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Abroma augusta (Ulatkambal)

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Abroma augusta (Ulatkambal)

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It is estimated that more than 80,000 of total plant species have been identified and used as medicinal plants around the world. Among these plants 600-900 species are considered by various experts to be medicinal plants in Bangladesh.
Among these Abroma augusta is an important medicinal plant belonging to the family stercluaceace, having a lot of pharmacological properties and are extensively used to treat various health ailments.

It is estimated that more than 80,000 of total plant species have been identified and used as medicinal plants around the world. Among these plants 600-900 species are considered by various experts to be medicinal plants in Bangladesh.
Among these Abroma augusta is an important medicinal plant belonging to the family stercluaceace, having a lot of pharmacological properties and are extensively used to treat various health ailments.

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Abroma augusta (Ulatkambal)

  1. 1. Presented by Mohammad Iqbal Hussain Department of pharmacy Jagannath university,Dhaka Bangladesh
  2. 2. Content  Objectives of the study  Introduction  Taxonomical classification  Vernacular names  Botanical description  Ayurvedic application  Ethnopharmacology  Phytoconstituents  Pharmacological application  Toxicity  Conclusion
  3. 3. Objectives of the study  Collect information on taxonomical classification, vernacular names, botanical description, ayurvedic application of Abroma augusta.  Collect and deliver valuable information on ethnopharmacology, phytoconstiuents, pharmacological acitivities and toxicity of Abroma augusta.
  4. 4. Introduction  It is estimated that more than 80,000 of total plant species have been identified and used as medicinal plants around the world. Among these plants 600-900 species are considered by various experts to be medicinal plants in Bangladesh.  Among these Abroma augusta is an important medicinal plant belonging to the family stercluaceace, having a lot of pharmacological properties and are extensively used to treat various health ailments.
  5. 5. Taxonomical classification  Kingdom: Plantae  Division: Tracheophyta  Class: Magnoliopsida  Order: Malvales  Family: Sterculaceace  Genus: Abroma  Species: Abroma augusta
  6. 6. Vernacular names Language Name Bengali Ulatkambal English Devil’s cotton Hindi Ulatkambal Chinese Shuo ma Malaysia Rami sengat Philippines Anabo Thailand Thian dam French Abrome, abrome royal
  7. 7. Botanical description Abroma augusta is a large shrubs and small tree. Height: 3 to 5 meter Whole plant
  8. 8. Botanical description Leaves: Polymorphous about 10-30 cm. long and 6-18 cm. broad, repand- denticulate, upper smaller, narrower, entire. Leaves
  9. 9. Botanical description Flower Flower: 5 cm. in diameter, purple, dark red, or yellow in color.
  10. 10. Botanical description Fruits Fruits: capsule, papery, 5- winged and angled, contains numerous seeds
  11. 11. Botanical description Geographical distribuition:  It is widely distributed (native or cultivated) throughout the warm area of India such as Uttar Pradesh, Sikkim, Khasi Hills, Assam and in Bangladesh throughout the hilly regions of Sylhet.  It is also found in Java, Philippines, China, Australia and Africa (Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo)
  12. 12. Botanical description Cultivation:  Grows in open areas. Requires deep, fertile alluvial soil, good drainage.  Propagation done from seeds or stem- cutting; root suckers.  Seeds germination power is poor, fresh seeds soaked in water for 15 min at 280c.The optimum temperature for germination is 320c.  Sowings are done before the rainy season. The field should be ploughed properly alone with farm manure to a fine tilth.
  13. 13. Ayurvedic application  Abroma augusta Linn. f has a long history of medicinal use in ayurvedic system.  It is highly possesses in gynecological disorders.  It regulates the menstrual flow and also used as abortifacient and anti-fertility agent .
  14. 14. Ethnopharmacology  Chakma community use seeds for neck pain.  Jhenaigatiupazila in Sherpur district uses root and bark for the treatment of uterine disorders, diabetes, rheumatics pains of joints and headache with sinusitis  Pahan tribal healer in Dinajpur district use bark of root and root to treat diabetes and urinary disorders.  In Jamalpur Sadar Upazila it is used to induce regular menstruation, abscess, sexual disease in men, low sperm count.
  15. 15. Ethnopharmacology  The folk medicinal herbalists of Bhola district uses bark to treat rise of blood pressure during night.  Garo tribal healers of Netrakona district use leaf juice to treat diabetes and root juice for sexual disorder.  The Santal tribe in Rajshahi district uses leaf and root to treat pain.  In India, it is used in dysmenorrhea but in Indonesia it is used as anti-scabies, anti- dermatitis, anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents.
  16. 16. Phytoconstituents Plant parts Chemical constituents Leaves Taraxerol, lupeol and octacosanol. Root Abromine,betaine, friedelin ,choline, β –sitosterol and stigmasterol. Root bark α –Amyrin, masilinic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid. Stem bark β -sitosterol and friedelin. Seed Palmitic acid, linoleic acid and stearic acid. Heart wood β-sitosterol, glycol and octacosane-1, 28-diol.
  17. 17. Chemical structure Abromine Friedlin Choline β-sitosterol Stigmasterol Masilinic acid
  18. 18. Chemical structure Protocatechuic acidTaraxerol Lupeol Caffeic acid
  19. 19. Pharmacological properties Antidiabetic activity:  Methanolic extracts of the leaves Dose of 300 mg/kg body weight Alloxan (110 mg/kg) induced diabetic rats Antidiabetic activity.  Ethanolic extract of the roots Alloxan (100 mg/kg) induced diabetic rats Exhibit the hypoglycemic effect .  Aqueous extracts of the Abroma augusta Dose of (100,200 mg/kg respectively) STZ (65 mg/kg) and STZ nicotinamide (110 mg/kg) induced diabetic rats Antidiabetic activity.  Aqueous extract of the leaves Dose of 2ml/kg body weight twice daily for a period of 21 days Alloxan (80mg/ml) induced diabetic rabbit Antidiabetic activity.
  20. 20. Pharmacological properties Antioxidant activity:  Methanolic extracts of the leaves of Abroma augusta has potential antioxidant activity with the IC50 value of 51.9786mg /ml. Wound healing activity:  Alcoholic extract of Abroma augusta Dexamethasone suppressed wound healing in wistar rats Increase the breaking strength, dexamethasone suppressed wound healing and inhibit oxidative damage.
  21. 21. Pharmacological properties Anti-inflammatory activity:  Methanolic root extract Dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg Significantly reduced the carrageenan induced rat paw edema.  Petroleum extracts of the roots Dose of 200 mg/kg Carrageenan induced rat inflammation Reduced inflammation.  Due to inhibition of COX and LOX enzymes by the alkaloids and flavonoids present in extracts.
  22. 22. Pharmacological properties Hypolipidemic activity:  Methanolic extract of leaves Dose of 400 mg/kg Adult male Wistar albino rats with high cholesterol diet Reduction in TC, TG and LDL-c levels and a rise in HDL-c levels. Antipyretic and analgesic activity:  Methanolic extract of leaves, barks and roots Rats with pyrexia (pyrexia was induced in rats by intravenous injection of 15% suspension of Brewer’s yeast) Antipyretic and analgesic activity.
  23. 23. Pharmacological properties Antifungal activity:  n-hexane extract of the seeds Tested against Trichophyton schoenleinii, Pseudallescheria boydii, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton simii , Candida albicans, Aspergilus niger , Fusarium solani var. lycopersici, Macrophomina phaseolina Effective against Trichophyton schoenleinii and Microsporum canis.  Acetone extracts of leaves Tested on Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigates, Rizopus oryzae Effictive antifungal activity.
  24. 24. Pharmacological properties Antibacterial activity:  Seed oil of Abroma augusta Tested on Corynebacterium diphtheria, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus morganni, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella boydii and Staphylococcus aureus Significant antibacterial activity.  Acetone extract of leaves Tested against three gram- positive (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium and Staphylococcus aureus)and four gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei and Salmonella typhi) bacteria Significant antibacterial activity.
  25. 25. Pharmacological properties Thrombolytic activity:  Methanolic extracts of leaves Treatment of clots with 100 µl of extracts 50.1% clot lysis. Insecticidal activity:  Chloroform and methanol extracts of the leaves, root wood, stem bark, stem wood and seeds Tested against Tribolium castaneum(Red flour beetle) showed insecticidal activity.
  26. 26. Pharmacological properties Gynecological disturbance:  Ethanolic extraction of leaves and stems used in menstrual disorders, leucorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhorea and sterility.  Powdered roots act as an abortifacient and anti- fertiliy agent.  Petroleum-ether extract of the roots, at a dose of 50mg/kg body wt, showed anti-implantation as well as abortifacient action in mice.  Aqueous extract of the roots showed oxytocic action.
  27. 27. Pharmacological properties Cytotoxic activity:  In cytotoxicity assay with brine shrimp nauplii, the LC50 value of the acetone extract of leaves of the plant was 7.06µg/ml.  Ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of Abroma augusta show considerable cytotoxic effect with LC50 value of 380.875 µg/ml and 307.458 µg/ml respectively.
  28. 28. Toxicity studies Phyto toxicity:  Seed oil extracted by the n- hexane from seeds Tested against the Lemna aequinoctialis Welv. Oil posses remarkable phytotoxic activity and inhibit the growth of plant by 82.35% at a concentration of 500 µg/ ml. Animal toxicity:  Methanolic extracts of Abroma augusta leaves, barks and roots did not show any sign of toxicity up to 2000 mg/kg body weight in male or female rats and hence it was considered to be safe.
  29. 29. Conclusion: Abroma augusta Linn f. preparation are widely available in open areas of nature and employed by the practitioners of natural health for treatment of infection, pain, wound healing, diabetes, dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhoea, sterility, gonorrhea, sinusitis and used as a uterine tonic. Though Abroma augusta has medicinal activity but it is time to explore its medicinal value at molecular level with the help of various techniques.

Editor's Notes

  • (STZ=Streptozocin ) Betaine is responsible for antihyperglycemic activity. It has been reported that dietary fiber present in aqueous leaf extract of Abroma augusta may be effective in reducing post-prandial glucose absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, which in turn can reduce blood glucose levels.
  • TC= Total cholesterol TG= Triglycerides Bark has showed the higher effect than leaf and root comparing with the different standard analgesics.
  • The leaves of Abroma augusta plant contains taraxerol and its acetate, β-sitosterol, lupeol, an aliphatic alcohol (C32H66O), octacosanol, and probably a mixture of long chain fatty acid which are very effective against a fungi.
  • The leaves of Abroma augusta plant contains taraxerol and its acetate, β-sitosterol, lupeol, an aliphatic alcohol (C32H66O), octacosanol, and probably a mixture of long chain fatty acid which are very effective against a few bacteria
  • The potentiality of the chloroform extracts could be arranged in a descending order of seeds> root wood > leaf> stem bark and for the methanol extracts, seed>root wood > stem bark > leaf. Addition of 100-µl Streptokinase, a positive control to the clots along with 90 minutes of incubation at 37°C, showed 86.2% clot lysis. Clots when treated with 100-µl sterile distilled water (negative control) showed only negligible clot lysis (5.2%).


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