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Global Advisor Sustainable Fishing Report

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Global Advisor Sustainable Fishing Report

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Global Advisor Sustainable Fishing Report

  1. 1. Global Attitudes about Sustainable Fishing and Policies to Curb Overfishing Public September 2019 | Version 1 | Public | © 2016 Ipsos. All rights reserved. Contains Ipsos' Confidential and Proprietary information and may not be disclosed or reproduced without the prior written consent of Ipsos. 1 Ipsos Survey for the World Economic Forum Conducted on Global Advisor (September 2019 Wave) © Ipsos 2019 Global attitudes about sustainable fishing and policies to curb overfishing Sustainable Fishing
  2. 2. 2Global Attitudes about Sustainable Fishing and Policies to Curb Overfishing Public September 2019 | Version 1 | Public | Q1. How often do you buy any kind of fish (whether fresh, frozen, canned, raw, or cooked)? 3% 2% 18% 3% 7% 7% 5% 5% 6% 5% 7% 11% 8% 8% 26% 6% 7% 7% 5% 6% 7% 8% 30% 23% 12% 19% 31% 25% 11% 14% 21% 21% 21% 20% 21% 26% 26% 31% 26% 24% 36% 24% 38% 30% 34% 34% 37% 34% 34% 32% 38% 27% 36% 47% 41% 39% 46% 31% 29% 28% 15% 31% 31% 31% 34% 36% 31% 37% 38% 23% 40% 26% 18% 34% 33% 31% 37% 36% 37% 34% 24% 26% 26% 27% 19% 19% 30% 46% 31% 14% 28% 26% 33% 25% 27% 19% 28% 24% 18% 23% 12% 13% 18% 20% 19% 19% 19% 20% 12% 13% 10% 11% 11% 9% 7% 20% 8% 18% 32% 17% 16% 9% 11% 5% 14% 4% 7% 12% 4% 15% 13% 8% 6% 6% 5% 5% 4% 9% 6% 5% 4% 1% 3% 3% 9% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Hungary Argentina India Canada United States Brazil Germany Turkey Australia Mexico Colombia Great Britain South Africa Netherlands Japan France Poland Belgium Chile South Korea Russia Sweden Saudi Arabia China Italy Peru Malaysia Spain Total Several times a week About once a week Once or twice a month Less often Never Global Average % at least once a month 71% 90% 89% 88% 85% 85% 81% 79% 76% 76% 75% 75% 74% 74% 74% 73% 73% 70% 69% 68% 68% 67% 65% 58% 58% 55% 54% 50% 46% Base: 19,527 online adults aged 16-74 across 28 countries Globally, seven in 10 adults (71%) say they buy fish at least once a month. Among 28 countries surveyed, those where consumers are most likely to buy fish at least once a month are: Spain (90%), Malaysia (89%), Peru (88%), Italy (85%), and China (85%); those where they are least likely to do so are: Hungary (46%), Argentina (50%), and India (54%). At least one in four consumers in Malaysia (31%), Saudi Arabia (30%), Japan (26%), and Spain (25%) buy fish several times a week. India is the country with the highest proportion of consumers who never buy fish (32%).
  3. 3. 3Global Attitudes about Sustainable Fishing and Policies to Curb Overfishing Public September 2019 | Version 1 | Public | Q2. How important are each of the following to you when it comes to choosing a specific type of fish: Sustainably caught or farmed (in a way that does not lead the fish population to decline over time) 3% 33% 30% 12% 27% 36% 26% 34% 24% 33% 22% 47% 33% 34% 19% 43% 29% 34% 55% 41% 47% 31% 50% 43% 43% 42% 28% 45% 33% 37% 40% 44% 62% 50% 42% 53% 45% 55% 47% 58% 34% 47% 46% 63% 39% 53% 48% 28% 44% 38% 54% 35% 42% 43% 45% 59% 44% 47% 49% 19% 20% 24% 16% 18% 17% 16% 17% 18% 19% 17% 17% 16% 16% 14% 15% 15% 16% 14% 13% 14% 12% 12% 12% 10% 10% 11% 17% 11% 9% 6% 2% 7% 5% 4% 5% 3% 3% 1% 3% 3% 4% 2% 4% 3% 3% 1% 2% 2% 1% 3% 3% 2% 3% 3% 0% 3% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Japan Russia Netherlands South Korea Hungary Saudi Arabia Belgium Argentina Spain Sweden Malaysia Chile United States Canada Poland Colombia France Germany Turkey India South Africa China Brazil Australia Mexico Great Britain Italy Peru Total Very important Somewhat important Not very important Not important all Global Average Base: Buy fish at least once a month, 14,057 online adults aged 16-74 across 28 countries % important 80% 89% 88% 87% 86% 85% 85% 85% 85% 84% 83% 82% 82% 82% 82% 81% 80% 80% 80% 80% 80% 79% 79% 78% 77% 75% 74% 73% 40% Globally, eight in 10 consumers who buy fish at least monthly say that choosing fish that is sustainably caught or farmed is very important (33%) or somewhat important (47%) to them. More than 70% say it is important to them in every single country surveyed with the notable exception of Japan (40%). In Turkey (55%) and Brazil (50%), about half say it is very important to them compared to just 3% in Japan and 12% South Korea.
  4. 4. 4Global Attitudes about Sustainable Fishing and Policies to Curb Overfishing Public September 2019 | Version 1 | Public | Q2. How important are each of the following to you when it comes to choosing a specific type of fish: Not on a list of species at risk of disappearing (i.e., have seen their population decline sharply) 5% 34% 32% 35% 21% 37% 20% 32% 34% 29% 38% 52% 28% 31% 43% 36% 40% 44% 58% 52% 39% 29% 48% 40% 59% 60% 57% 66% 39% 33% 37% 43% 42% 57% 41% 58% 47% 47% 52% 45% 31% 55% 52% 40% 47% 44% 40% 27% 33% 47% 57% 39% 47% 29% 29% 33% 25% 42% 53% 20% 19% 19% 22% 17% 19% 19% 15% 15% 15% 14% 15% 14% 11% 14% 14% 13% 9% 10% 11% 12% 11% 11% 10% 10% 10% 7% 15% 10% 10% 6% 4% 1% 5% 2% 2% 4% 4% 3% 3% 2% 3% 5% 3% 3% 3% 7% 5% 4% 2% 3% 2% 2% 2% 1% 2% 4% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Japan Russia Saudi Arabia United States Malaysia Netherlands South Korea India Hungary Belgium Canada Brazil Italy France Sweden Spain Australia Germany Turkey Argentina Great Britain Poland South Africa China Colombia Chile Peru Mexico Total Very important Somewhat important Not very important Not important all Global Average 81% 91% 90% 89% 88% 87% 87% 86% 85% 85% 85% 84% 84% 83% 83% 83% 83% 83% 82% 81% 81% 79% 78% 78% 77% 77% 75% 70% 38% % important Base: Buy fish at least once a month, 14,057 online adults aged 16-74 across 28 countries Across the 28 countries surveyed, eight in 10 (81%) consumers who buy fish at least monthly say that choosing fish that is not on a list of species at risk of disappearing is very important (39%) or somewhat important (42%) to them. Except for Japan (38%), at least seven in 10 fish buyers in every single country surveyed say it is very or somewhat important to them. In all six Latin American countries surveyed and in Turkey, more than half of fish buyers say it is very important.
  5. 5. 5Global Attitudes about Sustainable Fishing and Policies to Curb Overfishing Public September 2019 | Version 1 | Public | Q2. How important are each of the following to you when it comes to choosing a specific type of fish: Caught or farmed locally 8% 9% 11% 14% 15% 22% 32% 15% 15% 15% 16% 30% 25% 25% 21% 9% 17% 21% 36% 38% 39% 32% 36% 34% 36% 28% 25% 39% 23% 44% 46% 44% 49% 48% 44% 35% 52% 53% 55% 54% 40% 46% 49% 54% 66% 59% 56% 42% 40% 40% 47% 44% 46% 44% 53% 58% 47% 49% 41% 37% 36% 32% 30% 29% 21% 29% 25% 27% 27% 26% 21% 22% 24% 23% 23% 20% 17% 17% 17% 16% 19% 19% 16% 16% 15% 13% 23% 8% 9% 9% 5% 7% 6% 13% 4% 7% 4% 3% 4% 9% 5% 1% 2% 1% 3% 5% 5% 4% 4% 1% 1% 3% 4% 3% 2% 5% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Japan Netherlands Sweden Germany Hungary United States Russia Great Britain Belgium Poland Spain South Africa Argentina Canada China South Korea Malaysia France Colombia Saudi Arabia Brazil Mexico India Turkey Chile Australia Italy Peru Total Very important Somewhat important Not very important Not important all Global Average 72% 86% 82% 81% 81% 80% 80% 79% 79% 78% 78% 77% 76% 75% 75% 73% 70% 70% 70% 70% 68% 67% 67% 65% 63% 63% 55% 55% 52% % important Base: Buy fish at least once a month, 14,057 online adults aged 16-74 across 28 countries Globally, seven in 10 (71%) fish buyers say choosing fish that is caught or farmed locally is very important (23%) or somewhat important (49%). Local sourcing is deemed very or somewhat important by a majority of fish buyers in every single country surveyed, ranging from more than 80% in Peru (86%), Italy (82%), Australia (81%), and Chile (81%), to just over half in Japan (52%), the Netherlands (55%), and Sweden (55%).
  6. 6. 6Global Attitudes about Sustainable Fishing and Policies to Curb Overfishing Public September 2019 | Version 1 | Public | Q2. How important are each of the following to you when it comes to choosing a specific type of fish? (% important) Perceived Importance of Sustainable Fishing Base: Buy fish at least once a month, 14,057 online adults aged 16-74 across 28 countries Total Argentina Australia Belgium Brazil Canada Chile China Colombia France Germany GreatBritain Hungary India Italy Japan Malaysia Mexico Netherlands Peru Poland Russia SaudiArabia SouthAfrica SouthKorea Spain Sweden Turkey UnitedStates Not on a list of species at risk of disappearing (i.e., have seen their population decline sharply) 81% 85% 84% 81% 83% 82% 89% 87% 88% 83% 84% 85% 81% 79% 83% 38% 78% 91% 78% 90% 86% 70% 75% 87% 78% 84% 83% 85% 77% Sustainably caught or farmed (in a way that does not lead the fish population to decline over time) 80% 79% 85% 79% 85% 81% 80% 85% 82% 82% 82% 87% 77% 84% 88% 40% 80% 86% 74% 89% 82% 73% 78% 85% 75% 80% 80% 83% 80% Caught or farmed locally 72% 70% 81% 68% 79% 73% 81% 75% 78% 77% 63% 67% 63% 80% 82% 52% 76% 79% 55% 86% 70% 67% 78% 70% 75% 70% 55% 80% 65%
  7. 7. 7Global Attitudes about Sustainable Fishing and Policies to Curb Overfishing Public September 2019 | Version 1 | Public | Q3. In order to curb overfishing, to what extent would you support or oppose each of the following: Banning fishing of all endangered species altogether 16% 43% 35% 44% 45% 42% 56% 46% 43% 49% 55% 56% 45% 45% 50% 50% 49% 44% 61% 56% 43% 57% 69% 75% 71% 78% 79% 75% 53% 32% 23% 34% 26% 28% 31% 17% 27% 32% 26% 20% 21% 31% 31% 27% 27% 28% 34% 17% 24% 37% 25% 19% 13% 17% 12% 12% 15% 24% 38% 17% 19% 19% 15% 18% 14% 15% 15% 13% 14% 15% 15% 12% 14% 15% 15% 15% 14% 13% 13% 12% 5% 8% 6% 6% 5% 5% 14% 9% 8% 7% 4% 4% 5% 6% 5% 4% 8% 5% 4% 3% 7% 4% 3% 5% 4% 5% 4% 5% 3% 3% 3% 2% 3% 2% 3% 5% 3% 3% 3% 4% 4% 3% 3% 3% 2% 2% 4% 3% 2% 2% 3% 2% 2% 2% 3% 2% 1% 2% 2% 1% 3% 2% 1% 2% 2% 4% 5% 4% 3% 5% 2% 4% 4% 4% 2% 2% 2% 3% 2% 3% 3% 2% 1% 1% 1% 1% 3% 1% 1% 1% 1% 2% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Japan India United States Belgium Netherlands Hungary Brazil Australia Canada Saudi Arabia South Africa Sweden Great Britain Malaysia Germany France Italy Poland Turkey Spain South Korea China Russia Chile Argentina Peru Mexico Colombia Total Support strongly Support somewhat Neither support nor oppose Oppose somewhat Oppose strongly Not sure Global Average Base: 19,527 online adults aged 16-74 across 28 countries % support 77% 91% 90% 89% 88% 87% 87% 82% 81% 80% 79% 79% 78% 77% 77% 77% 77% 76% 76% 75% 75% 73% 73% 73% 72% 69% 68% 66% 47% Three out of four adults (77%) surveyed across 28 countries support a ban on fishing of all endangered species altogether: 53% support it strongly and 24% support it somewhat. Only 2% oppose it strongly and 5% oppose it somewhat. With the exception of Japan (47%), those supporting a ban either strongly or somewhat make up a large majority in every country surveyed. Strong support of a ban is expressed by more than two out of three adults in Mexico (79%), Peru (78%), Colombia (75%), Chile (75%), Argentina (71%), and Russia (69%), but only by 16% in Japan and 35% in the United States.
  8. 8. 8Global Attitudes about Sustainable Fishing and Policies to Curb Overfishing Public September 2019 | Version 1 | Public | Q3. In order to curb overfishing, to what extent would you support or oppose each of the following: Banning stores and restaurants from selling endangered species of fish 16% 41% 45% 41% 45% 45% 55% 40% 41% 48% 58% 48% 47% 43% 53% 59% 55% 40% 51% 50% 57% 52% 64% 70% 75% 77% 74% 80% 53% 32% 25% 25% 30% 26% 26% 17% 32% 32% 26% 17% 27% 30% 35% 25% 20% 24% 39% 28% 29% 23% 30% 21% 16% 11% 13% 15% 10% 24% 36% 18% 16% 19% 14% 16% 13% 17% 16% 16% 14% 15% 14% 15% 14% 11% 12% 12% 13% 14% 13% 11% 5% 7% 8% 5% 6% 5% 13% 9% 6% 7% 7% 7% 7% 6% 5% 6% 4% 5% 5% 3% 3% 4% 6% 4% 6% 4% 4% 3% 5% 3% 4% 3% 3% 2% 3% 5% 3% 5% 4% 1% 4% 2% 4% 4% 2% 1% 2% 2% 3% 3% 1% 3% 3% 2% 2% 1% 3% 2% 2% 3% 1% 2% 2% 2% 2% 5% 5% 3% 3% 4% 4% 5% 3% 3% 4% 4% 3% 4% 2% 3% 2% 3% 1% 3% 2% 1% 1% 4% 1% 2% 1% 1% 3% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Japan India Belgium Hungary Saudi Arabia Netherlands Brazil United States Malaysia Australia Turkey Germany Canada Poland France South Africa Sweden South Korea Great Britain Italy Spain China Russia Argentina Chile Peru Colombia Mexico Total Support strongly Support somewhat Neither support nor oppose Oppose somewhat Oppose strongly Not sure Global Average 77% 90% 89% 89% 86% 86% 85% 82% 79% 79% 79% 79% 79% 79% 78% 78% 76% 75% 75% 74% 73% 72% 72% 71% 71% 71% 70% 66% 48% % support Base: 19,527 online adults aged 16-74 across 28 countries Three out of four adults (77%) support banning stores and restaurants from selling endangered species of fish: 53% support it strongly and 24% support it somewhat. Only 2% oppose it strongly and 5% oppose it somewhat. With the exception of Japan (48%), those supporting a ban either strongly or somewhat make up a large majority in every country surveyed. Strong support of a ban is most widespread in Mexico (80%), Peru (77%), Chile (75%), Colombia (74%), and Argentina (70%), but less so in Japan (16%), South Korea (40%), the United States (40%), India (41%), Malaysia (41%) and Hungary (41%).
  9. 9. 9Global Attitudes about Sustainable Fishing and Policies to Curb Overfishing Public September 2019 | Version 1 | Public | Q3. In order to curb overfishing, to what extent would you support or oppose each of the following: Banning government subsidies to fisheries that contribute to overfishing, overcapacity and illegal fishing 21% 33% 39% 36% 42% 41% 46% 50% 44% 37% 37% 54% 32% 47% 43% 51% 46% 52% 54% 56% 48% 57% 47% 63% 62% 67% 69% 70% 48% 27% 32% 26% 29% 25% 28% 23% 19% 27% 34% 34% 19% 41% 26% 31% 24% 29% 24% 23% 23% 31% 23% 33% 18% 19% 15% 15% 17% 26% 37% 20% 20% 23% 18% 18% 18% 16% 21% 19% 18% 18% 17% 17% 17% 16% 15% 15% 13% 10% 12% 9% 12% 11% 9% 11% 10% 7% 16% 8% 10% 8% 7% 7% 6% 6% 6% 3% 5% 5% 3% 8% 5% 5% 6% 3% 3% 7% 5% 3% 4% 3% 5% 5% 4% 2% 3% 5% 3% 3% 3% 2% 3% 2% 3% 3% 2% 1% 3% 5% 1% 1% 2% 2% 2% 2% 1% 4% 2% 3% 3% 2% 4% 2% 2% 2% 2% 4% 3% 4% 2% 6% 6% 4% 7% 4% 4% 3% 2% 1% 5% 3% 2% 5% 4% 2% 2% 4% 5% 2% 1% 2% 1% 2% 1% 3% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Japan Malaysia Saudi Arabia Hungary India Netherlands Belgium Brazil Germany Poland United States Turkey South Korea Australia Italy Spain Canada France Sweden South Africa Great Britain Russia China Colombia Argentina Mexico Chile Peru Total Support strongly Support somewhat Neither support nor oppose Oppose somewhat Oppose strongly Not sure Global Average 73% 87% 84% 82% 81% 81% 79% 79% 79% 79% 77% 76% 75% 74% 74% 73% 73% 72% 72% 71% 71% 69% 69% 69% 66% 66% 65% 65% 48% % support Base: 19,527 online adults aged 16-74 across 28 countries Three out of four adults (73%) globally support banning government subsidies to fisheries that contribute to overfishing, overcapacity and illegal fishing: 48% support it strongly and 26% support it somewhat. Only 2% oppose it strongly and 5% oppose it somewhat. With the exception of Japan (48%), those supporting a ban either strongly or somewhat make up a large majority in every country surveyed. Strong support of a ban ranges from 70% in Peru, 69% in Chile, and 67% in Mexico to just 21% in Japan, 32% in South Korea, and 33% in Malaysia.
  10. 10. 10Global Attitudes about Sustainable Fishing and Policies to Curb Overfishing Public September 2019 | Version 1 | Public | Q3. In order to curb overfishing, to what extent would you support or oppose each of the following: Requiring stores and restaurants to inform consumers about the endangered status of the fish species they sell 8% 33% 32% 35% 38% 36% 41% 27% 39% 48% 39% 35% 37% 42% 49% 40% 42% 26% 50% 42% 48% 58% 60% 54% 61% 57% 64% 64% 43% 31% 27% 29% 27% 28% 31% 26% 40% 29% 20% 30% 34% 34% 29% 23% 32% 30% 47% 23% 32% 28% 21% 21% 26% 21% 26% 21% 22% 28% 45% 25% 25% 24% 19% 24% 19% 25% 19% 18% 17% 20% 21% 14% 20% 18% 19% 19% 17% 17% 15% 14% 13% 9% 12% 11% 9% 10% 18% 8% 7% 6% 5% 9% 6% 5% 4% 6% 6% 6% 6% 5% 4% 5% 5% 4% 5% 4% 4% 4% 2% 3% 3% 3% 2% 5% 3% 5% 2% 2% 4% 3% 3% 2% 4% 1% 3% 3% 3% 2% 3% 6% 2% 2% 2% 2% 4% 2% 2% 1% 2% 4% 2% 2% 1% 2% 3% 5% 5% 4% 6% 4% 2% 6% 4% 4% 5% 4% 2% 1% 5% 2% 2% 3% 1% 2% 4% 3% 3% 2% 3% 1% 2% 1% 1% 3% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Japan Netherlands United States Canada Belgium Hungary India Malaysia Australia Brazil Saudi Arabia Poland China Russia Spain Italy Germany South Korea Argentina Great Britain France Turkey Chile Sweden Colombia South Africa Mexico Peru Total Support strongly Support somewhat Neither support nor oppose Oppose somewhat Oppose strongly Not sure Global Average 71% 85% 85% 83% 82% 80% 80% 80% 77% 74% 73% 73% 72% 72% 72% 71% 71% 69% 69% 68% 67% 67% 67% 67% 66% 62% 61% 60% 39% % support Base: 19,527 online adults aged 16-74 across 28 countries Seven in 10 adults (71%) globally support requiring stores and restaurants to inform consumers about the endangered status of the fish species they sell: 43% support it strongly and 28% support it somewhat. Only 3% oppose it strongly and 5% oppose it somewhat. In every country except Japan (39%), a majority (ranging from 60% to 85%) support a ban either strongly or somewhat. Strong support of a ban ranges from 64% in Peru and Mexico to only 8% in Japan, 26% in South Korea, and 27% in Malaysia.
  11. 11. 11Global Attitudes about Sustainable Fishing and Policies to Curb Overfishing Public September 2019 | Version 1 | Public | Base: 19,527 online adults aged 16-74 across 28 countries Q3. In order to curb overfishing, to what extent would you support or oppose each of the following? (% support) Support for Policies to Curb Overfishing Total Argentina Australia Belgium Brazil Canada Chile China Colombia France Germany GreatBritain Hungary India Italy Japan Malaysia Mexico Netherlands Peru Poland Russia SaudiArabia SouthAfrica SouthKorea Spain Sweden Turkey UnitedStates Banning fishing of all endangered species altogether 77% 88% 73% 69% 73% 75% 87% 82% 91% 77% 77% 77% 73% 66% 77% 47% 77% 90% 72% 89% 79% 87% 75% 76% 81% 80% 76% 79% 68% Banning stores and restaurants from selling endangered species of fish 77% 86% 74% 70% 72% 76% 86% 82% 89% 78% 75% 79% 71% 66% 79% 48% 73% 90% 71% 89% 78% 85% 71% 79% 79% 79% 79% 75% 72% Banning government subsidies to fisheries that contribute to overfishing, overcapacity and illegal fishing 73% 81% 73% 69% 69% 75% 84% 79% 81% 76% 71% 79% 66% 66% 74% 48% 65% 82% 69% 87% 71% 79% 65% 79% 73% 74% 77% 72% 72% Requiring stores and restaurants to inform consumers about the endangered status of the fish species they sell 71% 73% 67% 66% 68% 62% 80% 71% 82% 77% 72% 74% 67% 67% 72% 39% 67% 85% 60% 85% 69% 71% 69% 83% 73% 72% 80% 80% 61%
  12. 12. www.ipsos.com Global Attitudes about Sustainable Fishing and Policies to Curb Overfishing Public September 2019 | Version 1 | Public | 12 • These are the results of a survey conducted by Ipsos on the Global Advisor platform. • Ipsos interviewed a total of 19,527 adults aged 18-74 in United States, Canada, Malaysia, South Africa, and Turkey, and 16-74 in 23 other countries on its Global Advisor online survey platform between August 23 and September 6, 2019. • The sample consists of approximately 1,000 individuals in each of Australia, Brazil, Canada, China (mainland), France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, Great Britain and the U.S., and 500 individuals in each of Argentina, Belgium, Chile, Colombia, Hungary, India, Malaysia, Mexico, the Netherlands, Peru Poland, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Sweden and Turkey. • The samples in Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Poland, Singapore, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, and the U.S. can be taken as representative of these countries’ general adult population under the age of 75. • The samples in Brazil, Chile, China (mainland), Colombia, India, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and Turkey are more urban, more educated, and/or more affluent than the general population. The survey results for these countries should be viewed as reflecting the views of the more “connected” segment of these population. • The data is weighted so that each country’s sample composition best reflects the demographic profile of the adult population according to the most recent census data. • Where results do not sum to 100 or the ‘difference’ appears to be +/-1 more/less than the actual, this may be due to rounding, multiple responses or the exclusion of don't knows or not stated responses. • The precision of Ipsos online polls are calculated using a credibility interval with a poll of 1,000 accurate to +/- 3.5 percentage points and of 500 accurate to +/- 4.8 percentage points. For more information on the Ipsos use of credibility intervals, please visit the Ipsos website.

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