Canada. Geographical Position. Population.political system. history. parts 1,2,3
Canada. Part I Geographical Map, Population Of all English-speaking countries Canada is the largest. In size it ranks second in the worldafter Russia. Canada stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in thewest, and from the United States border almost to the North Pole. It comprises the northern halfof North America and the adjacent islands, excepting Alaska, which belongs to the USA. Halifaxin the East Coast is further from Vancouver on the West Coast than it is from London. These vast distances make Canada a land of great contrasts. There are large differencesin its natural features, climate and vegetation, languages and customs of its people. If you travelalong Canada, you will see huge mountain ranges with snow-capped peaks, dense forests,valleys, waterfalls and glaciers, mighty rivers and cool forest streams, picturesque islands andvast lakes, wide prairies covered with wheat or dotted with cattle. In the centre of the country there is a great plain called the Canadian Shield. The plainextends from the Rocky Mountains to the Appalachian Mountains but narrows along the ArcticCoastal Plain. Canada shares the Great Lakes with the USA. The Niagara Falls on the Niagara River,between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario are one of the most splendid sights in the world. Besidesthere are also Great Bear Lake, Great Slave Lake, Lake Winnipeg and many smaller ones.Canada’s many rivers include the St. Lawrence, the Mackenzie, the Saskatchewan, theColumbia and the Yukon. They have a great hydroelectric energy potential. With them Canadais rich in fish. It is exceptionally rich in forest, minerals and fur-bearing animals. Canada has a range of weather conditions. It has an Arctic climate in the north, and atemperate one in the south. Canada’s population is rapidly growing. Now it amounts to 26 million. Over a half of it is ofBritish origin, a third – of French. The rest are descendants from different nationalitiesimmigrated to Canada. The two official languages of Canada are English and French. Of theformer inhabitants of the land only 150,000 Indians and about 10,000 Eskimos have survived.As white men gradually took over the country the Indians were confined to reservations, wherethey could only practice agriculture, trapping or act as guides and camp assistants for thetourists in the lake-covered shield region. Canada. Part I. Exercises.1. Translate into Russian: To stretch, dense, dotted, rapidly, origin, shield, to survive, gradually, former,to take over.2. Find in the text the English for: оно достигает, путешествовать по Канаде, из всех англоязычныхстран, большие различия, живописные острова, исключая Аляску, огромные расстояния,население быстро растет, постепенно захватить страну, больше половины, горные цепи сзаснеженными вершинами.3. Choose the proper words and word combinations for the following definitions.1. To extend; to spread a. Prairie2. A person in later generation b. Trapping3. To specialize in; to work at c. To practice4. A wide area of level land with grass but no trees d. To confine5. Scattered here and there e. To take smth. over6. Boundary; frontier f. To survive7. To keep body and soul together; to remain alive g. Descendant8. To be composed of; to contain; to include; to consists of h. To amount9. Very close; lying near but not necessarily touching i. Dotted10. Quickly; swiftly j. Dense11. Catching animals for food and fur k. To stretch12. To keep or hold; to restrict within limits l. Border13. To be equal to; to add up to m. Rapidly14. To assume; to gain control of something n. Adjacent15. Thick; not easily seen through o. To comprise4. Answer the following questions: 1. Where is Canada situated? 2. What are the coasts of Canadawashed by? 3. What countries does Canada border on? 4. Why is Canada called a land of greatcontrasts? 5. Who was the first to appear on Canadian land? 6. From what countries did people come toCanada? 7. What is the fate of the Canadian Indians? 8. Is it similar to the fate of American Indians?
Canada. Part II. Political System Canada is often called “the Land of the Maple Leaf”. The maple leaf is the nationalemblem of Canada. The national flag adopted in 1965, consists of a white field, flanked by a redvertical field on either end with a red maple leaf on the white field. Canada is a federative state consisting of ten provinces and two territories. It is amember of the Commonwealth of Nations. Though an independent nation, Canada has closeinstitutional links with Britain. Formal executive power rests in the hands of the GovernorGeneral, who represents the sovereign of Great Britain. It is a constitutional monarchy. Legislative power is represented by Parliament which consists of a Senate numbering102 members who are appointed for life by Governor General, and a House of Commonsnumbering 265 members who are elected by the people for 5 years. The leader of the party thatwins the largest number of seats in a newly elected House of Commons becomes PrimeMinister. He is asked to form the government and to choose the cabinet. The main political parties are Le Party Quebecois, the Liberal Party and the NewDemocratic Party. Canada (Part II) Exercises 1. Translate into Russian: To extend, executive power, to represent, sovereign, to appoint, elected, legislative power, the representative of the crown, to number, for life 2. Find the English for: Исполнительная власть, находиться в руках, генерал-правитель(губернатор), монарх, законодательная власть, пожизненно 3. Complete the Word Chains. Head of state - … … …- Prime Minister … ... Legislative body - … … 4. Answer the questions: Who is the formal and the real head of the state? What is the supremelegislative body in Canada? How many Houses does the Canadian Federal Parliament consist of? WhichHouse of the Federal Parliament is elected by the people? 5. Fill in the missing parts of the sentences: Canada is divided into … The Governor General … Legislative Power… Canada. Part III. History Long before the arrival of Europeans on North American shores in the late 1400s, the ancestorsof our present native peoples (Indians and Eskimos) had established themselves for centuries in everycorner of the country. It happened in the middle of the last Ice Age, 27,000 years ago. The Vikings sailed across the Atlantic to Newfoundland around 1,000 AD. They did not settlepermanently. Some were probably killed by the Native peoples, others returned home. After C. Columbus’s first voyage the news of his discoveries reached many European countries.An English sea captain John Cabot sighted Nova Scotia and discovered the Island of Newfoundland in1497. The English claim to Canada was founded on his and his son’s voyages. Then many temporarysettlements of Spanish, Portuguese, English and French fishermen began to appear on the coasts ofNewfoundland. In 1534 a French expedition under Jacques Cartier entered the Gulf of St. Lawrence and in thefollowing year sailed up the river as far as the spot where the city of Montreal now stands. In 1603 Samuel de Champlain began the settlement which was named Quebec, and from thattime on he worked to develop Canada as a French colony. The 60,000 French settlers had become trulyNorth Americans with their own incipient nationalism. There was a century-long struggle between France and England for the riches of the new landand then, from 1763, after the Seven Years War, Canada fell into the hands of Britain. Not only once did the USA make an attempt to capture Canada. But in the end the US invasionfailed and the treaty made in Ghent in 1814 left previous position unaltered. Canada became independent on July 1, 1867 (a public holiday), when a federation was formedout of the four provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Ontario and Quebec into a Dominion. LaterBritish Columbia, Prince Edward Island, Saskatchewan, Alberta and Newfoundland entered the Dominionand Canada attained its present day form. Although Canada has a relatively prosperous economy and ranks high in the health and wellbeing of its people, its future is threatened by increasing dissension. Two problems, with deep historicalsignificance, have risen to the surface in the last 30 years. After years of domination by English Canada,many French Canadians began to consider breaking away from the federation to form their own nation. Asecond broad problem concerns native peoples who have questioned, increasingly, their administrativearrangements with the Federal and Provincial Governments. In summary, modern Canada has been andremains a highly diverse country.
Do the crossword puzzle:Across: Down: 1 81. The French explorer who founded Quebec; 1. The French navigator who lived in the XVI century2. A formal agreement, especially one between nations; and discovered the St. Lawrence River; 7 43. A place where people have come to live and build 7. A place, location; 2homes; 8. The entrance of 5 armed force into a country in order an 94. A long journey made by ship; 3 to conquer;5. The land along the edge of an ocean, lake or large 9. The capital6of Canada.river;6. The largest city of Canada on the St. Lawrence River; Exercises 1. Translate into Russian. Shore, spot, from that time on, permanently, struggle, claim, temporary, attempt, to capture, incipient, invasion, to fail, treaty, previous, unaltered, to attain, relatively, prosperous, to rank high, well being, to threaten dissension, significance, surface, to break away, to concern, in summary 2. Find in the text the English for: До того места, где сейчас стоит город Монреаль; оставить положение неизменным; столетняя битва за богатства новой земли; основать поселение; плыть вверх по реке; в следующем году; делать попытку захватить; заключить договор; достичь берегов Канады; зарождающийся национализм; возрастающий разлад; в итоге. 3. Fill in the missing parts of the sentences: 1. There was a century-long… 2. Although Canada … 3. Long before the arrival … CANADA. BIG CITIES. ECONOMY. EDUCATION. SPORTS. Part IV. Ottawa, in the south - east, is the capital city of Canada. It has a population of 800,000 but it is not the largest Canadian city. It became the capital on Queen Victorias orders, as a punishment to the city of Montreal where a rebellion against the Sovereignty frightened the ruler of Britain. Many notable public organizations, the national government and several educational and cultural organizations are situated in Ottawa. There are two universities in the city. The city is perched on a cluster of hills, crowned with magnificent pile of Parliament Buildings. The largest city of Canada is Toronto (population over two million), the capital of the province of Ontario and an ocean port. It is situated on the shore of Lake Ontario. It is a leading manufacturing, trade and financial centre. The city has excellent transportation connections, and so it is an ideal distribution point. The University of Toronto is the largest university in the British Empire. It is also an artistic and musical centre. Montreal is the biggest French - speaking city in the world after Paris. It is often called the "Paris of the Western Hemisphere." It is indeed a beautiful city with its parks, avenues and streets, the distinguishing feature being Mount Royal. Actually the mountain is a large park at the foot of which rich mansions and apartment houses are situated. Its subway system is so handsome that its been called the longest underground art-gallery in the world. The Montreal port is the largest inland seaport in the world. Most of the factories and plants have been built close to the port so as to ease transportation. The city is world-famous. It hosted Expo-67, the 1976 world Olympics. The other important cities are Winnipeg, Edmonton, Quebec, Vancouver and Hamilton. Canada is a great industrial nation, and manufacturing is the foremost sector of its economy. Canada is a supplier of oil, gas pulp and paper. The leading industries are foods and beverages, primary metals (iron and steel), transportation equipment, petroleum and coal products, textiles, clothing, machinery, non-metallic minerals and furniture. Most of the companies belong to the US capital; they are "daughter" companies of the big concerns. Canadian agriculture produces wheat, oats, sugar, beet, soya-beans, tobacco, potatoes and livestock products. As for educational system of Canada, it is very much like the school system of the United States, but at the same time one would find education traits of European influence. There is a marked difference of education in French-speaking Canada. Canada is said to be a sportsmans paradise. Canadians love water sports (water-skiing, canoeing, rafting and sailing). In Montreal people go jet boating on the rapids. In winter Canadians mostly play ice hockey but they also do skating, skiing, snowboarding, ice boarding, ice fishing, and bowling.
I. Translate into Russian: II. Find in the text the English for: To perch, cluster, magnificent, pile, Город возвышается на группе холмов;punishment, rebellion, sovereignty, to frighten, величественная громада зданий парламента; поdistinguishing, actually, mansion, apartment house, to приказу; в наказание; мятеж против верховнойease, distribution, supplier, pulp, beverages, foremost, власти; у подножия; разгрузить транспорт.oats, trait, rafting, rapids. III. Choose synonyms for each of these verbs: 1. To frighten 2. To To land, to comfort, to freeze one’s blood, to rest, to lighten, to perch 3.To ease shock, to terrify, to rest, to calm, to startle. IV. Answer the questions: 1. Where is the capital of Canada situated? 2. Why did Ottawa become thecapital? 3. What is the largest and the most important city of Canada? 4. What is its distinguishing feature?