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Rapid prototyping is the automatic construction of physical objects using solid freeformfabrication. The first techniques ...
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Rapid prototyping


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Rapid prototyping

  1. 1. Rapid PrototypingAlso known as solid freeform fabrication, rapid prototyping is a technology that takes a virtualdesign (3D CAD models) and transforms the object into cross sections (layers). The RP softwarethen creates each cross section laying down successive layers of liquid or other type of powderedmaterial that will fuse together and solidify to create the final shape which represents an almostidentical model.
  2. 2. Rapid prototyping is the automatic construction of physical objects using solid freeformfabrication. The first techniques for rapid prototyping became available in the late 1980s andwere used to produce models and prototype parts. Today, they are used for a much wider rangeof applications and are even used to manufacture production quality parts in relatively smallnumbers. Some sculptors use the technology to produce complex shapes for fine arts exhibitions.Rapid prototyping takes virtual designs from computer aided design (CAD) or animationmodeling software, transforms them into thin horizontal cross sections, still virtual, and thencreates each cross section in physical space, one after the next until the model is finished. It is aWYSIWYG process where the virtual model and the physical model correspond almostidentically.With additive fabrication, the machine reads in data from a CAD drawing and lays downsuccessive layers of liquid, powder, or sheet material, and in this way builds up the model from aseries of cross sections. These layers, which correspond to the virtual cross section from theCAD model, are joined together or fused automatically to create the final shape. The primaryadvantage to additive fabrication is its ability to create almost any shape or geometric feature.The standard data interface between CAD software and the machines is the STL file format. AnSTL file approximates the shape of a part or assembly using triangular facets. Tiny facetsproduce a higher quality surface.The word "rapid" is relative: construction of a model with contemporary methods can take fromseveral hours to several days, depending on the method used and the size and complexity of themodel. Additive systems for rapid prototyping can typically produce models in a few hours,although it can vary widely depending on the type of machine being used and the size andnumber of models being produced simultaneously.Some solid freeform fabrication techniques use two materials in the course of constructing parts.The first material is the part material and the second is the support material (to supportoverhanging features during construction). The support material is later removed by heat ordissolved away with a solvent or water.Traditional injection molding can be less expensive for manufacturing plastic products in highquantities, but additive fabrication can be faster and less expensive when producing relativelysmall quantities of parts.A large number of competing technologies are available in the marketplace. As all are additivetechnologies, their main differences are found in the way layers are built to create parts. Someare melting or softening material to produce the layers (SLS, FDM) where others are layingliquid materials thermosets that are cured with different technologies (SLA, MJM, PolyJet). Inthe case of lamination systems, thin layers are cut to shape and joined together.