Introduction to the Internet A Historical Perspective CIS 101
This is a visual representation of the Global Internet
The Ever-changing Internet <ul><li>The Global Nature of the Internet http://visual.ly/global-internet-map-2011   </li></ul>
What is the Internet? <ul><li>WWW </li></ul><ul><li>Video conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>E-commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Emai...
Early History of the Internet <ul><li>1957  – USSR launches Sputnik - First artificial satellite to be put into Earth's or...
Early History of the Internet <ul><li>1974 – The “Fathers of the Internet” Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn publish a paper titled “...
Where Did It Come From? <ul><li>The Internet has only been around 40 years or so!  </li></ul><ul><li>Today, modern society...
ARPANET, 1980 http://mappa.mundi.net/maps/maps_001/
Bits and Bytes <ul><li>Computer Data is stored in Binary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binary Digits (bits) Base 2 representation ...
Bits and Bytes <ul><li>Kilobyte (2^10=1024 Bytes, 10^3=1000 Bytes in networking) </li></ul><ul><li>Megabyte (2^20 Bytes, 1...
Units of Memory
<ul><li>The Internet is a network of networks that are spread all over the world </li></ul><ul><li>Networks that are geogr...
TCP/IP Protocol <ul><li>TCP/IP is the underlying protocol of the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It defines how data travel...
Network Network Network TCP/IP TCP/IP TCP/IP TCP/IP Network Internet
Defining the World Wide Web <ul><li>URL:  Uniform Resource Locator  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e, http://www.pace.edu/index.h...
<ul><li>A domain name is simply an alias for an IP address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP address is a unique 32 bit number that...
http://www.pace.edu/index.html 198.105.44.27 URL DNS IP Address URL’s/Domain Names/IP Addresses <ul><li>DNS:  Domain Name ...
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Introduction to the Internet

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PACE University CIS 101 - Introduction to the Internet Lecture

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Introduction to the Internet

  1. 1. Introduction to the Internet A Historical Perspective CIS 101
  2. 2. This is a visual representation of the Global Internet
  3. 3. The Ever-changing Internet <ul><li>The Global Nature of the Internet http://visual.ly/global-internet-map-2011 </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is the Internet? <ul><li>WWW </li></ul><ul><li>Video conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>E-commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul><ul><li>Social Networking </li></ul>A communication infrastructure Usefulness is in exchanging information
  5. 5. Early History of the Internet <ul><li>1957 – USSR launches Sputnik - First artificial satellite to be put into Earth's orbit </li></ul><ul><li>1958 – US forms ARPA - Advanced Research Projects Agency </li></ul><ul><li>1960 – J.C.R. Licklider publishes his landmark paper - “Man-Computer Symbiosis” </li></ul><ul><li>1961 – Leonard Kleinrock, MIT, writes paper on packet-switching theory “Information Flow in Large Communication Nets” </li></ul><ul><li>1962 – Licklider becomes the first head of the computer research program at ARPA </li></ul><ul><li>1966 – Larry Roberts, MIT, writes the first ARPANET plan &quot;Towards a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers &quot; </li></ul>
  6. 6. Early History of the Internet <ul><li>1974 – The “Fathers of the Internet” Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn publish a paper titled “A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection” </li></ul><ul><li>TCP – Transmission Control Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>1976 – Queen Elizabeth sends an e-mail! </li></ul><ul><li>1979 – emoticons were born :-) </li></ul><ul><li>1990 – World Wide Web (WWW) is developed by Tim Berners-Lee at Swiss-based CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research), thus the first web page ( http://info.cern.ch ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proposal for WWW in 1990 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First web page on November 13, 1990 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertext - Text that contains links to other text in 1990 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1 992 – Internet Society is chartered, # of hosts breaks 1,000,000 & the term “Surfing the Internet” is coined by Jean Armour Polly </li></ul>
  7. 7. Where Did It Come From? <ul><li>The Internet has only been around 40 years or so! </li></ul><ul><li>Today, modern society has become i nextricably connected to the Internet . </li></ul>To get a historical perspective on the evolution of this phenomenon take the links below:: Internet Society Brief History of the Internet – http://www.internetsociety.org//internet/internet-51/history-internet http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/brief.shtml Hobbe’s Internet Timeline v8.2 – http://www.zakon.org/robert/internet/timeline Nerds 2.0.1 Timeline – http://www.pbs.org/opb/nerds2.0.1/timeline
  8. 8. ARPANET, 1980 http://mappa.mundi.net/maps/maps_001/
  9. 9. Bits and Bytes <ul><li>Computer Data is stored in Binary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binary Digits (bits) Base 2 representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1011100001101010 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Every 8 bits == 1 Byte </li></ul><ul><li>10111000 01101010 (2 bytes (once known as octet)) </li></ul><ul><li>Hexadecimal == Base 16 representation </li></ul><ul><li>1011 1000 0110 1010 </li></ul><ul><li> B 8 6 A </li></ul>
  10. 10. Bits and Bytes <ul><li>Kilobyte (2^10=1024 Bytes, 10^3=1000 Bytes in networking) </li></ul><ul><li>Megabyte (2^20 Bytes, 10^6 in Networking) </li></ul><ul><li>Gigabyte (2^30 Bytes, 10^9 in Networking) </li></ul><ul><li>Terabyte (2^40, 10^12) </li></ul><ul><li>Petabyte (2^50, 10^15) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Units of Memory
  12. 12. <ul><li>The Internet is a network of networks that are spread all over the world </li></ul><ul><li>Networks that are geographically close are called Local Area Networks (LANs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often in the same building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The university’s network is a prime example </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Internet is a largely heterarchical network containing many individual LANs </li></ul>The Internet
  13. 13. TCP/IP Protocol <ul><li>TCP/IP is the underlying protocol of the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It defines how data travels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TCP - Guarantees the delivery of packets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivers and reassembles packets in order to be viewed by recipient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IP - Defines the way packets travel across the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sends packets to correct destination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A packet is the unit of data that is routed between an origin and a destination on the Internet.(1500 bytes) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Network Network Network TCP/IP TCP/IP TCP/IP TCP/IP Network Internet
  15. 15. Defining the World Wide Web <ul><li>URL: Uniform Resource Locator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e, http://www.pace.edu/index.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>includes protocol, domain name, and file </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Domain Name: An address for an entity on the WWW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www.pace.edu </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>A domain name is simply an alias for an IP address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP address is a unique 32 bit number that identifies a specific system on the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>i.e., - 198.105.44.27= pace.edu </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The reason we use domain names is because they are easy to remember. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analogous to phone system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1-800-dominos vs. 1-800-366-4667 </li></ul></ul></ul>IP Addresses
  17. 17. http://www.pace.edu/index.html 198.105.44.27 URL DNS IP Address URL’s/Domain Names/IP Addresses <ul><li>DNS: Domain Name Server </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Translates a domain name into an IP address for routing across the Internet. </li></ul></ul>

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