Grammar, Usage and Punctuation Sections of an APA Style Paper Reference List Internal Documentation
Continuity in Presentation of Ideas 3.05Smoothness of Expression 3.06Economy of Expression 3.08Precision and Clarity 3.09
Writing from an Outline Rereading Your Own Copy after Setting It Aside Asking a Colleague to Provide a Critical Review
Verbs 3.18Prefer Active VoicePreferred:We conducted the survey in a controlled setting.Nonpreferred:The survey was conducted in a controlled setting.
Verbs 3.18Select Tense CarefullyCorrect:Sanchez (2000) presented similar results.Incorrect:Sanchez (2000) presents similar results.
A verb must agree in number with its subject.When in doubt consult Merriam-Webster’sDictionary, 2005.Example: The data indicate… The phenomena occur…See the APA style website www.apastyle.org
3.20 The Role of Pronouns3.21 Misplaced Modifiers3.21 Dangling Modifiers3.22 Relative Pronouns (who, whom, that, which)3.22 Subordinate Conjunctions (while, since, although)3.23 Parallel Construction
Spacing after Punctuation Marks 4.01One space after commas, colons, and semicolons periods that separate parts of a reference citation periods of the initials (J.R. Zhang)Two spaces after period at the end of a sentence
USE initials (J.R. Smith) abbreviations for United States (U.S. Navy) Latin Abbreviations (a.m., i.e.) reference abbreviations (Vol. 1, 2nd ed.)DO NOT USE state names (NY) acronyms (APA, NDA, IQ) metric and numeric measurement abbreviations (cm, ft, kg, min)Exception: (in.) for inch
USE between elements In a study by Stacy, Newcomb, and Bentler (1991) to set off year in exact dates April 18, 1992, was the correct date to set off the year in reference citation (Patrick, 1993) to separate groups of three digits in most numbers of 1,000 or more
4.04 Semicolon4.05 Colon4.06 Dash4.07 Quotation Marks4.08 Double or Single Quotation Marks4.09 Parentheses4.10 Brackets4.11 Slash
Sections of an APA – style PaperPublication Manual, pages 23-40 and 229-230
Header (running head + page number) Title (upper and lower case, centered in the upper half of the page) Author’s name Institutional Affiliation
It is a brief summary of your paper:• purpose• methodology• highlights of your researchIt appears on a separate page (page 2).It is a single paragraph.It is NOT indented.The word Abstract must be centered one inch from thetop of the page.
Begin on page 3 Do NOT label it as your introduction Center the title of your paper Indent the first paragraph Include the following information:• introduction to the problem• importance of the problem• explanation of your approach to the problem
Center the title References one inch from the top List all sources in alphabetical order Double-space with hanging indentation• Nothing precedes something (Brown precedes Browning)• If same author, order by year of publication• List one author entries before multiple author entries beginning with the same name, regardless of the year
To study the principles for arrangingentries in a reference list refer tosections 6.22 – 6.26 in PublicationManual
Author’s name Year of publication (in parentheses) Title of work italicized Publication information
Book by a single authorFair, J.D. (1999). Muscletown USA: Bob Hoffman and the manly culture of York Barbell. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.Book by two or more authorsBooth, W.C., Colomb, G. G., & Williams, J.M. (2003). The craft of research (2nd ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Chapter in a bookPutnam, J.W. (2009). Cooperative Learning for inclusion. In P. Hick, R. Kershner, & P.T. Farrell (Eds.), Psychology for inclusive education: New directions in theory and practice (pp.81-95). London, England: Routledge.
Article from an online reference book(accessed through a library subscriptiondatabase)Cameron, J., & Pierce, W.D. (2008). Intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation. In N. J. Salkind & K. Rasmussen (Eds.), Encyclopedia of educational psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 555- 560). Retrieved from www.go.galegroup.com
The DOI s a unique identifier assigned toarticles to help readers locate the contentonline.The DOI is usually found on the first page ofthe article, near the copyright notice.To cite different types of online articles go topages 198-202 in Publication Manual
Authors name Year of publication (in parenthesis) for scholarly journal articles Year and exact date (in parenthesis) for magazines and newspapers Title of the article Periodical title (italicized) Volume number (italicized) Issue number Inclusive page numbers Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
Every in-text citation must correspond to an entry in your list of references. If available, In-text citations must include the author (or editor) and year of publication Direct quotes also must include a page number
Smith (2010) surveyed this phenomenon. A famous survey of this phenomenon (Smith, 2010) showed that.... In 2010, Smith demonstrated that... "White rats are the best subjects for this test," said Smith (2010, pp. 50-51). Smith went on to explain, “Hamsters make better pets than lab rats” (2010, p. 51).
Parentheses are used to indicate the parts of an in-text citation not included in prose. The parts of the parenthetical citation (author, year, page) are separated with commas. Notice that “p.” is used for a citation on one page and “pp.” is used for a citation that spans multiple pages.
According to the study, 25% of people prefer cats over dogs (Smith & Brown, 2004). Smith and Brown (2004) surveyed this phenomenon.
A recent survey (Smith, Brown, & Black,2005) showed… [first reference]Smith et al. (2005) showed [secondreference]
Consistently cite only the surnameof the first author, followed by etal. (with a period).
(R. J. Smith, personal communication, March3, 2010)Personal communications are NOT includedin reference lists.
“Survey of Asian Men" (2008).... …a recent study (Hispanic and Female, 2004)....
Include the corresponding lower-case lettersafter the years in the in-text citations:According to a Harvard study (Jensen, 2009a),…while a similar study (Jensen, 2009b) suggests…
Citing Works with No Date of Publication Brown’s study (n.d.) showed that kittens are visually pleasing…Citing Works without Page Numbers (Smith, 2010, para. 5) (Brown, 2009, Introduction section, para. 1)
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.(Book by a corporate author)