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VIDEO LANDSCAPE
FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE
ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
Bucharest 2014
“Ion Mincu” University of Archit...
FOR ME LANDSCAPE HAS EVERYTHING TO DO WITH CINEMA.
Wim Wenders
The main purpose of this research is to complete the toolkit for landscape study taking into
account the way a society, ch...
INTRODUCTION
Motivation
Context
Research question - objectives -
hypotheses
Study methodology
Purpose of the study
Glossar...
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
Landscape analysis
Context
Landscape analysis through image
study
Film analysis
Decomposing a film se...
6 abstract
The environment in which we live in has the ability to shape our lifestyle and personality, the
vision that we ...
7VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
This research makes additions to existing st...
8
The thesis proposes video as a tool for landscape study. The research develops in two stages of
analysis that will be re...
9VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
through a video landscape. The term [re]pres...
10
The hypotheses that support the research and the objectives are:
• society evolution requires the adaptation to new req...
11VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
Fig. A.003 - Thesis logical diagram// [sour...
12
for landscape elements in film - and a video landscape as an example of how landscape can be
analysed and represented t...
13VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
II. STUDY ACTUALITY - previous researches
C...
14
Film as a tool supports a new space design method, recently debated, particularly in academia,
with an experimental cha...
15VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
general) was performed in order to create a...
16
•Capturing the landscape into a cinematographic image presents stylistic
effects (of composition, colour and light) tha...
17VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
a landscape, otherwise difficult or even in...
18
professionalism, and four movie clips, different in terms of the ratio between technique and
significance). It investig...
19VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
		a. Plans with inserted text - can be part...
20
The Database is proposed as a working and synthesis tool for landscapes features represented
in films. This is the resu...
21VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
Time Sequence Location
Presented Landscape ...
22
Technical suggestions in making a VIDEO LANDSCAPE
Tense / dynamic / diverse
landscape
Calm / unitary / balanced
landsca...
23VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
Shooting techniques Travelling, handheld ca...
24
breakdown into three sections, details at different height. It was selected University Square in
Bucharest to discuss, ...
25VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
Landscape perception through details (2014)...
26
library. The documentation is proposed to be achieved in two directions:
• at conceptual level - the landscape role, it...
27VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
Therefore, the use of the video landscape a...
28
	 2. Using film in spatial design concept of the landscape, not just as a tool for analysis
and representation - transl...
29VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
bibliography, filmography
	 Concepts about ...
30
Merleau-Ponty, M., 2004. The World of Perception. Translated from French by Oliver Davis [original publication
1948]. R...
31VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
[original publication 1959] Editura Științi...
32
Godard, J.-L., 1972. Godard on Godard. Secker & Warburg: London.
Hasnaș, A., 2002. Spirit și grafie în arta spectacolul...
33VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
Hopkins, J. 1994. A mapping of cinematic pl...
34
Architectural Press: Oxford, Burlington.
Chelcea, S., 2003. Metodologia elaborării unei lucrări ştiinţifice. Comunicare...
35VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
1927 Alan Crosland The Jazz Singer
Fritz La...
36
1955 Pather Panchali Satyajit
Ivo Michiels
Roland Verhavert
Seagulls Die in the Harbour
1957 Michelangelo Antononi Il G...
37VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
2003 Ki-duk Kim Bom yeoreum gaeul gyeoul ge...
Irina Pata_VIDEO LANDSCAPE. FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION
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Irina Pata_VIDEO LANDSCAPE. FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION

The main purpose of this research is to complete the toolkit for landscape study taking into account the way a society, characterized by movement, evolves to a continues increase of living environment rate of transformation. The research highlights the importance of dynamic analysis of the landscape and the need for appropriate tools that can capture and sustain its movement. The interaction between film and landscape is covered in two directions that relate to techniques and significance. It follows a method that is based on several steps: how the landscape is filmed, shown in various film productions (via the database of landscape videos) and how a montage is able to conveys a specific message.

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Irina Pata_VIDEO LANDSCAPE. FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION

  1. 1. VIDEO LANDSCAPE FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION Bucharest 2014 “Ion Mincu” University of Architecture and Urbanism Doctoral Thesis (abstract) Supervisor: Ph. D. Professor Architect Florin Machedon Ph. D. Student: Irina Pața
  2. 2. FOR ME LANDSCAPE HAS EVERYTHING TO DO WITH CINEMA. Wim Wenders
  3. 3. The main purpose of this research is to complete the toolkit for landscape study taking into account the way a society, characterized by movement, evolves to a continues increase of living environment rate of transformation. The research highlights the importance of dynamic analysis of the landscape and the need for appropriate tools that can capture and sustain its movement. The interaction between film and landscape is covered in two directions that relate to techniques and significance. It follows a method that is based on several steps: how the landscape is filmed, shown in various film productions (via the database of landscape videos) and how a montage is able to conveys a specific message. ABSTRACT VIDEO LANDSCAPE FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION Supervisor: Ph.D Professor Architect Florin Machedon Ph.D Student: Irina Pața BUCHAREST 2014
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION Motivation Context Research question - objectives - hypotheses Study methodology Purpose of the study Glossary of terms STUDY ACTUALITY Context Interdisciplinary The relationship between architecture and cinema - concepts transfer Film as a critic and witness of landscape evolution Architecture as a tool in film Film as a pedagogical tool Conclusion LANDSCAPE REPRESENTATION IN FILM Introduction. Elements of cinematic history Precinema Cinema Conception. Landscape dramatic role and ambience Context Landscape in decor psychology Composition. Landscape in cinematic image composition The frame Compositional elements into the frame Light and colour Plan Angle of framing Camera movement Technique. Editing logic in shooting a landscape Types of montages Cinematographic punctuation The relation between sound and image Conclusions CONTENTS I II III
  5. 5. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS Landscape analysis Context Landscape analysis through image study Film analysis Decomposing a film sequence Phe Pulse of a Neighbourhood (2011), Marina Marquez City sounds (2013), Erick Flores Garnelo Shunpo (2012), Steven Briand La roue [The Weel] (1923), Abel Gance Radiant City (2006), Jim Brown, Gary Burns Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream House (1948), H.C. Potter Walkabout (1971), Nicolas Roeg Conclusions DATABASE Proposed structure Adding information Searching engine Documentary sheets for video sequences Conclusion. Applicability VIDEO LANDSCAPE Grid of technical suggestions Video landscape structure Conclusion. Future research lines Annexes Bibliography Filmography List of illustrations IV V VI
  6. 6. 6 abstract The environment in which we live in has the ability to shape our lifestyle and personality, the vision that we have about the concepts that guide our lives. This research starts by bringing together several of my passions: landscape studies, pedagogy and film. As an assistant professor I want to have the ability to transmit to students, through a common language, the importance of landscape study and the complexity of the concept itself. This made me turn to the cinema. Often, I find myself in the position of giving a movie or a video as an example in order to complete my vision about an issue. Cinema is of an overwhelming complexity with almost unlimited resources in terms of cultural and spatial studies. This research wants to discover the specific features that support the landscape dynamic and the elements that make the film such a suitable medium for transmitting landscape expressiveness. Along with the theoretical analysis regarding significance, the research has a practical side that can be used in landscape studies. It creates an online platform that completes the classic documentation of a project, a landscape video library opened for specialized users to supplement or amend. Also, the research defines a grid of parameters that can be take into consideration when you want to use video as a tool in landscape design process. This grid aims to provide a starting point in making a video landscape, some suggestions concerning the ways you can transmit a concept, some filming and montage techniques, composition ideas or usual frame length. MOTIVATION I. INTRODUCTION
  7. 7. 7VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION This research makes additions to existing studies that support video as a tool in urban and landscape design and supports the cultural evolution of the concept. CONTEXT The speed that defines our contemporary society evolution calls into question how we understand and design our living environment, the vision that we have on it. Landscape as an element of synthesis between architecture and urbanism, requires theoretical and practical approaches to address the new trends in design. Charles Waldheim, professor in the Department of Landscape Architecture at Harvard University identifies two types in this aspect (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, 2011). On one hand, a synoptic system (mainly represented by GIS applications and ortho-photo-plans) and on the other hand, one scenographic, sensitive, subjective (sustained by rendered images, collages and montages - photos, video). This paper investigates the sensitive direction in landscape study, it takes into consideration the influence of motion pictures upon the landscape, is considering video as a tool in landscape design. The thesis is based on several current research lines that include: the continuous search for finding tools that can improve the design and education process and the relationship with the new technology trends; the environment capacity to store and transmit information and messages and the diversity of channels used; the subjectivity of perception and observation in reading the landscape (natural, architectural, urban, cultural, common). This research focus on the possibility to enrich the process of interpreting the landscape for a better understanding of the mechanisms by which we relate to it, an alternative method of reading and [re]presenting the landscape that sustain the existing approaches.
  8. 8. 8 The thesis proposes video as a tool for landscape study. The research develops in two stages of analysis that will be reflected in two lines of practical implementation. On one hand, it aims to study the relationship between cinema and urbanism - how landscape is represented in films: its role, meaning, metaphors or symbols, filming and editing techniques. From this line will emerge a database, a library of video landscapes, structured with the purpose of defining and presenting the context and significance that different landscapes have in films, both in terms of significance or image composition and editing techniques. On the other hand, it aims at a comparative research between landscape analysis and film analysis in order to highlight common concepts that refer to landscape context or composition. Its result will be a grid of technical suggestions that may be considered in making a landscape video. Film as a tool for analysis and [re]presentation in landscape studies is supported by the two directions described above. The landscape analysis through film is achieved by the video survey (the direct recording of the landscape using a video camera) and by the landscape video library (documentation regarding technical representation and landscape significance). Landscape [re]presentation is done Fig. A.001 - Landscape approach from an interdisciplinary perspective // [source: author] Fig. A.002 - Phases in the dissertation structure // [source: author]
  9. 9. 9VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION through a video landscape. The term [re]presentation is preferred for marking the duality of the instrument as a means of representation (in terms of cultural approach) and the technical presentation in front of an audience (video montage of classic representations of landscape, text, sound and moving images). The study wants to be completed in two directions: the way the landscape is seen through the camera and later, how it is represented through editing. The research does not focuses on film as a tool for spatial design or as steps in landscape intervention structure, only on film as a tool of analysing and representation. The films, as cinematographic productions, chose as examples belong to different categories (genres). The research is concerned more on stressing the diversity of roles that a landscape can play in a film and less on finding certain trends or characteristics of an era or of a specific culture. This diversity supports the concept of landscape complexity and interdisciplinary. In addition to films, the database (landscape video library) can gather music videos, commercials, short films and other montages that have the main subject a landscape or the landscape representation technique increases the diversity of ways in which a landscape can be embodied. RESEARCH QUESTION - objectives - hypotheses The study is based on an initial research question: • How film can be used in landscape design process? and the main purpose is to identify the relationships between moving images (as a mean of expression) and landscape by investigating the way it is represented in and through film (as a language). The thesis aims to a research line that is not enough explored - the relationship between film and landscape in professional design process. It aims to identify ways in which the film facilitates landscape analysis and significance transfer. From here emerges the main objective of the research: to identify how film can be used as a tool for landscape analysis and representation.
  10. 10. 10 The hypotheses that support the research and the objectives are: • society evolution requires the adaptation to new requirements for the living environment planning and design instruments; • the new technologies have implications for how we interact between us and the landscape; • film can be used as a tool for landscape studies - the only one able to capture its dynamics and movement; • film, as a language, is capable to enrich the expressivity of landscape design projects; • film is a universal language, more and more used by different users; • a Technology Era demands dynamic and accessible tools to work with, online tools to support the knowledge exchange and sharing. STUDY METHODOLOGY This paper searches for tools able to strengthen the relationship between film and landscape as a new line of research regarding the design process. The methodology of this paper contains two parts. The first structures the context in which the research is developed emphasizing the importance of the study in today’s literature, both from theoretical and practical point of view (by analysing different case studies). It builds the theoretical framework: the relationship between film and landscape in terms of concepts (symbols, metaphors, significance), composition and technique through a comparative study of landscape and film analysis. The interaction between film and landscape is approached from two main directions that relate to techniques and significance. It uses a method that is based on the way the landscape is captured by a camera, presented in various film productions and the role of editing in sending a specific message. The conclusions of the theoretical framework are used for the practical approach of the thesis and are materialized in two levels of detail: a database, an online library - the synthesis tool
  11. 11. 11VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION Fig. A.003 - Thesis logical diagram// [source: author]
  12. 12. 12 for landscape elements in film - and a video landscape as an example of how landscape can be analysed and represented through film. The conclusions of the second part will be used in pointing to possible directions for future research. The analysis of urban space and landscape often overlook relevant elements or the quantity of information is so great that synthesizing it is almost impossible, in both cases is neglected, most of the time, the sensitive nature of the landscape. Andrei Pleşu (2009) emphasize that the classical landscape analysis still relies heavily on fragments rather than the whole, on levels, is selective, abstracted, isolated or searches differences and can often pass the overall view, it’s fluidity, complexity, subjectivity that is, in fact, the landscape: stopping cannot be a good way to understand the fundamental movement of nature, its coherence, lacking in fragments (Pleşu 2009, 46). It is desirable therefore, to analyse the way how film captures different landscape features otherwise omitted and if by this way of reading and interpreting, we can improve the landscape design process. The main goal of this research is to complete the toolkit for landscape studies by using video recording technologies (the increasing importance of video language in today’s communication process). The study emphasizes the importance of landscape dynamic analysis and the need for specific tools that can support and capture its movement. This thesis supports and complements similar researches that forms a new direction in landscape approach and design. Film is proposed as a tool for this new method that opens original perspectives. Both the database and the grid of technical suggestions in making a video landscape, are designed to encourage the use of this tool and explore other ways of communicating and interpreting landscapes. PURPOSE OF THE THESIS
  13. 13. 13VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION II. STUDY ACTUALITY - previous researches Chapter II highlights the context in which this research takes place, the relationship between the studied fields, the interdisciplinary of the concepts used in reference to theoretical and practical directions: • The relationship between architecture and cinema - concepts transfer; • Film as a critic and witness of landscape evolution; • Architecture as a tool in film; • Film as a pedagogical tool. The relationship between film and landscape is investigated in order to underline the relations between environment, senses and representation. The film is studied not only as a mean, but as a language1 , and further more, as an instrument of representation. Landscape representation in architectural drawings has not the power to grasp its complexity due to three attributes that landscape incorporates: landscape spatiality (places, like things, conjure up a wealth of images and ideas), landscape temporality, and landscape materiality (landscape experience belongs to the sensorium of the tactile, the poetry of material and touch) (Corner, 1992, 147-149). The existing theoretical background leans mainly on the relationship between architecture and cinema (Cairns, Eisenstein, Godard, Higham, Koolhaas, Nouvel, Pallasmaa, Tschumi), landscape perspective is less analysed (Bruno, Girot, Hopkins). Thus, we can identify an insufficiently discussed segment that is intended to be approached and explored in more detail. Film as an instrument is based on the transfer of processes, concepts and meaning, develops a critical thinking on how to watch a movie, has a documentary role and explores other relationships in terms of landscape analysis and representation. 1 Film is more than a mean of expression, is a language based on image, a reproduction of reality affecting the subjective and acquires significance (Martin, 1981, 30-35).
  14. 14. 14 Film as a tool supports a new space design method, recently debated, particularly in academia, with an experimental character, more in architecture and with timid attempts in urbanism and landscape. It is another tool with other principles that has the ability to enrich the perspectives and attitudes towards space design: ... it is very difficult to accept that it (the sounding approach of urban phenomenon, a.n.) also can be a synthetic one, that it can start vice versa, that the decoding and caring systematization of urban aspects are not the only way in which it can be contained. [...] filmic approach is essentially synthetic ... it does not decompose, but recompose ... the whole can be regarded otherwise than as a sum of its individual components. (Popescu, 2007, 205). Girot concluded that precisely this ability to find, integrate and synthesize such complexity (of a landscape, a.n.) in thinking and design is what we lack today. (Girot, 2006, 91) Landscape is essentially a cinematic space by the way it is organised in time, through the dynamics of space and movement in space. A landscape in a film can be a source of inspiration, a critic on a specific issue, can act documentary or metaphorically (using symbols for transmitting messages) or instrument of analysis and investigation (video surveying, editing), of design or presentation and representation (the transformation of cinematographic techniques and effects into stylistic principles or spatial organization). This paper focus on film as a tool for analysis and [re]presentation of the landscape, the line for cinematographic concepts transfer into the logic of landscape design is only mentioned and is open for future research. III. LANDSCAPE REPRESENTING IN FILM - the relationship between film and landscape Chapter III details landscape’s form of expression in cinema evolution by developing some specific elements of history of landscape representation in film in terms of design, composition and technique. The analysis of how landscape is captured in film (as a representative for moving images in
  15. 15. 15VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION general) was performed in order to create a critical attitude (from landscape architecture’s point of view) on how to watch a movie and how to develop the capacity to filter and select the presented information. The close relationship between urbanism / landscape architecture and film / stage design is reflected by the experience of discovering the space (urban / natural or cinematographic), visually and culturally. Landscape in film may reflect both an objective structure of reality or a metaphorical one, different views and attitudes embodied in a given space and time. Such an analysis is needed for a better connection to context and cultural elements in landscape design and planning. Summarizing the theoretical framework, landscape role in film can be defined as: • decor - supports the film ambience, the landscape is in the background, it is not thought as a show itself, but supports the narrative and character development. The landscape may be setting itself or can have a documentary role. • character - a dramatic role, a symbolic landscape, dynamic, with continuous changes, developing and completing with the narrative or the characters. • sub-textual - metaphorical or allegorical, landscape is more than a decor or a character in the movie, it appeals to cultural and conceptual values to increase the visual and dramatic expressiveness, rises multiple interpretations that go beyond the screen and grasps the subjective reality of the spectator. In a cinematic sequence, a landscape can fulfil multiple roles, the style of a film can be defined as the ratio between the dramatic scenery and ambience (Bazin, 1949, 216). Capturing the landscape dynamics, relating to its evolution over time or to the perception in motion, requires a simplified composition1 , but with a greater expressivity than static images (by calling the sense of proportion, balance and logic of editing). The study of stage-lighting, framing and the structure of compositional lines of the landscape in film completes the symbolic and metaphorical structure in reading it (landscape roles) with elements related to the organization in space. This study highlights the role of movement in landscape discovering. It show the relationship between composition and landscape: • Framing and changing plans determine the reading of the landscape between whole and detail, macro-landscape relates with micro-landscape. The close-up plan exceeds its role of visual detail, the textures representation creates an haptic image. 1 A complicated framework requires a rudimentary composition. (Bouleau, 1979, 49).
  16. 16. 16 •Capturing the landscape into a cinematographic image presents stylistic effects (of composition, colour and light) that can be translated into landscape design elements. Working with accents, rhythm, proportions of textures, lights and shadows, colour can map the basis for any concept in a landscape project. • Filming techniques (travelling and panning) approach the audience to actual reading of the landscape, in movement. These techniques capture the idea of paths in space (used many times in both urban and landscape design), used for a sequentially discovery of it. Editing principles of a landscape film serve to emphasize the rhythm of perception and reading, its symbolic and cultural value accentuated by similarities or contrasts of sound, image and meaning, the spatial relationships between landscape and man (user) or its evolution, development, and transformation. • Editing logic approaches to the structure of photomontage and collage as a technique of representing the landscape, overlapping characteristic and defining features for its identity, emphasizing or veiling parts for the message to have persuasive power. A montage is closer to the storyboard method (which otherwise is borrowed from cinema), the sequential presentation of paths or landscape dynamics (both in analysis and proposals). Unlike these techniques, the montage captures two important elements of the landscape: the movement and sound. In this chapter it was analysed the way how landscape is represented in film, the role it plays and its plastic expression. The analyse reveals two major landscape presentation lines (directions which are complementary and overlapping): • The documentary role of the landscape - real or imaginary landscapes presented as cultural expression of a certain period in time and space, objective or metaphorical structure, full of visions, symbols and associations. • Landscape as a moving picture - the study of film images focuses on compositional effects of elements that can be translated into the functional and aesthetical structure of a landscape project. Space and paths design require the study of changes in a the dynamic landscape composition, as one of the possible ways. Editing principles can be used to structure the presentation of the landscape project, either as video sequence or as the logic of the presentation. Through montage, landscape can be captured in its complexity, putting, in a short sequence of time, its defining characteristics, whether the context, details and textures, compositional structure - the dominant colour accents, rhythm, overlaid plans - or cultural symbols. Editing methods and techniques give coherence and meaning to the sequence and are designed to develop other ways of presenting
  17. 17. 17VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION a landscape, otherwise difficult or even indecipherable. The montage is used in this way to synthesize. IV. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS - deciphering the landscape through film analysis Chapter IV proposes to develop an analysis of a landscape in a film sequence taking into account the elements used for landscape deciphering in urban analysis through image study and the structure of elements used in film analysis. The methodological approach used in deciphering the landscape through film analysis is embodied in three steps: • Landscape analysis, in terms of urban studies, with emphasis on subjective reading of the landscape and image study; • Film analysis with emphasis on specific concepts used within and their interdisciplinary character; • Decomposing a film sequences using the already analysed criteria, deciphering how the landscape was represented and then synthesised its elements in a grid of suggestions in making a video landscape. Thus, it is proposed to find new relations between these two fields (landscape architecture and cinema), relationships that encourage film concepts to enrich the perspectives on landscape. The analysis reveal a number of common elements used in landscape or movie decoding referring to context and language elements. Subchapter Decomposition a film sequence proposes to exemplify a landscape deciphering method through film, analysing 7 clips (three short films made at different levels of Fig. A.004 - Proposed approach to deciphering the landscape through film analysis// [source: author]
  18. 18. 18 professionalism, and four movie clips, different in terms of the ratio between technique and significance). It investigates several levels (concept, editing logic and transition types, image composition, shooting technique and frame length) and how each clip addresses these issues. The analyses are carried out in terms of how the landscape appears in film, both in terms of significance (the relationship between the general concept with the landscape, the role of landscape in clip - as decor, as character, sub-textual role) and technique (how to edit - as an expression of the concept - filming technique and landscape composition). Although the sequences occupy a fairly wide range, there are some recurring elements and lines of solutions: 1. Context: The relationship between the concept and the narrative structure (of the landscape) materialized by the editing logic (the way the shots are added and paste reflects the overall concept and it subordinates to narrative, the meaning, the message). This is reflected by: Fig. A.005 - Summary table of the common elements of landscape or movie decoding in specialized analysis // [source: author] urbanism cinematography Context Structure territory evolution narrative Organisation spatial organisation, land use editing, Mise-en- scène Image landscape ambiance Decor Language elements Accents, dominants Node, landmark axes intersection, symbol Compositional axes, force lines paths, limit in territory compositional armature Panoramas and successive plans visual depth of fields camera movement, panning shot, framing Textures and colours Relation between build and natural - the degree of intervention into landscape Tonal proportion - light and colour Perspective point Types of perspective Angles of filming landscape analysis film analysis [urbanism] [cinematography]
  19. 19. 19VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION a. Plans with inserted text - can be part of the generic and have an important role in completing the visual information with written information, presents the clip concept or conclusion. It is an objective way of transmitting information, leave fewer interpretations, presents the author’s vision. b. Montage rhythm - fast, symmetrical, slow, upward to one or more points of intensity, generally organized on a classical narrative structure in three or five points. Either as a whole or a clip sequence we find a part of orientation (introduction in context or general issue), a complication (with one or more points of tension) and a resolution (conclusion). It is determined by the frame length and type of transitions. 2. Composition: how landscape is depict in motion: a. The shooting technique determines the frame length and the type of information transmitted: how landscape is captured emphasizes its rollers in the clip, the author’s attitude and message that he wants to communicate. b. The image composition reflects and supports the concept by different techniques: compositional axis, repetitive frames as leitmotivs, close-up and long shots alternation, movement in frame, colours, light and contrast, audio composition). It can be a symbolic or metaphorical image. c. The transitions types used influences the message: image cuts, sound cuts, motion cuts, compositional or ideas cuts. V. DATABASE - working and synthesis instrument for landscape elements in film Chapter V proposes to organize an online platform to include a landscape video library with a documentary role; its structure takes into account three directions studied in Chapter III - landscape in film concept, image composition and representation technique.
  20. 20. 20 The Database is proposed as a working and synthesis tool for landscapes features represented in films. This is the result of interaction between cinema and urbanism and aims to facilitate the search of different landscape issues (conceptual - how the urban development was addressed in films, the relationship between landscape dynamic and sociocultural or political trends, landscape and urban design troubleshooting, or technical - how to capture a landscape through the camera lens and editing logic). The database will be an online library of video landscapes (Landscape video library - http:// www.lvl.pata.ro/). Each sequence or landscape film will be represented by an identification sheet which will include written data, images and / or videos. These data are divided into two classes of information, one that refers to the entire film / video (text data - title, year, credits, presented landscape and real location, keywords, comments - images or hyperlinks) and the second will highlight one or more significant sequences from a particular point of view in terms of landscape representation technique (text data - comments, keywords, location, reviews, sequence localization, simple or as tables - and videos). VI. VIDEO LANDSCAPE - tool for analysis and [re]presentation Chapter VI proposes synthesizing the analyses elements from the first part of the paper in a grid of technical suggestions in making a video landscape, exemplify this concept by creating an montage, and drawing future lines of research. The grid of technical suggestions in making a video landscape is a rough guide and is directed by two general categories according to the type of landscape to be analysed or represented: tense / dynamic / diverse landscape and calm / unitary / balanced landscape.
  21. 21. 21VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION Time Sequence Location Presented Landscape [year] Actual Location [year] Image Composition) Camera Movement Montage Comments Keywords – Tags External Links - Googlemaps Sequence: Composition and shooting techniques General Information: Subject - Content – Meaning Keywords – Tags Textbox Comments Title Year Credits Presented Landscape [year] Actual Location [year] External Links - IMDB, youtube, vimeo Film / Video General Information accelerate montage, close-up shots Saint-Gervais d’Auvergne -> Nice Sequence that presents one of the first accelerate montages. The usage of different types of shots (concerning the length, angles and field sizes) embodies the scene with great expressivity. [Rhythmic Montage] [Symbolically Montage] [Spatial Connections] [Decoupage technique] [Analytic Assembly] [Sound Montage] [Contrast Montage] [Travelling] [Panoramic] [Zoom] [Dolly Zoom] [Camera Angles] [Structural Lines] [Light] [Colour] [Sound] [Rhythm] France [1923] trainscape; mountain landscape [1923] [1:39:14 – 1:44:34] The movie is presenting the landscape from Saint-Gervais d’Auvergne to Nice viewed from the train, the dynamic perception of the landscape. The mountain landscape of Mont Blanc is also playing an important role in the visual image of the movie. The landscape is more than a visual background, is emphasizing the narrative and the characters. dynamic perception of landscape, train, accelerate montage; black and white La roue Nice; Saint-Gervais d’Auvergne; Mont Blanc mountains; Chamonix [1923] France: mountains landscape [1923] Abel Gance (director) 1923 La roue [The Wheel] Fig. A.006 - Database (landscape video library)- example of a film documentary sheet// [source: author]
  22. 22. 22 Technical suggestions in making a VIDEO LANDSCAPE Tense / dynamic / diverse landscape Calm / unitary / balanced landscape. Concept Determines the organization of video image and is defined by the relationship between - motion - sound - and significance. Landscape role In particular, documentary and sub-textual roles - completes the objective context with subjective valence to find and communicate specific values of the landscape (description of landscape ambience). The use of symbols and metaphors to underline the concept and transmit meaning. Composition Organizing the image in order to transmit a message. A complicated framework imposes a simplified composition. Using different proportions in terms of light, colour or predominant character lines. Compositional means Contrast, asymmetry, fragmentation, stiffness, dynamic composition. Image composition rate is subject to editing, and images may be blurred. Unity, symmetry, balance, static composition. Clear plans, studied composition in terms of structural, light and colour. The use of filters and effects, metaphorical and symbolic images. Lines The skyline - 1/3 of the image - opening; 2/3 of the image - oppression. Compositions with vertical or diagonal strong dominants. Straight lines, upward. Compositions dominant horizontal. Curves, continue, downward. Light and colour Shadow and light. Colour - concept theme. The dramatic role of light (time of day the filming). Accents, cold tone proportion, varied. Balance, proportion warm tone, uniform. Framing effects Ellipse - induced image or sounds outside the frame. Synecdoche - adding detail, intercalation with a close-up. Symbol - suggest an idea through an image. Depth of field - to highlight the movement in frame or the action carried out on several levels. Plans Exchange between long shots and close-ups, plans of shorter lengths, especially close-ups. Deep space - elements in foreground (depth of filed). Using multiple plans simultaneously. Using a small number of shots, with great length, mainly long shots, stacked in depth. Working with a single montage plan. Angle of framing Divers angle of framing, dynamic exchange: horizontal, at different levels of framing, plonge, contra plonge. The angles of framing are mostly horizontally or plonge.
  23. 23. 23VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION Shooting techniques Travelling, handheld camera, accelerated movement, sudden, zooms, rapid exchange of shots and filming techniques. Movement in frame. Shooting with a fixed camera, panoramas, slow movements. Uses 1 or 2 filming techniques. Slow motion frame (or still frames). Editing Support landscape concept through editing logic, marking important points through counterpoint or contrast. Narrative structure Development on multiple lines with multiple points of intensity; asymmetric organization, interlaced generic. Linear development, single point of intensity that marks the most important element; classic, symmetric organization. Montage Expressive montage: analytic, contrast (sound, ideologic). Narrative Montage: alternate, parallel. Expressive montage: analytic, symbolic, similarity. Narrative Montage: alternate or successive. Rhythm Normal speed, fast and ultra fast, with breaks, uneven. Slow or normal speed, uniform, linear, descriptive. given by: the movement in space, plans length, composition complexity, movement in frame. Transitions Cut, pan. Fondue (fade), fondu-enchaîné, shutter and iris. Transitions The similarity of processes, psychological or ideas connections. Motion, sound contrast or counterpoint. Composition, image, sound counterpoint connections. Sound Juxtaposition in counterpoint or contrast with the image, sound or image ellipses. Mostly diegetic. Diegetic, extradiegetic. Shoot length Framing: frame detail: between 1frame/ 1s (often repetitive) and 1frame / 3-6s; Overall frames: between 8-11s; Shooting technique: the movie from fixed: between 2-4s; coated frames moving (travelling or panning) with speed and image rate between 5-7s / 10-20s; The point is that the narrative structure: 3-5 frames / s and 1frame / 2-3s- for high intensity points; between 4-10s - for breaks; Plans with text inserts: between 2-7s to 14s depending on quantity and complexity. The proposed clip, as a possible way of making a video landscape, emphasizes landscapes multidimensional perception, haptic, through details. These are the ones that compose the image, whether textures (mineral or vegetable), elements of urban furniture or different users (how space is used). The video shows in parallel, a full picture of the landscape and its Fig. A.007. - Table of technical suggestions in making a video landscape // [source: author]
  24. 24. 24 breakdown into three sections, details at different height. It was selected University Square in Bucharest to discuss, in an urban square, the relationship between pedestrian and cars. In achieving this, it was taken into account the grid of technical suggestions detailed above and the conclusions of comparative analyses presented in Chapter IV, detailing levels referring to concept, narrative structure and editing technique, rhythm and shooting technique, image composition and length frames. A video landscape does not necessarily provide a true picture of the analysed site (because of the composed framework and the multiple and simultaneously perspectives from different angles), but rather a subjective vision, already passed through a personal filter and express the movement in space, the roles of textures and how sound influences the perception (ratio between details and overview). The montage captures the elements filmed by the camera that emphasize different landscape attributes: a public space structured and strongly influenced by traffic, the adjacent noise, a space that lives, however, both as transit line and as a meeting point. In a context where video is more and more an universal medium of expression, information and communication, a research on how the landscape can be investigated and represented through film is considered to be appropriate. The proposed tools for this study (the video landscape and the database) are integrated in the sensitive reading process of the landscape in some steps (these are not exhaustive and may be supplemented) which refers to the analysis and [re]presentation. Video survey - it refers to the direct recording of the landscape through video camera. It materializes, in particular, the third line of the landscape survey (Stan, 2012, 75-76), the survey of landscape dynamics. It reflects the real-time dynamics of the landscape (the dynamic landscape and movement in landscape) through montage, that can expand to other temporal scales. Documentation on how to represent landscapes in film, through the landscapes video
  25. 25. 25VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION Landscape perception through details (2014) [source: images from the clip: https://vimeo.com/107322790 Fig. A.008. - Extract from the decomposition scheme for the presented video landscape // [source: author]
  26. 26. 26 library. The documentation is proposed to be achieved in two directions: • at conceptual level - the landscape role, its significance, and cultural value; • at compositional, technical, and expressive level, (plastic) - image composition, filming techniques and editing logic; Video landscape - the description of a narrative landscape (Stan, 2012, 77) through film. Editing is performed according to the concept that is intended to be presented by using the database and the grid of technical suggestions. Fig. A.009 - Steps used in the sensible landscape reading, through film as a tool for analysis and representation: [1] - using the database for documentation on a landscape design object (similar topics, types and landscape issues, approaches, concepts, locations (cities ), historical periods, movements, etc.); [2] - landscape analysis in situ; [3] - making a surveying video (image study) using various elements of composition and camera techniques (variety of shooting angles, framing, light, time of day, camera movements that provide the material for the next phase of editing) ; [4] documenting the logic of a montage through the database and finding the most suitable techniques to highlight the analysed landscape concept; [5] making a video (film editing) as a conceptual representation of the landscape; [6] - complete the database with the realised video landscape. // [source: author]
  27. 27. 27VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION Therefore, the use of the video landscape as a tool for analysing and [re]presentation in the sensible reading of the landscape involves the investigation of space through the video camera and the research of how a space can be represented through and in a film. The relationship between film and landscape is complex and may be embodied in several directions. The present study aimed to approach the film as a tool of analysis and representation of the landscape (for professionals), by researching how it is presented in various film productions in terms of significance, composition, filming techniques and the organization of the montage. If we consider the film as a tool in landscape design, besides the analysed directions: • the documentary role of a film - in landscape analysis - as witness of the landscape evolution, as a moving picture (compositional elements and stylistic affects translated to be applied in landscape design); • film as a language of landscape presentation and representation - as a video survey or montage (video landscape). it detaches other two possible future research lines: 1. The film - communication language for the landscaping project - for a wider range of people (not just for specialists but also for public administration, media, users - beneficiaries). The film study and its decoding and transmitting role of a message for nonprofessionals - film as the landscape project representation in dialogue with the public. This direction requires a separate approach especially since the legislative framework requires the existence of a participatory dialogue, a public consultation on the project. The specialized language of urban and landscape planning can often be not enough to be able to convey the proposed vision, a representation through a language, today common, highlights the opportunities for the study in this direction. The establishing tools of representation influence not only the entire decision making process and the media, but also subsequently the entire design and building process. The discrepancy between drawings and plans as tool of commercial and political seduction and the same documents used as a basis for the production and construction of environments has demonstrated concrete the limitation about the way we think of a city and its landscape today. (Girot 2006, 92)
  28. 28. 28 2. Using film in spatial design concept of the landscape, not just as a tool for analysis and representation - translating the cinematographic concepts into spatial and organisational concepts, approaches in landscape intervention, narrative principles translated into ways of discovering the space - the scenographic perception of the designed space. This direction involves completing the series of interdisciplinary concepts (sequence / sequentially, script, storyboard) and others such as cuts, filming techniques, working with plans and their depth or editing logic. Like landscape design, film creates landscapes, it is not just reproducing them (as other areas dealing with the study of landscape do), but it also producing them (Corner, 1992). Cinema conceptualizes spaces, creates artificial spaces starting from fragments of real space (Martin, 1981, 233). Therefore, studying the relationship between film and landscape regarding the design process is seen as desirable, even essential of the field under study.
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  35. 35. 35VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION 1927 Alan Crosland The Jazz Singer Fritz Lang Metropolis Walter Ruttman Berlin: Die Sinfonie der Grosstadt M. C. Cooper E. B. Schoedsack Chang: A Drama of the Wilderness 1928 Victor Sjöström The Wind 1929 Luis Buñuel Salvador Dalí Un Chien Andalou Dziga Vertov Chelovek S Kinopparatom Adalberto Kemény São Paulo, Sinfonia da Metrópole Joris Ivens Regen De Brug 1930 Aleksandr Dovzhenko Zemlya 1931 M. C. Cooper E. B. Schoedsack King Kong 1933 Gustav Machaty Extaz 1935 Edgar Anstey Arthur Elton Housing Problems Aleksandr Dovzhenko Aerograd 1936 Charlie Chaplin Modern Times Jean Renoir Une partie de campagne 1937 Giacomo Gentilomo Sinfonia di Roma John Taylor The Smoke Menace 1939 Ralph Steiner Willard Van Dyke The City John Ford Stagecoach 1940 Alfred Hitchcock Rebecca 1941 Orson Welles Citizen Kane 1942 John Eldridge New Towns for Old 1944 Henri Storck Boerensymfonie / Symphonie paysanne 1945 Roberto Rossellini Roma, città aperta 1946 John Ford My Darling Clementine Jill Craigie The Way We Live Roberto Rossellini Paisà Vittorio de Sica Sciuscià (Ragazzi) 1948 Alfred Hitchcock Rope H.C. Potter Mr. Blandings Builds His Dream House Vittorio de Sica Ladri di biciclette Roberto Rossellini Germania, anno zero John Huston Treasure of the Sierra Madre 1950 Billy Wilder Sunset Boulevard Akira Kurosawa Rashomon Anthony Mann Winchester ’73 1952 Giuseppe De Santis Roma, ore undici Akira Kurosawa Ikiru 1953 Arne Sucksdorff Det stora äventyret 1954 Alfred Hitchcock Rear Window
  36. 36. 36 1955 Pather Panchali Satyajit Ivo Michiels Roland Verhavert Seagulls Die in the Harbour 1957 Michelangelo Antononi Il Grido 1958 Jacques Tati Mon Oncle Alfred Hitchcock Vertigo 1959 North by Northwest 1960 John Ford Sergeant Rutledge Michelangelo Antonioni L’Aventura 1962 Stan Brakhage Dog Star Man David Lean Lawrence al Arabiei 1963 Alfred Hitchcock The Birds 1964 Michelangero Antonioni Il deserto rosso 1965 David Lean Doctor Zhivago 1966 Ingmar Berhman Persona Michelangelo Antonioni Blowup 1967 Dennis Hopper Easy Rider Jacques Tati Playtime 1968 Stanley Kubrick 2001: A Space Odyssey 1970 Alejandro Jodorowsky El Topo Michelangelo Antonioni Zabriskie Point 1971 Nicolas Roeg Walkabout 1974 Roman Polanski Chinatown 1975 Andrei Tarkovski Stalker Peter Weir Picnic at Hanging Rock Theo Anghelopoulos O Thiassos 1976 Carol Corfanta Serenadă pentru etajul XII 1978 Woody Allen Manhattan Francis Ford Copola Apocalypse now 1981 Christian Schocher Reisender Krieger 1982 Godfrey Reggio Koyaanisqatsi Ridley Scott Blade Runner Werner Herzog Fitzcarraldo 1984 Eric Rochant Comme les doigts de la main 1985 Terry Gilliam Brazil 1987 Win Wenders Der Himmel über Berlin 1995 James Benning Deseret 1992 Ron Fricke Baraka 1999 Andy Wachowski Lana Wachowski The Matrix 2001 Lucian Pintilie După-amiaza unui torționar 2002 Joel Schumacher Phone Booth The Chemical Brothers Michel Gondry Star Guitar Fernando Mierelles Cidade de Deus Martin Scorseset Gangs of New York Yimou Zhang Ying xiong
  37. 37. 37VIDEO LANDSCAPE - FILM AS A TOOL FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS AND [RE]PRESENTATION 2003 Ki-duk Kim Bom yeoreum gaeul gyeoul geurigo bom 2006 Jim Brown Gary Burns Radiant City Tarsem Singh The Fall 2009 James Cameron Avatar 2010 Christopher Nolan Inception 2011 Terrence Malick Tree of Life Marina Marque Phe Pulse of a Neighbourhood Gustavo Taretto Medianeras Win Wenders Pina 2012 Steven Briand Shunpo 2013 Gore Verbinski The Lone Ranger Erick Flores Garnelo City sounds

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