. If some people in your community suggested that a book he wrote against churches and religion should be taken out of your public library, would you favor removing this book or not? This same pair of questions was also posed about: -a person who believes that blacks are genetically inferior -a man who admits that he is a Communist -a person who advocates doing away with elections and letting the military run the country -a man who admits that he is a homosexual
  170. 170. Figure 90: Tolerance Grows for Racial Integration, Civil Liberties, and Gender Equality Tolerance increased while civic engagement decreased. Why? Those who are more civically engaged are more tolerant.
  171. 171. Table 8: Social Capital and Tolerance: Four Types of Society Low Social Capital High Social Capital High tolerance (1) Individualistic: you do your thing, and I’ll do mine (3) Civic community (Salem without “witches”) Low tolerance (2) Anarchic: War of all against all (4) Sectarian community (in-group vs. out-group; Salem with “witches”) Theoretically possible types of societies – tolerance by social capital:
  172. 172. Figure 91: Social Capital and Tolerance Go Together
  173. 173. Figure 92: Social Capital and Economic Equality Go Together
  174. 174. Figure 93: Social Capital and Civic Equality Go Together
  175. 175. Section v: What is to be done?
  176. 176. Chapter 23: Lessons of History: The Gilded Age and the Progressive Era  There have been other periods in America’s history when social capital was ebbing and inequality was growing – The Gilded Age  The response was the Progressive Era – people joined together to form groups and enact legislation to increase equality  The problem:  P. 378 “Social reformers in the Progressive Era were caught in the horns of a dilemma. In social service, in public health, in urban design, in education, in neighborhood organization, in cultural philanthropy, even in lobbying, professional staff could often do a more effective, more efficient job in the task at hand than “well- meaning” volunteers. However, disempowering ordinary members of voluntary associations could easily diminish grassroots civic engagement and foster oligarchy. Progressives struggled with themselves over the choice between professionalism and grassroots democracy, though in the end professionalism would win out.”
  177. 177. Modernization  P. 380 “In great cities men are brought together by the desire of gain. They are not in a state of co- operation, but of isolation, as to the making of fortunes: and for all the rest they are careless of neighbours. Christianity teaches us to love our neighbour as ourself; modern society acknowledges no neighbour.”  You agree?  Can we go back to a period before large cities and capitalism?  Would you want to?
  178. 178. Figure 94: Associational Density in Twenty- six American Communities, 1840-1940 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 Associationsper1,000Population
  179. 179. Figure 95: Founding and Cumulative Incidence of Large Membership Associations
  180. 180. Table 9: Social Capital Innovations, 1870- 1920 Organization Founding date National Rifle Association 1871 Shriners 1872 Chautauqua Institute 1874 American Bar Association 1878 Salvation Army (U.S.) 1880 American Red Cross 1881 American Association of University Women 1881 Knights of Columbus 1882 American Federation of Labor 1886 International Association of Machinists [and later Aerospace Workers] 1888 Loyal Order of Moose 1888 Women’s Missionary Union (Southern Baptist) 1888 Hull House (other settlement houses founded within a few years) 1889
  181. 181. Table 9: Social Capital Innovations, 1870- 1920 Organization Founding date General Federation of Women’s Clubs 1890 United Mine Workers 1890 International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers 1891 International Longshoremen’s Association 1892 Sierra Club 1892 National Council of Jewish Women 1893 National Civic League 1894 American Bowling Congress 1895 Sons of Norway 1895 American Nurses Association 1896 Volunteers of America 1896 Irish-American Historical Society 1897 Parent-Teacher Association (originally National Congress of Mothers) 1897
  182. 182. Table 9: Social Capital Innovations, 1870- 1920 Organization Founding date Fraternal Order of Eagles 1898 Gideon Society 1899 Veterans of Foreign Wars 1899 National Consumers League 1899 International Ladies Garment Workers Union 1900 4-H 1901 Aid Association of Lutherans 1902 Goodwill Industries 1902 National Farmers Union 1902 Big Brothers 1903 International Brotherhood of Teamsters 1903 Sons of Poland 1903 National Audubon Society 1905
  183. 183. Table 9: Social Capital Innovations, 1870- 1920 Organization Founding date Rotary 1905 Sons of Italy 1905 Boys Clubs of America 1906 YWCA 1906 Big Sisters 1908 NAACP 1909 American Camping Association 1910 Boy Scouts 1910 Campfire Girls 1910 Urban League 1910 Girl Scouts 1912 Hadassah 1912 Community Chest (later United Way) 1913
  184. 184. Table 9: Social Capital Innovations, 1870- 1920 Organization Founding date Community foundations (Cleveland, Boston, Los Angeles, etc.) 1914-15 American Association of University Professors 1915 Junior Chamber of Commerce (Jaycees) 1915 Kiwanis 1915 Ku Klux Klan (second) 1915 Women’s International Bowling Congress 1916 Civitan 1917 Lions Club 1917 American Legion 1919 Optimists 1919 Business and Professional Women (BPW) 1919 American Civil Liberties Union 1920 American Farm Bureau Federation 1920 League of Women Voters 1920
  185. 185. Figure 96: Founding Dates of Contemporary U.S. Associations 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1790s 1800s 1810s 1820s 1830s 1840s 1850s 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s Frequency What does this suggest?
  186. 186. What to do?  P. 401 “my message is that we desperately need an era of civic inventiveness to create a renewed set of institutions and channels for a reinvigorated civic life that will fit the way we have come to live. Our challenge now is to reinvent the twenty-first-century equivalent of the Boy Scouts or the settlement house or the playground or Hadasseh or the united Mine Workers or the NAACP. What we create may well look nothing like the institutions Progressives invented a century ago, just as their inventions were not carbon copies of the earlier small- town folkways whose passing they mourned. We need to be as ready to experiment as the Progressives were. Willingness to err – and then correct our aim – is the price of success in social reform.”  Thoughts on how to accomplish this?  Do you think it would work?
  187. 187. Chapter 24: Toward an Agenda for Social Capital  Areas where something can be done:  Youth and schools  P. 404 “Let us find ways to ensure that by 2010 the level of civic engagement among Americans then coming of age in all parts of our society will match that of their grandparents when they were that same age, and that at the same time bridging social capital will be substantially greater than it was in their grandparents’ era.”  The workplace  P. 406 “Let us find ways to ensure that by 2010 America’s workplace will be substantially more family-friendly and community-congenial, so that American workers will be enabled to replenish our stocks of social capital both within and outside the workplace.”  Urban and metropolitan design  Pp. 407-408 “Let us act to ensure that by 2010 Americans will spend less time traveling and more time connecting with our neighbors than we do today, that we will live in more integrated and pedestrian-friendly areas, and that the design of our communities and the availability of public space will encourage more casual socializing with friends and neighbors.”
  188. 188. Chapter 24: Toward an Agenda for Social Capital  Areas where something can be done:  Religion  P. 409 “Let us spur a new, pluralistic, socially responsible “great awakening,” so that by 2010 Americans will be more deeply engaged than we are today in one or another spiritual community of meaning, while at the same time becoming more tolerant of the faiths and practices of other Americans.”  (I don’t buy this; don’t see it as plausible…)  Arts and culture  P. 410 “Let us find ways to ensure that by 2010 Americans will spend less leisure time sitting passively alone in front of glowing screens and more time in active connection with our fellow citizens. Let us foster new forms of electronic entertainment and communication that reinforce community engagement rather than forestalling it.”  Politics and government  P. 411 “Let us find ways to ensure that by 2010 significantly more Americans will participate in (not merely consumer or “appreciate”) cultural activities from group dancing to songfests to community theater to rap festivals. Let us discover new ways to use the arts as a vehicle for convening diverse groups of fellow citizens.”
  189. 189. Conclusion  P. 412 “Let us find ways to ensure that by 2010 many more Americans will participate in the public life of our communities – running for office, attending public meetings, serving on committees, campaigning in elections, and even voting.”  Do you agree that this is a serious problem?  What can we do to solve it?  How is this sociological theory?

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