• Чи нөгөө юугаа хэзээ яах гэж байна вэ?
• Give it to me, please.
• Mr Smith went home, because he was tired.
• Whose is that coat? - That’s my coat. It’s mine.
• There’s Mary with her boyfriend.
• I’ll take your car, and you take Andrew’s.
• Let’s meet at the Ritz. – Ok, see you there.
What is pronoun in English?
• An item that can substitute for a noun phrase (or
single noun); sometimes referred to as a
pronominal. Several types of pronouns are
distinguished in grammars. They include:
personal pronouns (I, you); possessive pronouns
(my, mine); demonstrative pronouns (this, that);
interrogative pronouns (who, which, as in Who
did you see?); reflexive pronouns (myself,
yourself); indefinite pronouns (anyone, nobody),
and relative pronouns (who, whom, as in the girl
who left). An Encyclopedic Dictionary of
Language and Languages, D.Crystal, 1992:315
CASE and PRONOUN
• Like nouns, most pronouns in English have
only two cases: COMMON (somebody) and
GENITIVE (somebody’s). But six pronouns have
an objective case, thus presenting a three-
case system, where common case is replaced
by SUBJECTIVE and OBJECTIVE.
• There is identity between genitive and
objective her, and partial overlap between
subjective who and objective who.
• The genitive of personal pronouns are, in
accordance with grammatical tradition and a
primary meaning, called ‘possessive
• Subjective: I, we,he, she, they, who
• Objective: me, us, him, her, them, who(m)
• Genitive: my, our, his, her, their, whose
Subj case Object
1st person single I me
plural We us
2nd person single
masculine he him
Feminine she her
• Personal pronouns function as replacements for
co-referential noun phrases in neighbouring
(usually preceding) clauses: John waited a while
but eventually he went home. John told Mary that
she should wait for him. When John arrived, he
went straight to the bank.
• When a subordinate clause precedes the main as
in this last example, the pronoun may anticipate
its determining co-referent: When he arrived,
John straight to the bank.
• The personal pronouns have two sets of case-forms.
The subjective forms are as subjects of finite verbs and
often as subject complement: He hoped the passenger
would be Mary and indeed it was she.
• The objective forms are used as objects, and as
prepositional complements. Especially informal usage,
they also occur as subject complements and as the
subject (chiefly 1st person) of sentences whose
predicates have been ellipted: I saw her with them at
least, I thought it was her. A: Who broke the vase? B:
Reflexive /өөрийн төлөөний үг pronouns
1st person single myself
2nd person single
• Reflexive pronouns replace a co-referential noun
phrase, normally within the same finite verb
clause: John has hurt himself. Mary intended to
remind herself. The rabbit tore itself free. Mary
told John that she would look after
• When a mixture of persons is involved, the
reflexive conforms to a 1st person or, if there is no
1st person, to a 2nd person: You, John and I
mustn’t deceive ourselves. You and John mustn’t
Possessive pronouns /хамаатуулах төл. үг
1st person single my mine
plural our ours
2nd person single
Feminine her hers
plural their theirs
• The possessive pronouns combine genitive
functions (as described for nouns with the –s
genitive) with pronominal functions. In the
later respect, the co-referential item they
replace may be in the same clause (as with
reflexives) or a neighbouring one (as with
personal pronouns): John has cut his finger;
apparently there was a broken glass on his
Хамаатуулах төлөөний үгийн онцлог
• Whose гэсэн асуултанд хариулагдана.
• Тусгай нэг төрөл болж ангилагдана. Монгол хэлний
хувьд биеийн төлөөний үгдээ ороод явдаг.
• Хам. Төл. үг тэмдэг үг болон нэр үгийн үүрэг гүйцэтгэнэ.
• Ямагт нэр үгийнхээ өмнө орно. My book, his address
• Хэрэв нэр үгийн өмнө тодотгол орвол тухайн тодотголын
өмнө орно. My red pencil, his elder brother,
• All, both гэдэг ялгамжийн дараа орно. All my pencils,
both his brothers;
• Нэр үгийн дараа хэрэглэгдэж байгаа учир үүний дараа
нэр үг ордоггүй. For example: This is not my pencil, mine is
blue. I have broken my pencil, please give me yours. This
book is mine.
• In 3rd person singular, the personal, reflexive
and possessive pronouns distinguish in gender
between masculine (he/him/himself/his),
feminine (she/her/herself/hers), and non-
• Relative and interrogative pronouns and
determiners distinguish between personal and
Relative pronouns/холбох төлөөний үг
• The functions and interrelations of the relative pronouns
are best handled in connection with relative clauses and
nominal relative clauses.
• (a) The wh- series reflects ther gender (personal/non-
personal) of the antecedent: personal: who, whom, whose;
non-personal: which, whose; The man whose daughter
• (b) that is a general purpose relative pronoun, used
irrespective of gender or case except that the genitive must
involve postposed of: the knife that I broke the blade of’
• (c) zero is used identically to that except that it is
unacceptable where the relative pronoun is subject in its
clause: The pen I want is missing, The pen writes best is
Холбох төлөөний үгийн онцлог
• Энэ төл. үг (who, whom, whose, what, which)
бол гишүүн өгүүлбэрүүдийг холбох гол
үүрэгтэй. Монгол хэлэнд яг дүйлгэхэд
• Асууж байгаа юм шиг боловч хэлбэржилт.
• I don’t know which of them speaks Japanese.
• That is not what I want.
• Who has done it is unknown.
• The man who is sitting next to Mr.Bat is my
• Who бол хүнд хамаатай. The man who was
here is an actor. There is the man whom we
saw in the park yesterday.
• Which бол амьгүй юм эд юмс, амьтанд
хамаарч өгүүлбэрт шууд тусагдахуун болно.
The books which are on the table must be
returned to the library today.
• Which бол бүхэл өгүүлбэрийг төлөөлж
болно. I said nothing, which made him still
• Whose бол хүнийг төлөөлж нэр үгийн өмнө
орно. That is the girl whose brother come to see
us the other day. Do you know man whose house
we saw yesterday?
• That бол амьтай, амьгүй юмыг төлөөлж,
өгүүлбэрт тодотгол гишүүн өгүүлбэрт орно.
The article that (which) I translated yesterday
was very easy. These are the words that (which)
• Өгүүлэгдэхүүний үүргээр who-г that-аар солих
нь ховор. The man who (that) has written this
article is my friend.
Where, why, as?
• Тодотгол гишүүн өгүүлбэрийг үндсэн өгүүлбэртэй
нь холбохын тулд where, when зэрэг төлөөний үг
хэрэглэнэ. I am going to spend my vacation in the
village where I was born. That happened on the day
when he left for London.
• Reason - Шалтгаан гэсэн үгийн дараа why
гэх төлөөний үг хэрэглэнэ. That is the reason why he
• Same or such гэсэн үгийн дараа as гэсэн төлөөний
үг хэрэглэнэ. I had the same difficulty as you had.
• The interrogative are identical in form and in
case relations with the relative pronouns, but
in addition to the basic difference between
interrogative and relative there are functional
differences in detail.
• (a) Interrogative determiners personal: whose;
personal or non-personal: which, what;
• (b) Interrogative pronouns: personal: who,
whom, whose; non-personal: what; personal
or non-personal: which;
• Who is that man?
• Who is that boy?
• Who did you meet there?
• Whom did you ask about it?
• To whom did you show the letter?
• By whom is the letter signed?
• Of whom are you speaking?
• From whom did you receive the letter?
• Whose - Тэмдэг нэрийн хувиар хэрэглэгдэж, ямагт
нэр үгийн өмнө тохиолдоно. Whose book is that?
Whose book did you take?
• What - бол нэр болон төлөөний үгийн үүргээр
өгүүлбэрт өгүүлэгдэхүүний үүргээр орно. What has
happened? What have you brought? What is
population of the UB?
• Өгүүлэхүүний үүргээр орвол тоо, хүйсээр зохицоно.
What is the price for wheat? What are the prices for
wheat and barley? What are the results of the
• Мөн ажил мэргэжил асуухад хэрэглэж болно: What
is he? What is your brother? Нэр асуух бол who бна.
• The demonstrative have number contrast and
can function both as determiners and
pronouns. The general meanings of the two
sets can be stated as ‘near’ and ‘distant’
reference: near: sing: this, plu. These; distant:
• As subject, pronouns may have personal or
non-personal reference: this/that girl is Mary,
This/that pen is mine.
Заах төлөөний үгийн онцлог
• Ганц ба олон тоонд өөр өөр байна. This and
• Нэр үгийн өмнө тухайлц болно. Bat lives in
that house. Bat lives in that white house.
• Монгол хэлтэй адил хол ойр байж ярьж
байгаагаас шалтгаалан хэрэглэнэ. This and
these oir, that and those hol.
• Цаг хугацаа заахад this нь одоо болж буйг,
that нь өнгөрсөнийг заана. I am busy at this
time. We had a lot of rain that summer.
Reciprocal [ri’siprekl] pronouns
• Хамжих төлөөний үг гэж орчуулж байна.
• Each other, one other, (нэг нэгнээ, бие биеэ) гэсэн үгс
байна. Монгол хэлэнд тусгайлан авч үздэггүй.
• Each other гэвэл 2 хүн, эсвэл 2 ширхэг эд юмсад,
one other гэвэл олон тоотой хүн, амьтан, эд юмст
• John and Mary like each other/one another.
• The four children are fond of one another.
• He put all the books beside one another.
• Харьяалах тийн ялгалд хэрэглэгдэж болно. The
students borrowed each other’s notes.
Indefinite or universal pronouns
• The universal pronouns and determiners
comprise each, all, every, and the every
compounds. Two have –s genitives: everyone’s,
everybody’s. Despite their singular form, the
compounds have collective reference, and along
with every they entail reference to a number of
three or more.
• There were two boys who called and I gave an
apple to each/*everybody. There were seven
boys who called and I gave an apple to
Эс тухайлах төлөөний үг
• Some –ийг батлах өгүүлбэрт. He asked me some
• Any – ийг үгүйсгэх өгүүлбэрт. Have you any
interesting books? He asked whether I had any
books on this subject.
• Some аас someone, somebody, something, any
ээс anybody, anything, anyone үүснэ.
• Somebody (someone) is knocking at the door.
Give me something to read. There isn’t anybody
(anyone) there. There isn’t anything in the box.
• “Орчин цагийн монгол хэлний үг зүй”,
Ц.Өнөрбаян, Уб., 2004, 302-13 дах тал
• “Mongolian Grammar”, D.Tserenpil, Ub., 1996,
• “A University Grammar of English”, Randolph
Sidney, 1973, 100-111 pp.
• “Англи Монгол зэрэгцүүлсэн хэлзүй”, Д.Гүн-
Үйлс, Уб., 2007, 66-103 дах тал
• “Англи хэлний зүй”, Ж.Оюунцэцэг, Уб., 1998,
312-34 дэх тал
• “Practical English Usage”, Michael Swan,
Oxford, 1980. 541 pp.
• “An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Language and
Languages”, David Crystal, OUP, 1980, 315pp.