Attachments 2012 03_2


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Attachments 2012 03_2

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TOENGINEERING ECONOMYWHAT IS ECONOMICS ? The study of how limitedresources is used to satisfy unlimited human needs.
  2. 2. WHAT IS ECONOMICS ? The study of how individuals and societies choose to use scarce resources that nature and previous generations have provided.
  3. 3. LANDAll gifts of nature, such as: water,air, minerals, sunshine, plant andtree growth, as well as the landitself which is applied to theproduction process.
  4. 4. LABORThe efforts, skills, and knowledgeof people which are applied to theproduction process.
  5. 5. CAPITAL• Real Capital (Physical Capital ) – Tools, buildings, machinery -- things which have been produced which are used in further production• Financial Capital – Assets and money which are used in the production process• Human Capital – Education and training applied to labor in the production process
  6. 6. Origins of Engineering EconomyThe perspective that ultimate economyis a concern to the engineer and theavailability of sound techniques toaddress this concern differentiate thisaspect of modern engineering practicefrom that of the past.
  7. 7. Origins of Engineering Economy• Pioneer: Arthur M. Wellington, civil engineer latter part of nineteenth century; addressed role of economic analysis in engineering projects; area of interest: railroad building• Followed by other contributions which emphasized techniques depending on financial and actuarial mathematics.
  8. 8. PRINCIPLES OF ENGINEERING ECONOMY1. Develop the Alternatives;2. Focus on the Differences;3. Use a Consistent Viewpoint;4. Use a Common Unit of Measure;5. Consider All Relevant Criteria;6. Make Uncertainty Explicit;7. Revisit Your Decisions
  9. 9. DEVELOP THE ALTERNATIVESThe final choice (decision) isamong alternatives. Thealternatives need to be identifiedand then defined for subsequentanalysis.
  10. 10. FOCUS ON THE DIFFERENCESOnly the differences in expected futureoutcomes among the alternatives arerelevant to their comparison andshould be considered in the decision.
  11. 11. USE A CONSISTENT VIEWPOINTThe prospective outcomes of thealternatives, economic and other,should be consistently developed froma defined viewpoint (perspective).
  12. 12. USE A COMMON UNIT OF MEASUREUsing a common unit of measurementto enumerate as many of theprospective outcomes as possible willmake easier the analysis andcomparison of alternatives.
  13. 13. CONSIDER ALL RELEVANT CRITERIASelection of a preferred alternative(decision making) requires the use of acriterion (or several criteria). Thedecision process should consider theoutcomes enumerated in the monetaryunit and those expressed in some otherunit of measurement or made explicit ina descriptive manner.
  14. 14. MAKE UNCERTAINTY EXPLICITUncertainty is inherent in projecting(or estimating) the future outcomes ofthe alternatives and should berecognized in their analysis andcomparison.
  15. 15. REVISIT YOUR DECISIONSImproved decision making results from anadaptive process; to the extent practicable,the initial projected outcomes of theselected alternative should besubsequently compared with actual resultsachieved.
  16. 16. ENGINEERING ECONOMY AND THE DESIGN PROCESSAn engineering economy study isaccomplished using a structuredprocedure and mathematical modelingtechniques. The economic results arethen used in a decision situation thatinvolves two or more alternatives andnormally includes other engineeringknowledge and input.
  17. 17. ENGINEERING ECONOMIC ANALYSIS PROCEDURE1. Problem recognition, formulation, and evaluation.2. Development of the feasible alternatives.3. Development of the cash flows for each alternative.4. Selection of a criterion ( or criteria).5. Analysis and comparison of the alternatives.6. Selection of the preferred alternative.7. Performance monitoring and post-evaluation results.
  18. 18. ACCOUNTING AND ENGINEERING ECONOMY STUDIESModern cost accounting may satisfy any or all of the following objectives:1. To determine the cost of products or services2. To provide a rational basis for pricing goods or services3. To provide a means for controlling expenditures4. To provide information on which operating decisions may be based and the results evaluated