Irina Pata_VIDEO LANDSCAPE. FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
The main purpose of this research is to complete the toolkit for landscape study taking into account the way a society, characterized by movement, evolves to a continues increase of living environment rate of transformation. The research highlights the importance of dynamic analysis of the landscape and the need for appropriate tools that can capture and sustain its movement. The interaction between film and landscape is covered in two directions that relate to techniques and significance. It follows a method that is based on several steps: how the landscape is filmed, shown in various film productions (via the database of landscape videos) and how a montage is able to conveys a specific message.
Irina Pata_VIDEO LANDSCAPE. FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE
ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
“Ion Mincu” University of Architecture and Urbanism
Supervisor: Ph. D. Professor Architect Florin Machedon
Ph. D. Student: Irina Pața
FOR ME LANDSCAPE HAS EVERYTHING TO DO WITH CINEMA.
The main purpose of this research is to complete the toolkit for landscape study taking into
account the way a society, characterized by movement, evolves to a continues increase of
living environment rate of transformation. The research highlights the importance of dynamic
analysis of the landscape and the need for appropriate tools that can capture and sustain its
movement. The interaction between film and landscape is covered in two directions that relate
to techniques and significance. It follows a method that is based on several steps: how the
landscape is filmed, shown in various film productions (via the database of landscape videos)
and how a montage is able to conveys a specific message.
FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE
ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
Supervisor: Ph.D Professor Architect Florin Machedon
Ph.D Student: Irina Pața
Research question - objectives -
Purpose of the study
Glossary of terms
The relationship between
architecture and cinema - concepts
Film as a critic and witness of
Architecture as a tool in film
Film as a pedagogical tool
LANDSCAPE REPRESENTATION IN
Introduction. Elements of
Conception. Landscape dramatic
role and ambience
Landscape in decor psychology
Composition. Landscape in
cinematic image composition
Compositional elements into the
Light and colour
Angle of framing
Technique. Editing logic in shooting
Types of montages
The relation between sound and
I II III
Landscape analysis through image
Decomposing a film sequence
Phe Pulse of a Neighbourhood
(2011), Marina Marquez
City sounds (2013), Erick Flores
Shunpo (2012), Steven Briand
La roue [The Weel] (1923), Abel
Radiant City (2006), Jim Brown,
Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream
House (1948), H.C. Potter
Walkabout (1971), Nicolas Roeg
Documentary sheets for video
Grid of technical suggestions
Video landscape structure
Conclusion. Future research lines
List of illustrations
IV V VI
The environment in which we live in has the ability to shape our lifestyle and personality, the
vision that we have about the concepts that guide our lives. This research starts by bringing
together several of my passions: landscape studies, pedagogy and film.
As an assistant professor I want to have the ability to transmit to students, through a common
language, the importance of landscape study and the complexity of the concept itself. This
made me turn to the cinema. Often, I find myself in the position of giving a movie or a video
as an example in order to complete my vision about an issue. Cinema is of an overwhelming
complexity with almost unlimited resources in terms of cultural and spatial studies. This
research wants to discover the specific features that support the landscape dynamic
and the elements that make the film such a suitable medium for transmitting landscape
Along with the theoretical analysis regarding significance, the research has a practical side
that can be used in landscape studies. It creates an online platform that completes the
classic documentation of a project, a landscape video library opened for specialized users to
supplement or amend. Also, the research defines a grid of parameters that can be take into
consideration when you want to use video as a tool in landscape design process. This grid aims
to provide a starting point in making a video landscape, some suggestions concerning the ways
you can transmit a concept, some filming and montage techniques, composition ideas or usual
7VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
This research makes additions to existing studies that support video as a tool in urban and
landscape design and supports the cultural evolution of the concept.
The speed that defines our contemporary society evolution calls into question how we
understand and design our living environment, the vision that we have on it. Landscape
as an element of synthesis between architecture and urbanism, requires theoretical and
practical approaches to address the new trends in design. Charles Waldheim, professor in
the Department of Landscape Architecture at Harvard University identifies two types in
this aspect (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, 2011). On one hand, a synoptic system
(mainly represented by GIS applications and ortho-photo-plans) and on the other hand, one
scenographic, sensitive, subjective (sustained by rendered images, collages and montages -
This paper investigates the sensitive direction in landscape study, it takes into consideration
the influence of motion pictures upon the landscape, is considering video as a tool in
The thesis is based on several current research lines that include: the continuous search for
finding tools that can improve the design and education process and the relationship with
the new technology trends; the environment capacity to store and transmit information and
messages and the diversity of channels used; the subjectivity of perception and observation in
reading the landscape (natural, architectural, urban, cultural, common).
This research focus on the possibility to enrich the process of interpreting the landscape for
a better understanding of the mechanisms by which we relate to it, an alternative method of
reading and [re]presenting the landscape that sustain the existing approaches.
The thesis proposes video as a tool for landscape study. The research develops in two stages of
analysis that will be reflected in two lines of practical implementation.
On one hand, it aims to study the relationship between cinema and urbanism - how landscape
is represented in films: its role, meaning, metaphors or symbols, filming and editing techniques.
From this line will emerge a database, a library of video landscapes, structured with the
purpose of defining and presenting the context and significance that different landscapes have
in films, both in terms of significance or image composition and editing techniques.
On the other hand, it aims at a comparative research between landscape analysis and film
analysis in order to highlight common concepts that refer
to landscape context or composition. Its result will be a grid
of technical suggestions that may be considered in making
a landscape video.
Film as a tool for analysis and [re]presentation in landscape
studies is supported by the two directions described
above. The landscape analysis through film is achieved
by the video survey (the direct recording of the landscape
using a video camera) and by the landscape video library
(documentation regarding technical representation and
landscape significance). Landscape [re]presentation is done
Fig. A.001 - Landscape approach from an interdisciplinary perspective // [source: author]
Fig. A.002 - Phases in the dissertation
structure // [source: author]
9VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
through a video landscape. The term [re]presentation is preferred for marking the duality of
the instrument as a means of representation (in terms of cultural approach) and the technical
presentation in front of an audience (video montage of classic representations of landscape,
text, sound and moving images). The study wants to be completed in two directions: the way
the landscape is seen through the camera and later, how it is represented through editing.
The research does not focuses on film as a tool for spatial design or as steps in landscape
intervention structure, only on film as a tool of analysing and representation.
The films, as cinematographic productions, chose as examples belong to different categories
(genres). The research is concerned more on stressing the diversity of roles that a landscape
can play in a film and less on finding certain trends or characteristics of an era or of a specific
culture. This diversity supports the concept of landscape complexity and interdisciplinary. In
addition to films, the database (landscape video library) can gather music videos, commercials,
short films and other montages that have the main subject a landscape or the landscape
representation technique increases the diversity of ways in which a landscape can be embodied.
RESEARCH QUESTION - objectives - hypotheses
The study is based on an initial research question:
• How film can be used in landscape design process?
and the main purpose is to identify the relationships between moving images (as a mean of
expression) and landscape by investigating the way it is represented in and through film (as a
language). The thesis aims to a research line that is not enough explored - the relationship
between film and landscape in professional design process. It aims to identify ways in which the
film facilitates landscape analysis and significance transfer.
From here emerges the main objective of the research: to identify how film can be used as a
tool for landscape analysis and representation.
The hypotheses that support the research and the objectives are:
• society evolution requires the adaptation to new requirements for the living
environment planning and design instruments;
• the new technologies have implications for how we interact between us and
• film can be used as a tool for landscape studies - the only one able to
capture its dynamics and movement;
• film, as a language, is capable to enrich the expressivity of landscape design
• film is a universal language, more and more used by different users;
• a Technology Era demands dynamic and accessible tools to work with, online
tools to support the knowledge exchange and sharing.
This paper searches for tools able to strengthen the relationship between film and landscape
as a new line of research regarding the design process.
The methodology of this paper contains two parts.
The first structures the context in which the research is developed emphasizing the importance
of the study in today’s literature, both from theoretical and practical point of view (by analysing
different case studies). It builds the theoretical framework: the relationship between film and
landscape in terms of concepts (symbols, metaphors, significance), composition and technique
through a comparative study of landscape and film analysis. The interaction between film and
landscape is approached from two main directions that relate to techniques and significance.
It uses a method that is based on the way the landscape is captured by a camera, presented in
various film productions and the role of editing in sending a specific message.
The conclusions of the theoretical framework are used for the practical approach of the thesis
and are materialized in two levels of detail: a database, an online library - the synthesis tool
11VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
Fig. A.003 - Thesis logical diagram// [source: author]
for landscape elements in film - and a video landscape as an example of how landscape can be
analysed and represented through film.
The conclusions of the second part will be used in pointing to possible directions for future
The analysis of urban space and landscape often overlook relevant elements or the quantity
of information is so great that synthesizing it is almost impossible, in both cases is neglected,
most of the time, the sensitive nature of the landscape. Andrei Pleşu (2009) emphasize that the
classical landscape analysis still relies heavily on fragments rather than the whole, on levels, is
selective, abstracted, isolated or searches differences and can often pass the overall view, it’s
fluidity, complexity, subjectivity that is, in fact, the landscape: stopping cannot be a good way
to understand the fundamental movement of nature, its coherence, lacking in fragments (Pleşu
2009, 46). It is desirable therefore, to analyse the way how film captures different landscape
features otherwise omitted and if by this way of reading and interpreting, we can improve the
landscape design process.
The main goal of this research is to complete the toolkit for landscape studies by using video
recording technologies (the increasing importance of video language in today’s communication
process). The study emphasizes the importance of landscape dynamic analysis and the
need for specific tools that can support and capture its movement. This thesis supports and
complements similar researches that forms a new direction in landscape approach and
design. Film is proposed as a tool for this new method that opens original perspectives. Both
the database and the grid of technical suggestions in making a video landscape, are designed
to encourage the use of this tool and explore other ways of communicating and interpreting
PURPOSE OF THE THESIS
13VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
II. STUDY ACTUALITY - previous researches
Chapter II highlights the context in which this research takes place, the relationship between the
studied fields, the interdisciplinary of the concepts used in reference to theoretical and practical
• The relationship between architecture and cinema - concepts transfer;
• Film as a critic and witness of landscape evolution;
• Architecture as a tool in film;
• Film as a pedagogical tool.
The relationship between film and landscape is investigated in order to underline the relations
between environment, senses and representation. The film is studied not only as a mean, but as
, and further more, as an instrument of representation. Landscape representation
in architectural drawings has not the power to grasp its complexity due to three attributes that
landscape incorporates: landscape spatiality (places, like things, conjure up a wealth of images
and ideas), landscape temporality, and landscape materiality (landscape experience belongs to
the sensorium of the tactile, the poetry of material and touch) (Corner, 1992, 147-149).
The existing theoretical background leans mainly on the relationship between architecture and
cinema (Cairns, Eisenstein, Godard, Higham, Koolhaas, Nouvel, Pallasmaa, Tschumi), landscape
perspective is less analysed (Bruno, Girot, Hopkins). Thus, we can identify an insufficiently
discussed segment that is intended to be approached and explored in more detail.
Film as an instrument is based on the transfer of processes, concepts and meaning, develops
a critical thinking on how to watch a movie, has a documentary role and explores other
relationships in terms of landscape analysis and representation.
Film is more than a mean of expression, is a language based on image, a reproduction of reality affecting
the subjective and acquires significance (Martin, 1981, 30-35).
Film as a tool supports a new space design method, recently debated, particularly in academia,
with an experimental character, more in architecture and with timid attempts in urbanism and
landscape. It is another tool with other principles that has the ability to enrich the perspectives
and attitudes towards space design:
... it is very difficult to accept that it (the sounding approach of urban
phenomenon, a.n.) also can be a synthetic one, that it can start vice versa,
that the decoding and caring systematization of urban aspects are not the only
way in which it can be contained. [...] filmic approach is essentially synthetic ...
it does not decompose, but recompose ... the whole can be regarded otherwise
than as a sum of its individual components. (Popescu, 2007, 205).
Girot concluded that precisely this ability to find, integrate and synthesize such complexity (of a
landscape, a.n.) in thinking and design is what we lack today. (Girot, 2006, 91)
Landscape is essentially a cinematic space by the way it is organised in time, through the
dynamics of space and movement in space. A landscape in a film can be a source of inspiration,
a critic on a specific issue, can act documentary or metaphorically (using symbols for
transmitting messages) or instrument of analysis and investigation (video surveying, editing), of
design or presentation and representation (the transformation of cinematographic techniques
and effects into stylistic principles or spatial organization).
This paper focus on film as a tool for analysis and [re]presentation of the landscape, the line
for cinematographic concepts transfer into the logic of landscape design is only mentioned and
is open for future research.
III. LANDSCAPE REPRESENTING IN FILM -
the relationship between film and landscape
Chapter III details landscape’s form of expression in cinema evolution by developing some
specific elements of history of landscape representation in film in terms of design, composition
The analysis of how landscape is captured in film (as a representative for moving images in
15VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
general) was performed in order to create a critical attitude (from landscape architecture’s
point of view) on how to watch a movie and how to develop the capacity to filter and select
the presented information. The close relationship between urbanism / landscape architecture
and film / stage design is reflected by the experience of discovering the space (urban / natural
or cinematographic), visually and culturally. Landscape in film may reflect both an objective
structure of reality or a metaphorical one, different views and attitudes embodied in a given
space and time. Such an analysis is needed for a better connection to context and cultural
elements in landscape design and planning.
Summarizing the theoretical framework, landscape role in film can be defined as:
• decor - supports the film ambience, the landscape is in the background,
it is not thought as a show itself, but supports the narrative and character
development. The landscape may be setting itself or can have a documentary
• character - a dramatic role, a symbolic landscape, dynamic, with continuous
changes, developing and completing with the narrative or the characters.
• sub-textual - metaphorical or allegorical, landscape is more than a decor or a
character in the movie, it appeals to cultural and conceptual values to increase
the visual and dramatic expressiveness, rises multiple interpretations that go
beyond the screen and grasps the subjective reality of the spectator.
In a cinematic sequence, a landscape can fulfil multiple roles, the style of a film can be defined
as the ratio between the dramatic scenery and ambience (Bazin, 1949, 216).
Capturing the landscape dynamics, relating to its evolution over time or to the perception in
motion, requires a simplified composition1
, but with a greater expressivity than static images
(by calling the sense of proportion, balance and logic of editing). The study of stage-lighting,
framing and the structure of compositional lines of the landscape in film completes the
symbolic and metaphorical structure in reading it (landscape roles) with elements related to the
organization in space. This study highlights the role of movement in landscape discovering. It
show the relationship between composition and landscape:
• Framing and changing plans determine the reading of the landscape
between whole and detail, macro-landscape relates with micro-landscape.
The close-up plan exceeds its role of visual detail, the textures representation
creates an haptic image.
A complicated framework requires a rudimentary composition. (Bouleau, 1979, 49).
•Capturing the landscape into a cinematographic image presents stylistic
effects (of composition, colour and light) that can be translated into landscape
design elements. Working with accents, rhythm, proportions of textures, lights
and shadows, colour can map the basis for any concept in a landscape project.
• Filming techniques (travelling and panning) approach the audience to actual
reading of the landscape, in movement. These techniques capture the idea of
paths in space (used many times in both urban and landscape design), used
for a sequentially discovery of it.
Editing principles of a landscape film serve to emphasize the rhythm of perception and
reading, its symbolic and cultural value accentuated by similarities or contrasts of sound, image
and meaning, the spatial relationships between landscape and man (user) or its evolution,
development, and transformation.
• Editing logic approaches to the structure of photomontage and collage as
a technique of representing the landscape, overlapping characteristic and
defining features for its identity, emphasizing or veiling parts for the message
to have persuasive power. A montage is closer to the storyboard method
(which otherwise is borrowed from cinema), the sequential presentation of
paths or landscape dynamics (both in analysis and proposals). Unlike these
techniques, the montage captures two important elements of the landscape:
the movement and sound.
In this chapter it was analysed the way how landscape is represented in film, the role it
plays and its plastic expression. The analyse reveals two major landscape presentation lines
(directions which are complementary and overlapping):
• The documentary role of the landscape - real or imaginary landscapes
presented as cultural expression of a certain period in time and space,
objective or metaphorical structure, full of visions, symbols and associations.
• Landscape as a moving picture - the study of film images focuses on
compositional effects of elements that can be translated into the functional
and aesthetical structure of a landscape project. Space and paths design
require the study of changes in a the dynamic landscape composition, as one
of the possible ways.
Editing principles can be used to structure the presentation of the landscape project, either
as video sequence or as the logic of the presentation. Through montage, landscape can be
captured in its complexity, putting, in a short sequence of time, its defining characteristics,
whether the context, details and textures, compositional structure - the dominant colour
accents, rhythm, overlaid plans - or cultural symbols. Editing methods and techniques give
coherence and meaning to the sequence and are designed to develop other ways of presenting
17VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
a landscape, otherwise difficult or even indecipherable. The montage is used in this way to
IV. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS - deciphering the landscape
through film analysis
Chapter IV proposes to develop an analysis of a landscape in a film sequence taking into account
the elements used for landscape deciphering in urban analysis through image study and the
structure of elements used in film analysis. The methodological approach used in deciphering
the landscape through film analysis is embodied in three steps:
• Landscape analysis, in terms of urban studies, with emphasis on subjective
reading of the landscape and image study;
• Film analysis with emphasis on specific concepts used within and their
• Decomposing a film sequences using the already analysed criteria,
deciphering how the landscape was represented and then synthesised its
elements in a grid of suggestions in making a video landscape.
Thus, it is proposed to find new relations between these two fields (landscape architecture and
cinema), relationships that encourage film concepts to enrich the perspectives on landscape.
The analysis reveal a number of common elements used in landscape or movie decoding
referring to context and language elements.
Subchapter Decomposition a film sequence proposes to exemplify a landscape deciphering
method through film, analysing 7 clips (three short films made at different levels of
Fig. A.004 - Proposed approach to deciphering the landscape through film analysis// [source: author]
professionalism, and four movie clips, different in terms of the ratio between technique and
significance). It investigates several levels (concept, editing logic and transition types, image
composition, shooting technique and frame length) and how each clip addresses these issues.
The analyses are carried out in terms of how the landscape appears in film, both in terms of
significance (the relationship between the general concept with the landscape, the role of
landscape in clip - as decor, as character, sub-textual role) and technique (how to edit - as an
expression of the concept - filming technique and landscape composition).
Although the sequences occupy a fairly wide range, there are some recurring elements and
lines of solutions:
1. Context: The relationship between the concept and the narrative structure (of the
landscape) materialized by the editing logic (the way the shots are added and paste reflects the
overall concept and it subordinates to narrative, the meaning, the message). This is reflected
Fig. A.005 - Summary table of the common elements of landscape or movie decoding in specialized analysis //
Context Structure territory evolution narrative
Organisation spatial organisation,
Image landscape ambiance Decor
Language elements Accents, dominants Node, landmark axes intersection,
paths, limit in
visual depth of fields camera movement,
panning shot, framing
Textures and colours Relation between
build and natural - the
degree of intervention
Tonal proportion -
light and colour
Perspective point Types of perspective Angles of filming
landscape analysis film analysis
19VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
a. Plans with inserted text - can be part of the generic and have an important
role in completing the visual information with written information, presents the clip concept
or conclusion. It is an objective way of transmitting information, leave fewer interpretations,
presents the author’s vision.
b. Montage rhythm - fast, symmetrical, slow, upward to one or more points of
intensity, generally organized on a classical narrative structure in three or five points. Either
as a whole or a clip sequence we find a part of orientation (introduction in context or general
issue), a complication (with one or more points of tension) and a resolution (conclusion). It is
determined by the frame length and type of transitions.
2. Composition: how landscape is depict in motion:
a. The shooting technique determines the frame length and the type of
information transmitted: how landscape is captured emphasizes its rollers in the clip, the
author’s attitude and message that he wants to communicate.
b. The image composition reflects and supports the concept by different
techniques: compositional axis, repetitive frames as leitmotivs, close-up and long shots
alternation, movement in frame, colours, light and contrast, audio composition). It can be a
symbolic or metaphorical image.
c. The transitions types used influences the message: image cuts, sound cuts,
motion cuts, compositional or ideas cuts.
V. DATABASE - working and synthesis instrument for
landscape elements in film
Chapter V proposes to organize an online platform to include a landscape video library with
a documentary role; its structure takes into account three directions studied in Chapter III -
landscape in film concept, image composition and representation technique.
The Database is proposed as a working and synthesis tool for landscapes features represented
in films. This is the result of interaction between cinema and urbanism and aims to facilitate the
search of different landscape issues (conceptual - how the urban development was addressed
in films, the relationship between landscape dynamic and sociocultural or political trends,
landscape and urban design troubleshooting, or technical - how to capture a landscape through
the camera lens and editing logic).
The database will be an online library of video landscapes (Landscape video library - http://
www.lvl.pata.ro/). Each sequence or landscape film will be represented by an identification
sheet which will include written data, images and / or videos.
These data are divided into two classes of information, one that refers to the entire film / video
(text data - title, year, credits, presented landscape and real location, keywords, comments -
images or hyperlinks) and the second will highlight one or more significant sequences from a
particular point of view in terms of landscape representation technique (text data - comments,
keywords, location, reviews, sequence localization, simple or as tables - and videos).
VI. VIDEO LANDSCAPE - tool for analysis and [re]presentation
Chapter VI proposes synthesizing the analyses elements from the first part of the paper in a
grid of technical suggestions in making a video landscape, exemplify this concept by creating an
montage, and drawing future lines of research.
The grid of technical suggestions in making a video landscape is a rough guide and is directed
by two general categories according to the type of landscape to be analysed or represented:
tense / dynamic / diverse landscape and calm / unitary / balanced landscape.
21VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
Time Sequence Location
Presented Landscape [year]
Actual Location [year]
Keywords – Tags External
Links - Googlemaps
Sequence: Composition and shooting techniques
General Information: Subject - Content – Meaning
Keywords – Tags
Presented Landscape [year]
Actual Location [year]
External Links - IMDB,
Film / Video General Information
accelerate montage, close-up shots
Saint-Gervais d’Auvergne -> Nice
Sequence that presents one of the first accelerate montages. The
usage of different types of shots (concerning the length, angles and
field sizes) embodies the scene with great expressivity.
[Rhythmic Montage] [Symbolically Montage] [Spatial Connections]
[Decoupage technique] [Analytic Assembly] [Sound Montage]
[Travelling] [Panoramic] [Zoom] [Dolly Zoom] [Camera Angles]
[Structural Lines] [Light] [Colour] [Sound] [Rhythm]
trainscape; mountain landscape
[1:39:14 – 1:44:34]
The movie is presenting the landscape from Saint-Gervais d’Auvergne
to Nice viewed from the train, the dynamic perception of the landscape.
The mountain landscape of Mont Blanc is also playing an important
role in the visual image of the movie. The landscape is more than a
visual background, is emphasizing the narrative and the characters.
dynamic perception of landscape, train, accelerate montage; black
Nice; Saint-Gervais d’Auvergne; Mont Blanc mountains; Chamonix
France: mountains landscape 
Abel Gance (director)
La roue [The Wheel]
Fig. A.006 - Database (landscape video library)- example of a film documentary sheet// [source: author]
Technical suggestions in making a VIDEO LANDSCAPE
Tense / dynamic / diverse
Calm / unitary / balanced
Concept Determines the organization of video image and is defined by the
relationship between - motion - sound - and significance.
Landscape role In particular, documentary and sub-textual roles - completes the
objective context with subjective valence to find and communicate
specific values of the landscape (description of landscape
The use of symbols and metaphors to underline the concept and
Composition Organizing the image in order to transmit a message.
A complicated framework imposes a simplified composition.
Using different proportions in terms of light, colour or predominant
Image composition rate is
subject to editing, and images
may be blurred.
Unity, symmetry, balance, static
Clear plans, studied composition
in terms of structural, light and
The use of filters and effects,
metaphorical and symbolic
Lines The skyline - 1/3 of the image - opening; 2/3 of the image -
Compositions with vertical or
diagonal strong dominants.
Straight lines, upward.
Curves, continue, downward.
Light and colour Shadow and light. Colour - concept theme.
The dramatic role of light (time of day the filming).
Accents, cold tone proportion,
Balance, proportion warm tone,
Framing effects Ellipse - induced image or sounds outside the frame.
Synecdoche - adding detail, intercalation with a close-up.
Symbol - suggest an idea through an image.
Depth of field - to highlight the movement in frame or the action
carried out on several levels.
Plans Exchange between long shots
and close-ups, plans of shorter
lengths, especially close-ups.
Deep space - elements in
foreground (depth of filed).
Using multiple plans
Using a small number of shots,
with great length, mainly long
shots, stacked in depth.
Working with a single montage
Angle of framing Divers angle of framing, dynamic
exchange: horizontal, at different
levels of framing, plonge, contra
The angles of framing are mostly
horizontally or plonge.
23VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
Shooting techniques Travelling, handheld camera,
accelerated movement, sudden,
zooms, rapid exchange of shots
and filming techniques.
Movement in frame.
Shooting with a fixed camera,
panoramas, slow movements.
Uses 1 or 2 filming techniques.
Slow motion frame (or still
Editing Support landscape concept through editing logic, marking
important points through counterpoint or contrast.
Narrative structure Development on multiple lines
with multiple points of intensity;
Linear development, single point
of intensity that marks the most
important element; classic,
Montage Expressive montage: analytic,
contrast (sound, ideologic).
Narrative Montage: alternate,
Expressive montage: analytic,
Narrative Montage: alternate or
Rhythm Normal speed, fast and ultra fast,
with breaks, uneven.
Slow or normal speed, uniform,
given by: the movement in space, plans length, composition
complexity, movement in frame.
Transitions Cut, pan. Fondue (fade), fondu-enchaîné,
shutter and iris.
Transitions The similarity of processes, psychological or ideas connections.
Motion, sound contrast or
Composition, image, sound
Sound Juxtaposition in counterpoint or contrast with the image, sound or
Mostly diegetic. Diegetic, extradiegetic.
Shoot length Framing: frame detail: between 1frame/ 1s (often repetitive) and
1frame / 3-6s; Overall frames: between 8-11s;
Shooting technique: the movie from fixed: between 2-4s; coated
frames moving (travelling or panning) with speed and image rate
between 5-7s / 10-20s;
The point is that the narrative structure: 3-5 frames / s and 1frame /
2-3s- for high intensity points; between 4-10s - for breaks;
Plans with text inserts: between 2-7s to 14s depending on quantity
The proposed clip, as a possible way of making a video landscape, emphasizes landscapes
multidimensional perception, haptic, through details. These are the ones that compose the
image, whether textures (mineral or vegetable), elements of urban furniture or different
users (how space is used). The video shows in parallel, a full picture of the landscape and its
Fig. A.007. - Table of technical suggestions in making a video landscape // [source: author]
breakdown into three sections, details at different height. It was selected University Square in
Bucharest to discuss, in an urban square, the relationship between pedestrian and cars.
In achieving this, it was taken into account the grid of technical suggestions detailed above
and the conclusions of comparative analyses presented in Chapter IV, detailing levels referring
to concept, narrative structure and editing technique, rhythm and shooting technique, image
composition and length frames.
A video landscape does not necessarily provide a true picture of the analysed site (because
of the composed framework and the multiple and simultaneously perspectives from different
angles), but rather a subjective vision, already passed through a personal filter and express
the movement in space, the roles of textures and how sound influences the perception (ratio
between details and overview). The montage captures the elements filmed by the camera that
emphasize different landscape attributes: a public space structured and strongly influenced
by traffic, the adjacent noise, a space that lives, however, both as transit line and as a meeting
In a context where video is more and more an universal medium of expression, information and
communication, a research on how the landscape can be investigated and represented through
film is considered to be appropriate.
The proposed tools for this study (the video landscape and the database) are integrated in the
sensitive reading process of the landscape in some steps (these are not exhaustive and may be
supplemented) which refers to the analysis and [re]presentation.
Video survey - it refers to the direct recording of the landscape through video camera.
It materializes, in particular, the third line of the landscape survey (Stan, 2012, 75-76), the
survey of landscape dynamics. It reflects the real-time dynamics of the landscape (the dynamic
landscape and movement in landscape) through montage, that can expand to other temporal
Documentation on how to represent landscapes in film, through the landscapes video
25VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
Landscape perception through details (2014)
[source: images from the clip: https://vimeo.com/107322790
Fig. A.008. - Extract from the decomposition scheme for the presented video landscape // [source: author]
library. The documentation is proposed to be achieved in two directions:
• at conceptual level - the landscape role, its significance, and cultural value;
• at compositional, technical, and expressive level, (plastic) - image
composition, filming techniques and editing logic;
Video landscape - the description of a narrative landscape (Stan, 2012, 77) through film.
Editing is performed according to the concept that is intended to be presented by using the
database and the grid of technical suggestions.
Fig. A.009 - Steps used in the sensible landscape reading, through film as a tool for analysis and representation:
 - using the database for documentation on a landscape design object (similar topics, types and landscape issues,
approaches, concepts, locations (cities ), historical periods, movements, etc.);  - landscape analysis in situ; 
- making a surveying video (image study) using various elements of composition and camera techniques (variety
of shooting angles, framing, light, time of day, camera movements that provide the material for the next phase of
editing) ;  documenting the logic of a montage through the database and finding the most suitable techniques
to highlight the analysed landscape concept;  making a video (film editing) as a conceptual representation of the
landscape;  - complete the database with the realised video landscape. // [source: author]
27VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
Therefore, the use of the video landscape as a tool for analysing and [re]presentation in the
sensible reading of the landscape involves the investigation of space through the video camera
and the research of how a space can be represented through and in a film.
The relationship between film and landscape is complex and may be embodied in
several directions. The present study aimed to approach the film as a tool of analysis and
representation of the landscape (for professionals), by researching how it is presented in various
film productions in terms of significance, composition, filming techniques and the organization
of the montage.
If we consider the film as a tool in landscape design, besides the analysed directions:
• the documentary role of a film - in landscape analysis - as witness of the
landscape evolution, as a moving picture (compositional elements and stylistic
affects translated to be applied in landscape design);
• film as a language of landscape presentation and representation - as a video
survey or montage (video landscape).
it detaches other two possible future research lines:
1. The film - communication language for the landscaping project - for a wider range of
people (not just for specialists but also for public administration, media, users - beneficiaries).
The film study and its decoding and transmitting role of a message for nonprofessionals - film
as the landscape project representation in dialogue with the public. This direction requires
a separate approach especially since the legislative framework requires the existence of a
participatory dialogue, a public consultation on the project.
The specialized language of urban and landscape planning can often be not enough to be able
to convey the proposed vision, a representation through a language, today common, highlights
the opportunities for the study in this direction.
The establishing tools of representation influence not only the entire decision
making process and the media, but also subsequently the entire design and
building process. The discrepancy between drawings and plans as tool of
commercial and political seduction and the same documents used as a basis
for the production and construction of environments has demonstrated
concrete the limitation about the way we think of a city and its landscape
today. (Girot 2006, 92)
2. Using film in spatial design concept of the landscape, not just as a tool for analysis
and representation - translating the cinematographic concepts into spatial and organisational
concepts, approaches in landscape intervention, narrative principles translated into ways of
discovering the space - the scenographic perception of the designed space.
This direction involves completing the series of interdisciplinary concepts (sequence /
sequentially, script, storyboard) and others such as cuts, filming techniques, working with plans
and their depth or editing logic.
Like landscape design, film creates landscapes, it is not just reproducing them (as other areas
dealing with the study of landscape do), but it also producing them (Corner, 1992). Cinema
conceptualizes spaces, creates artificial spaces starting from fragments of real space (Martin,
1981, 233). Therefore, studying the relationship between film and landscape regarding the
design process is seen as desirable, even essential of the field under study.
29VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
Concepts about space and landscape
Calcatinge, A., 2013. Conceptul de peisaj cultural. Contribuţii la fundamentarea teoretică. Editura Universitară „Ion
Enache, C., 2010. Peisajul urban în contextul tehnologiei informaționale; Studiu asupra implicaţiilor şi tendinţelor
noilor tehnologii în structura urbana tradiţională. Ph. D. Thesis. Unpublished.
Faye, P., et alii, 1974. Sites et Sitologie. Editions: J.-J. Pauvert: France.
Foucault, M., 1984. „Des Espaces Autres”. Architecture / Mouvement / Continuité, October. [online] Accessible at:
http://web.mit.edu/allanmc/www/foucault1.pdf [15 January 2014].
JRC, 2014. Joint Research Centre Science Hub - For Learn. Methodology - Scenario building. [online] Accessible at:
http://forlearn.jrc.ec.europa.eu/guide/4_methodology/meth_scenario.htm#Definition [28 June 2014].
Leach, N., 2006, Uitaţi-l pe Heidegger. Paideia: Bucharest.
Lefebvre, H., 1991. The production of space. Blackwell Publishing Ltd: Oxford.
Mihali, C., 2001. În loc de introducere. Spațiul urban: diseminat, miniaturizat, polivalent. In Mihali, C., ed. 2001.
Altfel de spații. Studii de heterotopologie. Paideia: Bucharest. pp. 5-14.
Pitte, J. R., 1992. Histoire du paysage francais. Taillandier: Paris.
Pleşu, A., 2009. Pitoresc şi melancolie. Ediţia a III-a. Humanitas: Bucharest.
Sârbu, C., 2009. Peisajul cultural. [lectures notes, Ist year, MPT]. [powerpoint - unpublished].
Stan, A., 2006. Teoria si istoria peisajului. [lectures notes, 2nd year, Course VI]. [powerpoint –unpublished].
Stan, A., 2009. Peisajul periferiilor urbane – revitalizare peisageră a zonelor periferice. Editura Universitară Ion
Stan, A., 2012. Devenirea peisajului. Editura Universitară „Ion Mincu”: Bucharest.
Virilio, P., 2000. A Landscape of Events. Translated from French by Julie Rose. MIT Press Cambridge: Massachusetts,
Waterman, T., 2009. The Fundamentals of Landscape Architecture. AVA Publishing SA: Lausanne, Switzerland.
Perception and image
Arnheim, R., 1974. Art and Visual Perception: A Psychology of the Creative Eye. Revised and supplemented edition.
[original publication 1954] University of California Press: Berkeley, Los Angeles, London.
Baudrillard, J., 1981. Simulacres et simulation. Galilée: Paris.
Castells, M., 1936. The Rise of the Network Society. Blackwell Publishing Ltd: Malden, Massachusetts, USA.
Eftenie, M., 2006. Psihologia spațiului construit urban. [lecture notes] Second edition. Editura Universitară „Ion
Ionică, L., 2000. Imaginea vizuală. Aspecte teoretice. Editura Marineasa: Timişoara.
Lynch, K., 1960. The image of the city. The MIT Press: Cambridge.
Merleau-Ponty, M., 2004. The World of Perception. Translated from French by Oliver Davis [original publication
1948]. Routledge: Oxfordshire.
Arnheim, R., 2012. Forța centrului vizual. Un studiu al compoziției în artele vizuale. Translated by Luminița Ciocan
[original publication 1988]. Polirom: Iași.
Bouleau, C., 1979. Geometria secretă a pictorilor. Translated from French by Denia Mateescu. [original publication
1963] Meridiane: Bucharest.
Buhmann, E., Ervin S. şi Pietsch M., 2012. Peer Reviewed Proceedings of Digital Landscape Architecture 2012 at
Anhalt University of Applied Sciences. H. Heenemann GmbH&co. KG: Berlin.
Corner, J., 1992. Representation and Landscape. In Swaffield, S., ed. 2002. Theory in Landscape Architecture: A
Reader. University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. pp. 144-165.
De Mèredieu, F., 2005. Arta şi noile tehnologii. RAO: Bucharest.
Mcluhan, M., 1975. Galaxia Gutenberg. Translated from English by L. and V. Năvodaru [original publication 1962].
Editura Politică: Bucharest.
Moholy-Nagy, L., 1967. Painting, Photography, Film. Lund Humphries London.
Popa A., 2014. Photography as Exercise of Memory in Order to Reasses, Recompose and Revive Landscapes. In
Crăciun, C., Bostenaru Dan, M., eds. 2104. Planning and Designing Sustainable and Resilient Landscapes. Springer:
Dordrecht, Heidelberg, New York, London. pp.61-73.
Rees, A.L., White D., Ball S., Curtis D. eds., 2011. Expanded Cinema: Art, performance, Film. Tate Publishing London.
Concept on history, psychology and film theory
Arnheim, R., 1957. Film as art. University of California Press: Berkeley, Los Angeles, London.
Bazin, A., 1949. Funcția dramatică a decorului. In Voiculescu, E., ed. 1967. A șaptea artă. Scrieri despre arta filmului.
Translated by Margareta Andreescu, Simona Balamace and Stela Kintescu. Vol II. Editura Meridiane: Bucharest. pp.
Bazin, A., 1968. Ce este cinematograful? Translated from French by Ervin Voiculescu. Editura Meridiane: Bucharest.
Cavalcanti, A., 1950. Note pentru o istorie a decorului de film. In Voiculescu, E., ed. 1967. A șaptea artă. Scrieri
despre arta filmului. Translated from French by Margareta Andreescu, Simona Balamace and Stela Kintescu. Vol II.
Editura Meridiane: Bucharest. pp. 222-231.
Chapman, J. 2005. Comparative Media History. Polity Press: Cambridge.
Colebrook, C., 2002. Understanding Deleuze. Allen&Unwin. Crows Nest: Australia.
Deacă, M., 2012. Teoria filmului. [lecture notes, an I, SITT] [unpublished].
Deleuze, G., 1997. Cinema 1. The Movement-Image. Translated from French by Hugh Tomlinson and Barbara
Habberjam. Fifth edition . [original publication 1983]. University of Minnesota Press: Minneapolis.
Dreyer, C. Th., 1955. Filmul în culori și filmul colorat. In Voiculescu, E., ed. 1967. A șaptea artă. Scrieri despre arta
filmului. Translated from French by Margareta Andreescu, Simona Balamace and Stela Kintescu. Vol II. Editura
Meridiane: Bucharest. pp. 232-235.
Moussinac, L., 1925. Ritm sau moarte. In Voiculescu, E., (ed.), 1967. A șaptea artă. Scrieri despre arta filmului.
Translated from French by Margareta Andreescu, Simona Balamace and Stela Kintescu. Vol II. Editura Meridiane:
Bucharest. pp. 284-288.
Sadoul, G., 1961. Istoria cinematografului mondial. De la origini până în zilele noastre. Tranlated by D. I. Suchianu.
31VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
[original publication 1959] Editura Științifică: Bucharest.
Scheneider S. J. 2005. 1001 de filme de văzut într-o viață. translated from English by Justina Bandol, Smaranda
Câmpeanu, Roxana Dascălu, Irina Horea. Second edition, Editura RAO: China.
Tashiro, C.S., 1998. Pretty pictures: Production Design and the History Film. University of Texas Press: Austen.
Stoichiță, V. I., 2013. Efectul Sherlock Holmes. Trei intrigi cinematografice. Humanitas: Bucharest
White, I., 2009. Life itself. The „Problem” of the Pre-Cinema. In Comer, S., ed. 2009. Film and Video Art. Tate
Publishing: London. pp. 13-25.
Wilson, J., 1961. Film Literacy in Africa. In Canadian Communication. Vol. I, no.4.
Bălțatu, V.I., 1958. Cum se face un film. Editura tehnică: Bucharest.
Barbaro, U., 1947. Scenariul și problemele filmării. In Voiculescu, E., ed. 1967. A șaptea artă. Scrieri despre arta
filmului. Tranlated by Margareta Andreescu, Simona Balamace and Stela Kintescu. Vol II. Editura Meridiane:
Bucharest. pp. 66-71.
Bellour, R., 2000. The Analysis of Film. Edited by Constance Penley. Indiana University Press: Bloomington, USA.
Pintilie, L., 2001. După-amiaza unui torționar. In Doinaș, Șt. Aug., ed. 2001. Filmul. Secolul 21. Nr. 10-12/2001.
Uniunea Scriitorilor din România, Fundația Culturală Secolul 21 și Editura Fundației Pro: Brașov. pp.223-238.
Martin, M., 1981. Limbajul cinematografic. Translated from French by Matilda Banu and Georege Anania. [original
publication 1954] Editura Meridiane: Bucharest.
Vanoye, F., Goliot-Lété, A., 1995. Scurt tratat de analiză filmică. Translated from French by Otilia-Maria Covaliu and
Carmen Dumitriu. [original publication 1993] ALL Educațional: Bucharest.
Yale Film Studies, 2002. Film Analysis Guide. [online] Accessible at http://classes.yale.edu/film-analysis/ [19 June
Film and architecture
Affron, C., Affron, M.J., 1995. Sets in motion: ArtDirection and Film. Rutgers University Press: New Brunswick.
Akçay, A., 2008. The Architectural City Images in Cinema: The Representation of City in Renaissance as a Case Study.
[online] School of Natural and Applied Sciences of Middle East Technical University. Accesibil la http://etd.lib.metu.
edu.tr/upload/12609699/index.pdf [20 august 2014].
Bergfelder, T., Harris, S., Street, S., 2007. Film Architecture and the Transitional Imagination. Set Design in 1930s
European Cinema. Amsterdam University Press: Amsterdam.
Boake, T.M. 2005. Architecture and Film: Experiential Realities and Dystopic Futures. [online] Accessible at http://
www.academia.edu/3437846/Architecture_And_Film_Experiential_Realities_And_Dystopic_Futures [1 September
Cairns, G., 2007. Crossing the boundaries of film and architectural pedagogy. Journal of Pedagogic Development.
[e-journal] 2(2). Accessible at http://www.beds.ac.uk/jpd/volume-2-issue-2/crossing-the-boundaries-of-film-and-
architectural-pedagogy [27 August 2014].
Cinecity, 2014. Architectural Film Project. Architectural Ideas Explored in One Minute Films. [online] Accessible at
http://www.thecinecityproject.com/ [4 September 2014].
Fundația Culturală Secolul 21, 2001. Spațiul în Film. Colocviu organizat de Fundația Culturală Secolul 21 and Editura
Fundației Pro, 26 September, Bucharest. Translated and published in Doinaș, Șt. Aug., ed. 2001. Filmul. Secolul 21.
No. 10-12/2001. Uniunea Scriitorilor din România, Fundația Culturală Secolul 21 and Editura Fundației Pro: Brașov.
Godard, J.-L., 1972. Godard on Godard. Secker & Warburg: London.
Hasnaș, A., 2002. Spirit și grafie în arta spectacolului. Editura Universitară „Ion Mincu”: Bucharest.
Higham, N., 1999. Cinem(a)rchitecture: signifying the imaginary city in film. [blog] 1 September. Accessible at
http://architettura.it/movies/19990901/ [28 August 2014].
Ingersoll, R., 1992. Cinemarchitecture. In Design Book review. vol. 24, Spring.
Kaçmaz Erk, G., 2004. Architecture as Symbol: Space in Wim Wenders’ Cinema. Built Spaces. The Cultural Shaping
of Architectural and Urban Spaces. [e-journal] 9(1). Accessible at http://www.cloud-cuckoo.net/openarchive/
wolke/eng/Subjects/041/Kacmaz-Erk/kacmaz_erk.htm [4 September 2014].
Newman, D., 2012. Polite Resistance and the Dimensions of Narrative – Week Six Response [blog] 27 February.
Media and Architecture 2012. A Graduate Seminar in Media Studies at The New School. Taught by Shannon
Mattern. Accessible at http://www.wordsinspace.net/media-architecture/2012-spring/?p=482 [4 September 2014].
Pallasmaa, J., 2000. Lived Space in Architecture and Cinema. [online] First chapter of the book: The Architecture
of Image: Existential Space in Cinema. Rakennustieto: Helsinki. Accessible at http://www.ucalgary.ca/ev/
Rattenbury, K., 1994. Echo and Narcissus. A.D., Architectural Design, special issue, Architecture and film. no. 112,
Storm, D., 2011. Transmutations. Video is more. Dissertation Thesis - Master of Architecture. University of Detroit
Mercy School of Architecture. [online]. Accessible at https://archive.udmercy.edu/handle/10429/565 [1 August
Film and Landscape
Bruno, G., 2002. Atlas of Emotion: Journeys in Art, Architecture, and Film. Verso: London, New York.
Calciu, D., 2011. Parkphobia. Urban Situation. [blog] 27 April. Accessible at https://situatiiurbane.wordpress.
com/2011/04/27/parcphobia/ [26 August 2014].
DMUD-RNYU, 2014. Digital Modeling for Urban Design - Reading New York Urbanism Cours. [online] http://
dmudrnyu.com/about/ [19 June 2014].
ERASMUS Intensive Programme, 2014. Integrated Planning and Design for Sustainable Urban Peripheries in Europe
[online]. Accessible at http://european-peripheries.imla-campus.eu/Main_Page [27 August 2014].
Fuhriman, C., 2009. Cinematic Representation of Landscape: The (Reel) Korean Demilitarized Zone. [online]
Middle States Geographer, 2009, no. 42, pp. 100-106. Accessible at http://www.msaag.org/wp-content/
uploads/2013/04/11_FUHRIMAN.pdf [19 August 2014].
Girot, Ch., 2004. Movism: Prologue to a New Visual Theory in Landscape Architecture. In: Koll-Schretzenmayr, M.,
Keiner, M. and Nussbaumer G., eds. 2004. The Real and virtual Worlds of Spatial Planning. Berlin: Springer. pp. 199-
Girot, C., 2006. Vision in Motion: Representing Landscape in Time. In: Waldheim, C., ed. 2006. The Landscape
Urbanism. Princeton Architectural Press: Princeton. pp. 87-103.
Girot, Ch., 2014a. Landscape: Beyond the Margin of Vision. In Deriu, D., Kamvasinou, K., Shinkle, E., eds. 2014.
Emerging Landscapes: Between Production and Representation. Ashgate Publishing: Farnham, Surrey, England. pp.
Girot, Ch., 2014b. Wahlfach MediaLab. Serendipity. Landscape Video. [videoblog] Accessible at http://girot.arch.
ethz.ch/videoblog/ [26 August 2014].
Hellmann, C. and Weber-Hof, C., 2007. On Location – Famous Landscapes in Film. C.J. Bucher Verlag GmbH:
33VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
Hopkins, J. 1994. A mapping of cinematic places: icons, ideology, and the power of (mis)representation. In Aitken,
S.C., Zonn, L.E., eds. 1994. Place, Power, Situation, and Spectacle: A Geography of Film. Rowman and Littlefield:
Totowa, NJ, USA. pp. 47-66.
Keiller, P., 2007. Film as spatial critique. [online] Accessible at http://roundtable.kein.org/sites/newtable.kein.org/
files/Keiller_FilmAsSpatial%20Critique.pdf [15 October 2014].
Lefebvre, M. 2006. Landscape and film. AFI Film Readers. Routledge.
McKie, S., 2009. The Role of Landscape in Film: More than a Visual Backdrop. [online] Accessible at http://
internetvideo.sys-con.com/node/1087361 [25 November 2013].
Melbye, D., 2010. Landscape Allegory and Cinema. Palgrave Macmillan: New York, USA.
Popescu, T., 2007. Șapte povești în căutarea unui loc. Scenariu de film ca instrument alternativ de lectură a spațiului
public. In Zahariade, A., M., Oroveanu A. eds. 2007. ACUM2. Spațiul public și reinserția socială a proiectului artistic
și arhitectural. Editura Universitară Ion Mincu: Bucharest. pp. 204-207.
RNYU, 2011. Reading New York Urbanism Cours. [online] Accessible at http://rnyu2011.com/about/ [19 June 2014].
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, 2011. Landscape video – transcription, experience, narration. [online]
Accessible at http://www.multimedia.ethz.ch/conferences/2010/landscapevideo [3 October 2012].
Tewdwr-Jones, M., 2013. Modern Planning on Film: Re-shaping Space, Image and Representation. [online]
Accessible at http://ced.berkeley.edu/bpj/2013/08/modern-planning-on-film-re-shaping-space-image-and-
representation/ [29 November 2013].
Film Topics (2013). Landscape and Cinema at CU. [blog] Accessible at http://filmtopicslandscape.tumblr.com/ [25
Fotache, M., 2009. Dialecte DB2, Oracle și Visual FoxPro. Second edition. Editura Polirom: Bucharest.
Landscape and cinema (2012). RTVF 398 Issues in Radio, Television, and Film: Landscape and Cinema at
Northwestern University. [blog] Accesibil la http://landscapecinema.tumblr.com/post/18485550172/before-the-
quake-the-collapse-of-culture-in-robert [25 May 2014].
Lovink, G., 2008. The Art of Watching Databases. Introduction to the Video Vortex Reader. In Lovink, G., Niecerer,
S., eds. 2008. Video Vortex Reader: Responses to YouTube. Institute of Network Cultures: Amsterdam. pp. 9-12.
Lungu, I., 2005. Baze de date oracle limbajul SQL. Digital course. [online] Accessible at http://www.biblioteca-
digitala.ase.ro/biblioteca/carte2.asp?id=458&idb=11 [25 May 2014].
Movie Locations (2014). The Worldwide Guide to Film Locations. [online] Accessible at http://www.movie-locations.
com/ [25 May 2014].
Spoer, D., 2013. Database Lesson #1 of 8 - Introduction to Databases. [online] Accessible at https://www.youtube.
com/watch?v=4Z9KEBexzcM [25 mai 2014].
Spoer, D., 2013. Database Lesson #2 of 8 - The Relational Model. [online] Accessible at https://www.youtube.com/
watch?v=kyGVhx5LwXw [25 May 2014].
Urban Film (2014). Urban/planning film review. Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts
Institute of Technology. [blog] Accessible at http://eglenn.scripts.mit.edu/urbanfilm/ [25 May 2014].
Velicanu, M., Lungu, I., Muntean, M. et alii, 2002. Oracle. Platformă pentru bazele de date. Editura Petrion:
Research and compilation methods
Borden, I. şi Rüedi Ray, K., 2006. The Dissertation. An Architecture Student’s Handbook. Second edition.
Architectural Press: Oxford, Burlington.
Chelcea, S., 2003. Metodologia elaborării unei lucrări ştiinţifice. Comunicare.ro: Bucharest.
Eco, U., 2000. Cum se face o teză de licenţă. Translation by G. Popescu. Second edition. Collection: Biblioteca
italiană. Pontica: Constanţa.
Lynch, K., 1960. The image of the city. The MIT Press: Cambridge.
Nijhuis, S., Van Lammeren, R. and Van Der Hoeven, F., 2011. Exploring the visual landscape. IOS Press: Amstredam.
Sistem de citare Harvard – Anglia Ruskin University, 2013. Harvard System. [online] Accessible at http://libweb.
anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm [14 September 2013].
Whyte, W. H., 1980. The social life of small urban places. Project for Public Spaces: New York.
1895 Auguste Lumière
Sortie des Usines Lumière à Lyon
L’Arriveé d’un train en gare
La Places des Cordeliers à Lyon
Repas de bébé
Sortie de la pompe
Mise en batterie
Attaque du feu
Le Débarquement du Congrès de Photographie à Lyon
1896 Jeux d’enfants dans une rue
Couronnement du tsar Nicolas II
1897 Auguste Lumière
L’arrivée d’un train à La Ciotat
1896 Georges Méliès Escamotage d’une dame
1901 Ferdinand Zecca Histoire d’un crime
1902 Georges Méliès Voyage dans la Lune
1903 Edwin S. Porter The Great Train Robbery
1915 D. W. Griffith The Birth of a Nation
1917 Karl Freund Die Faust des Riesen
1919 Mauritz Stille Herr Arnes pengar
1920 Robert Wiene Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari
1922 F. W. Murnau Nosferatu, eine Symphonie des Grauens
Robert J. Flaherty Nanook of the North
1923 Abel Gance La roue
1924 René Clair Entr’acte11
1925 Sergei Eisenstei Bronenosets Potemkin
1926 Robert J. Flaherty Moana
Vsevolod Pudovkin Mat
35VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
1927 Alan Crosland The Jazz Singer
Fritz Lang Metropolis
Walter Ruttman Berlin: Die Sinfonie der Grosstadt
M. C. Cooper
E. B. Schoedsack
Chang: A Drama of the Wilderness
1928 Victor Sjöström The Wind
1929 Luis Buñuel
Un Chien Andalou
Dziga Vertov Chelovek S Kinopparatom
Adalberto Kemény São Paulo, Sinfonia da Metrópole
Joris Ivens Regen
1930 Aleksandr Dovzhenko Zemlya
1931 M. C. Cooper
E. B. Schoedsack
1933 Gustav Machaty Extaz
1935 Edgar Anstey
Aleksandr Dovzhenko Aerograd
1936 Charlie Chaplin Modern Times
Jean Renoir Une partie de campagne
1937 Giacomo Gentilomo Sinfonia di Roma
John Taylor The Smoke Menace
1939 Ralph Steiner
Willard Van Dyke
John Ford Stagecoach
1940 Alfred Hitchcock Rebecca
1941 Orson Welles Citizen Kane
1942 John Eldridge New Towns for Old
1944 Henri Storck Boerensymfonie / Symphonie paysanne
1945 Roberto Rossellini Roma, città aperta
1946 John Ford My Darling Clementine
Jill Craigie The Way We Live
Roberto Rossellini Paisà
Vittorio de Sica Sciuscià (Ragazzi)
1948 Alfred Hitchcock Rope
H.C. Potter Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream House
Vittorio de Sica Ladri di biciclette
Roberto Rossellini Germania, anno zero
John Huston Treasure of the Sierra Madre
1950 Billy Wilder Sunset Boulevard
Akira Kurosawa Rashomon
Anthony Mann Winchester ’73
1952 Giuseppe De Santis Roma, ore undici
Akira Kurosawa Ikiru
1953 Arne Sucksdorff Det stora äventyret
1954 Alfred Hitchcock Rear Window
1955 Pather Panchali Satyajit
Seagulls Die in the Harbour
1957 Michelangelo Antononi Il Grido
1958 Jacques Tati Mon Oncle
Alfred Hitchcock Vertigo
1959 North by Northwest
1960 John Ford Sergeant Rutledge
Michelangelo Antonioni L’Aventura
1962 Stan Brakhage Dog Star Man
David Lean Lawrence al Arabiei
1963 Alfred Hitchcock The Birds
1964 Michelangero Antonioni Il deserto rosso
1965 David Lean Doctor Zhivago
1966 Ingmar Berhman Persona
Michelangelo Antonioni Blowup
1967 Dennis Hopper Easy Rider
Jacques Tati Playtime
1968 Stanley Kubrick 2001: A Space Odyssey
1970 Alejandro Jodorowsky El Topo
Michelangelo Antonioni Zabriskie Point
1971 Nicolas Roeg Walkabout
1974 Roman Polanski Chinatown
1975 Andrei Tarkovski Stalker
Peter Weir Picnic at Hanging Rock
Theo Anghelopoulos O Thiassos
1976 Carol Corfanta Serenadă pentru etajul XII
1978 Woody Allen Manhattan
Francis Ford Copola Apocalypse now
1981 Christian Schocher Reisender Krieger
1982 Godfrey Reggio Koyaanisqatsi
Ridley Scott Blade Runner
Werner Herzog Fitzcarraldo
1984 Eric Rochant Comme les doigts de la main
1985 Terry Gilliam Brazil
1987 Win Wenders Der Himmel über Berlin
1995 James Benning Deseret
1992 Ron Fricke Baraka
1999 Andy Wachowski
2001 Lucian Pintilie După-amiaza unui torționar
2002 Joel Schumacher Phone Booth
The Chemical Brothers Michel
Fernando Mierelles Cidade de Deus
Martin Scorseset Gangs of New York
Yimou Zhang Ying xiong
37VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
2003 Ki-duk Kim Bom yeoreum gaeul gyeoul geurigo bom
2006 Jim Brown
Tarsem Singh The Fall
2009 James Cameron Avatar
2010 Christopher Nolan Inception
2011 Terrence Malick Tree of Life
Marina Marque Phe Pulse of a Neighbourhood
Gustavo Taretto Medianeras
Win Wenders Pina
2012 Steven Briand Shunpo
2013 Gore Verbinski The Lone Ranger
Erick Flores Garnelo City sounds