Public Attitudes to Immigration: Findings from Ipsos Global @dvisor

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Although the pattern of migration is away from the developing to the developed world, people everywhere see immigration increasing. …and they don’t seem to like it.

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Public Attitudes to Immigration: Findings from Ipsos Global @dvisor

  1. Credit © European Union, 2012Public attitudes to immigrationFindings from Ipsos’s Global @dvisor
  2. People on the move…Mass movement of people across borders and continents is afact of modern, globalised, life.According to the UN, there are 214 million immigrants across theworld, with a third resident in Europe.The pattern of migration is away from Asia, Latin America and theCaribbean, and towards Oceania, North America and Europe.
  3. Total migrant numbers across the world’s continentsTotal international migrant stock (millions and as % of population), 2010 50.04m 14.2% 69.85m Northern America 9.5% 61.32m Europe 1.5% Asia 7.47m 1.3% 19.26m Latin America & 1.9% The Caribbean 6.02m Africa 16.8% Oceania Source: UN Migration Statistics International migrant stock: The mid-year (1 July) estimate of the number of people living in a country or area other than that in which they were born. If the number of foreign-born was not available, the estimate refers to the number of people living in a country other than that of their citizenship.
  4. Total migrant numbers and net migration over thepast 5 years International migrant stock, 2010 (% of combined total) Europe Asia Northern Africa Latin America & Oceania America The Caribbean 9 3 3 33 29 23 Average annual net migration (millions) 2005-101.5 1.34 1.221.00.5 0.100.0-0.5 -0.53-1.0 -1.08 -1.05-1.5 Source: UN Migration Statistics
  5. Immigration on the riseAlthough the pattern of migration is away from the developing tothe developed world, people everywhere see immigrationincreasing.…and they don’t seem to like it.
  6. The majority say the number of immigrants in theircountry has increased over the last 5 yearsOver the last 5 years, in your opinion has the amount of migrants in [YOUR COUNTRY] ...? Increased a lot / little Stayed the same Decreased a lot / little 90% 85% 85% 80% 79% 78% 80% 80% 77% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 16% 18% 14% 12% 14% 10% 10% 8% 10% 5% 4% 5% 6% 4% 6% 0% LATAM BRIC Europe Middle East/Africa APAC North America Total Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011
  7. And people tend to be more negative than positiveabout itWould you say that immigration has generally had a positive or negative impact on[ YOUR COUNTRY]? Very / Fairly positive Neither positive or negative Very / Fairly negative60% 54% 53%50% 46% 45% 42%40% 36% 35% 33% 30% 31% 28% 28% 29%30% 26% 26% 22% 23% 21% 21%20% 18% 18%10%0% Middle East/Africa Europe North America BRIC APAC LATAM Total Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011
  8. Why the negativity?Firstly, the simple fact is numbers count.Most people think there are too many immigrants in their country.
  9. Just over half of people think there are too many immigrants in their country Please tell whether you agree or disagree with the following statement: There are too many immigrants in our country 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% BRIC 59% 23% 13%Middle East/Africa 58% 21% 15% Europe 56% 19% 21% North America 51% 25% 21% LATAM 46% 32% 16% APAC 44% 33% 18% Total 52% 25% 19% Agree Neither Disagree Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011
  10. But the implication of high numbersis the real cause for concern…Many people think immigration makes it harder to find jobs,particularly in Africa, the Middle East and the BRIC nations.And immigration is also seen to add pressure to public services,particularly in the most developed regions of the world.
  11. Many feel immigration makes it more difficult for people to find jobs Please tell whether you agree or disagree with the following statement: Immigrants in [COUNTRY] have made it more difficult for [COUNTRY] people to get jobs 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%Middle East/Africa 59% 17% 20% BRIC 55% 21% 21% North America 50% 21% 25% APAC 49% 29% 20% Europe 45% 21% 31% LATAM 44% 27% 26% Total 48% 23% 25% Agree Neither Disagree Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011
  12. And people are also wary of the pressure immigration places on public services Please tell whether you agree or disagree with the following statement: Immigration has placed too much pressure on public services in [COUNTRY] (for example, health, transport, educational services) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% North America 61% 22% 13% Europe 56% 19% 19%Middle East/Africa 51% 24% 18% BRIC 46% 30% 18% LATAM 44% 32% 19% APAC 42% 36% 17% Total 51% 26% 18% Agree Neither Disagree Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011
  13. Yet, immigration isn’t entirelyseen as a bad thing…People of most regions are split when asked whether theythink immigration is good for their national economy.And they tend to be equally divided when considering thecultural benefits of immigration.Notably however, residents of Europe and the MiddleEast/Africa tend to be more negative on both counts.
  14. Opinion is split on the economic benefits of immigration, althoughEuropeans and residents of the Middle East/Africa are more sceptical Please tell whether you agree or disagree with the following statement: Immigration is good for the economy of [COUNTRY] 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%Middle East/Africa 24% 23% 48% Europe 25% 25% 46% North America 33% 27% 35% LATAM 32% 31% 32% BRIC 36% 29% 30% APAC 30% 37% 28% Total 28% 29% 39% Agree Neither Disagree Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011
  15. And the same is found when people are asked to consider the cultural benefits of immigration Please tell whether you agree or disagree with the following statement: Immigrants make country a more interesting place to live 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Europe 29% 24% 43%Middle East/Africa 32% 23% 40% LATAM 31% 29% 36% BRIC 36% 25% 35% APAC 31% 35% 30% North America 42% 26% 29% Total 31% 28% 37% Agree Neither Disagree Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011
  16. Opinion across the world tendsto favour a more selectiveapproach to immigration…In all regions except Latin America, more people agree thandisagree that priority should be given to immigrants withhigher education and qualifications who can fill shortagesamong certain professions.
  17. A selective approach to immigration is favoured in most regions of the world Please tell whether you agree or disagree with the following statement: Priority should be given to immigrants with higher education and qualifications who can fill shortages among certain professions in [COUNTRY] 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%Middle East/Africa 54% 18% 23% APAC 49% 29% 19% North America 48% 24% 25% BRIC 48% 23% 27% Europe 41% 23% 31% LATAM 34% 28% 35% Total 45% 25% 27% Agree Neither Disagree Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011
  18. Focussing on attitudes in Europe…
  19. Patterns of immigration in EuropeEurope’s heavyweight economies currently possess the highestnumbers of immigrants in absolute terms.But as a percentage of population, the picture is much moremixed.
  20. Europe’s big economies have the largest number of migrants, but thisis not the case when migrant numbers are considered as a % of thepopulation International migrant stock as percentage of Total international migrant stock (millions), 2010 total population, 201012 35.210 8 19.6 17.5 6 15.6 15.0 14.1 14.1 13.6 13.1 10.7 10.4 10.5 10.1 9.1 8.6 8.8 4 7.4 8.1 4.4 3.7 4.2 4.0 3.8 2.2 2.4 0.6 1.4 2 0 Source: UN Migration Statistics
  21. Net migration patterns inEurope show a differencebetween the East and the restMost Eastern European countries had more emigrantsthan immigrants, on average, between 2005-10.Elsewhere in Europe the opposite holds true; immigrantsare the greater number.
  22. Net migration shows many Eastern European countries in the EU27sent more people than they received on average between 2005-10 Average annual net migration (thousands), 2005-10 Average annual net migration rate (per 1,000 population), 2005-10 Spain 350.0 7.9 Italy 330.0 5.6United Kingdom 189.5 3.1 Germany 110.0 1.3 France 100.0 1.6Czech Republic 45.1 4.4 Belgium 40.0 3.8 Portugal 40.0 3.8 Ireland 40.0 9.1 Austria 32.0 3.9 Greece 30.0 2.7 Sweden 30.0 3.3 Netherlands 20.0 1.2 Hungary 15.0 1.5 Finland 11.0 2.1 Denmark 6.0 1.1 Cyprus 5.0 5.8 Slovenia 4.4 2.2 Luxembourg 4.0 8.4 Slovakia 4.0 0.7 Malta 1.0 2.5 Latvia -2.0 -0.9 Bulgaria -10.0 -1.3 Lithuania -20.0 -6.0 Poland -24.0 -0.6 Romania -40.0 -1.9 -100.0 0.0 100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0 -10.0 -5.0 0.0 5.0 10.0 Source: UN Migration Statistics
  23. But everywhere immigrationis perceived to be on the riseIn Eastern Europe rates of immigration have dropped onaverage over the past 5 years. Yet, Poles as much asother nationalities consider immigration to haveincreased.Elsewhere, however, the belief that immigration isincreasing is matched by the facts – although the rate ofincrease is low for many countries.
  24. There is a widespread belief that immigration has increased over the pastfew years. This is the case in all the countries surveyed except for PolandOver the last 5 years, in your opinion has theamount of migrants in [THE COUNTRY]….? Average annual rate of change (percentage), 2005-10 Increased Stayed the Decreased (combined) same (combined) 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 94% 5% 2% 93% 5% 2% 85% 10% 5% 85% 6% 9% 81% 15% 3% 79% 18% 3% 77% 16% 7% 66% 30% 4% 63% 25% 12% Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011, UN Migration Statistics
  25. Economic concerns are uppermostfor Europeans. Immigration isnext, but some way behindConcerns with the national economy, unemployment and risingprices predominate in the minds of most Europeans at thecurrent time.Immigration follows, although some countries attach moreimportance to the issue than others.
  26. Immigration sits below economic concerns for Europeans, although there are differences between nationalitiesWhat do you think are the two most important issues facing [OUR COUNTRY] at the moment? Immigration Luxembourg 17% 70% Latvia 17% United Kingdom 16% 59% Belgium 15% 60% EU27 Malta 13% Lithuania 13% 50% Cyprus 13% France 12% 40% Austria 11% 31% Czech Republic 10% 30% Bulgaria 10% 26% Finland 9% Romania 9% 20% 17% EU27 9% 9% Germany 8% 10% 7% 7% 6% Estonia 7% 5% 4% 3% 3% 3% Denmark 7% 0% Netherlands 6% Italy 6% Spain 6% Poland 5% Hungary 5% Greece 5% Sweden 4% Slovenia 4% Ireland 4% Slovakia 3% Portugal 1% 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% Source: Standard Eurobarometer 76, November 2011
  27. The number of migrants resident in each country does not correlate with the relative importance of immigration to the public. What do you think are the two most important issues facing[OUR COUNTRY] at the moment? - Immigration Latvia Luxembourg Great Britain 15 Belgium Malta Lithuania Cyprus France Bulgaria Austria 10 Czech Republic Finland Romania Germany Denmark Italy Netherlands Estonia Poland Spain 5 Hungary Greece Slovenia Sweden Ireland Slovakia Portugal R² = 0.09 0 0 10 20 30 International migrant stock as a percentage of total population, 2010 Source: Standard Eurobarometer 76, November 2011, UN Migration Statistics
  28. Most Europeans think immigrationhas had a negative impact on theircountry, particularly in countrieswhere immigration is seen as animportant issueOf the countries surveyed, public opinion in Belgium and Britain isthe most negative about immigration - both countries where, onaverage, immigration is more likely to be seen as an importantissue.
  29. In every country except Sweden, people are more likely to feel immigrationhas had a negative rather than positive impact on their countryWould you say that immigration has generally had a positive or negative impact on [COUNTRY]? Very / Fairly negative Neither positive or negative Very / Fairly positive 37% 32% 56% 55% 54% 54% 52% 53% 64% 72% 23% 40% 24% 28% 26% 16% 27% 26% 34% 17% 37% 19% 19% 22% 18% 14% 14% 16% 9% 8% Total Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011
  30. And with the exception of Poland, where immigration levels are lower,more people agree than disagree that there are too many immigrants intheir countryPlease tell whether you agree or disagree with the following statement:There are too many immigrants in our country Agree Neither Disagree 12% 12% 11% 16% 20% 20% 23% 21% 33% 15% 15% 20% 16% 41% 24% 25% 19% 20% 19% 14% 72% 71% 67% 67% 53% 52% 50% 56% 46% 29% Total Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011
  31. The perceived negative economicimpact of immigration seems to beat the root of concernsWith the exception of the Middle East & Africa, Europeans aremore sceptical about immigration’s benefit to the economy thanpeople in the rest of the world.There is widespread concern in Europe that immigration placestoo much pressure on public services – more so than anywhereelse in the world.There are also concerns, particularly among residents of Britain,that immigrants make it more difficult to get jobs. Yet, there is nodirect correlation between this concern and personal experienceof job loss.
  32. In each of the European countries surveyed more people disagree thanagree that immigration is good for their national economy. Although somecountries are more sceptical than others Please tell whether you agree or disagree with the following statement: Immigration is good for the economy of [COUNTRY] Agree Neither Disagree 34% 45% 45% 44% 42% 36% 46% 49% 60% 57% 17% 34% 22% 26% 22% 27% 30% 25% 20% 23% 30% 29% 28% 27% 24% 28% 25% 23% 18% 13% Total Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011
  33. Across the world, Europeans seem the most concerned about the impacton public services of high immigration. Once more Poland, where rates ofimmigration are lower, appears less concerned Please tell whether you agree or disagree with the following statement: Immigration has placed too much pressure on public services in [COUNTRY] (for example, health, transport, educational services) Agree Neither Disagree 8% 11% 10% 21% 18% 18% 20% 19% 14% 29% 16% 18% 39% 13% 22% 21% 21% 19% 28% 17% 76% 70% 68% 59% 58% 56% 56% 56% 40% 27% Total Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011
  34. Concern about immigration’s impact on competition for jobs is lower thanin the developing world, and is seen as less of a concern than the impacton services. Yet, the majority in several states still consider it a problem Please tell whether you agree or disagree with the following statement: Immigrants in [COUNTRY] have made it more difficult for [COUNTRY] people to get jobs Agree Neither Disagree 20% 23% 27% 28% 28% 31% 34% 34% 42% 45% 16% 14% 18% 24% 25% 21% 22% 27% 13% 30% 62% 54% 52% 52% 46% 41% 45% 37% 35% 23% Total Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011
  35. The belief that there are too many immigrants strongly correlates with aconcern that immigrants place too much pressure on public services…% Immigration has placed too much pressure on public services 100 90 Great Britain 80 70 Spain Belgium Hungary Germany 60 Italy 50 France 40 Sweden 30 Poland 20 10 R² = 0.82 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 % Agree there are too many immigrants in our country Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011
  36. …whereas the correlation is weaker between the perception that thereare too many immigrants and the concern that immigrants make it moredifficult to find jobs% Immigrants in (Country) have made it more difficult for (Country) people to get jobs 70 Great Britain 60 Hungary Spain 50 France Belgium 40 Italy Germany Poland 30 20 Sweden R² = 0.45 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 % Agree there are too many immigrants in our country Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011
  37. Concern that immigration threatens the jobs market does not always seem to relate to personal experience of job loss% Thinking of the last 6 months, have you, someone in your family or someoneelse you know personally lost their job as a result of economic conditions? 100 Countries where higher rates of personal experience of job loss combines with a concern that immigrants have made it more Relatively high personal experience of difficult to find work. job loss is not mirrored by significant concerns about the threat of Spain immigration to the jobs market. This is perhaps due to much lower levels of Hungary immigration. Poland Italy 50 France Great Britain Sweden Belgium Germany Outliers, where personal experience of job loss is lower but concerns about immigration’s threat to the jobs market is still high. 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 % Immigrants in [COUNTRY] have made it more difficult for [COUNTRY] people to get jobs Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011
  38. But only in the UK is a selectiveapproach to immigrationsupported by the majorityGreat Britain aside, the majority of Europeans do not agree thatpriority should be given to immigrants who can fill shortages inskilled professions.
  39. Britons are most likely to favour a selective approach toimmigration, but elsewhere in Europe there is less supportPlease tell whether you agree or disagree with the following statement:Priority should be given to immigrants with higher education and qualifications who can fillshortages among certain professions in [COUNTRY] Agree Neither Disagree 18% 29% 26% 28% 28% 36% 37% 31% 40% 40% 22% 25% 28% 27% 30% 23% 16% 25% 26% 12% 58% 45% 42% 42% 41% 35% 41% 38% 36% 36% Total Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011
  40. Countries with lower rates of netmigration seem more able toappreciate the cultural benefits ofimmigration. Sweden is the outlierIn countries where there is lower average annual net migration(per 1,000 population), the public seem more likely to thinkimmigrants make their country an interesting place to live.Bucking the trend is Sweden, which has a relatively high netmigration rate, but its population are the most positive of allabout the cultural benefits of immigration.
  41. Net migration tends to inversely correlate with the belief that immigrantsmake a positive cultural contribution, particularly when discounting Sweden % Agree immigrants make [COUNTRY] a more interesting place to live 50 The outlier. Sweden has a relatively Sweden high rate of net migration, yet its population are the most likely to agree that immigrants make their country a 40 more interesting place to live. Poland Germany Great Britain 30 France Hungary 20 Italy Belgium Spain 10 R² = 0.38 (including Sweden) R² = 0.63 (excluding Sweden) 0 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Average annual net migration rate (per 1,000 population), 2005-10 Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011, UN Migration Statistics
  42. Swedes and Poles are the most positive about the cultural benefits ofimmigration. Countries in Southern Europe appear the least positive Please tell whether you agree or disagree with the following statement: Immigrants make [COUNTRY] a more interesting place to live Agree Neither Disagree 30% 32% 32% 42% 41% 46% 43% 53% 52% 60% 23% 14% 30% 24% 28% 24% 24% 26% 28% 21% 44% 39% 35% 33% 28% 29% 23% 19% 18% 18% Total Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011
  43. AttitudestowardsEuropeanborders and theSchengenagreement = countries in the Schengen zone
  44. Handling immigration correctly isseen to be key to strengtheningEurope, and most Europeans wantthe EU to be involvedResearch has shown that immigration policy is regarded asimportant to strengthening Europe, more so than defence policy,foreign policy, cultural policy or the single market.Six in ten Europeans want to see decisions about immigrationmade jointly between national governments and the EU, butthere are wide divergences between countries.
  45. Handling immigration policy properly is seen to bekey to strengthening EuropeEuropean integration has been focusing on various issues in the last years. In your opinion,which aspects should be emphasized by the European institutions in the coming years, tostrengthen the European Union in the future? EU27 35% 33% 30% 25% 20% 18% 16% 15% 15% 10% 8% 5% 0% Immigration policy Defence policy Foreign policy The single market Cultural policy Source: Standard Eurobarometer 74, February 2011
  46. The majority of Europeans favour the involvement of the EU in decision-making about immigration, but there is a wide divergence betweencountriesFor each of the following areas, do you think that decisions should be made by the [NATIONALITY]Government, or made jointly within the EU?Immigration100% 90% 28 80% 32 35 42 42 43 51 70% 54 50 58 60 60 66 64 66 64 64 66 68 70 66 60% 61 70 69 67 72 76 79 50% 40% 71 66 64 30% 57 56 55 49 45 45 20% 41 38 36 34 34 33 33 32 31 31 31 30 30 27 27 27 10% 21 19 19 0% National government Jointly with the EU Dont know Source: Standard Eurobarometer 76, November 2011
  47. Yet, when it comes to determiningwho is allowed to cross theborder, there is greater support fornational controlsResearch shows that residents of most European countries thinknational governments should decide how many immigrants areadmitted to their country.
  48. When it comes to letting immigrants in, there seems to be greater support for keeping this as a national prerogativeSome people think that the [NATIONALITY] government should decide how many immigrants areallowed to come to [COUNTRY] each year. Others think that the European Union should decide howmany immigrants are allowed to come to each European Union country, including [COUNTRY], eachyear. Which comes closer to your point of view? The [NATIONALITY] government should decide how many immigrants are allowed to come to [COUNTRY] each year The European Union should decide how many immigrants are allowed to come to each European Union country, including [COUNTRY], each year 90% 85% 80% 70% 66% 68% 60% 60% 51% 50% 45% 47% 43% 40% 34% 30% 30% 27% 20% 12% 10% 0% Source: Transatlantic Trends, Immigration 2010
  49. And on balance, most Europeansfavour the reintroduction of bordercontrols between countries in theSchengen zoneOutside of Poland, the majority of people in each of the countriessurveyed support the reintroduction of border controls.Britons are most in favour, even though their country is not inthe zone.
  50. Many Europeans support the reintroduction of border controls in the Schengen zone. This is less the case further East (in Poland and Hungary)Do you support or oppose the reintroduction of border controls between [COUNTRY] and othercountries in the Schengen zone?GB asked: The United Kingdom is part of the European Union, but not part of the Schengen area. There are border countrols between the UK and other countries inthe EU. Do you support or oppose the reintroduction of border controls between countries in the Schengen zone? Oppose border controls Support border controls 12% 26% 31% 30% 30% 34% 31% 43% 45% 63% 74% 64% 62% 61% 59% 54% 51% 56% 48% 28% Total Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011
  51. A bordered Europe to controlimmigration and improve securityImproving security and controlling immigration are the majorjustifications for a reintroduction of border controls.
  52. Support for reintroducing border controls hinges on a desire to control immigration and to improve securityWhat is the primary reason you support border controls?Asked only to those who support the reintroduction of border controls Economic benefits Control immigration Improve security in the country 20% 32% 33% 25% 30% 42% 51% 50% 56% 58% 68% 64% 62% 61% 57% 51% 43% 41% 40% 38% Total Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011. Figures of less than 10% have been left off the chart for clarity.
  53. But freedom of travel in aborderless zone is seen to be aright by its advocatesAmong those who oppose the reintroduction of border controls,freedom of movement between countries is seen to be a right ofEU membership.
  54. While support for Schengen stems from the perception that freedom of movement within the area is a right of EU membershipWhat is the primary reason you oppose border controls?Asked only to those who oppose the reintroduction of border controls Economic benefits Do not want to show passport when traveling to other countries One of the rights of being a member of the European Union 11% 11% 10% 15% 17% 10% 14% 11% 19% 13% 86% 81% 75% 74% 72% 71% 69% 72% 62% 62% Total Source: Global @dvisor, June 2011. Figures of less than 10% have been left off the chart for clarity.
  55. The European archipelago: Europeans wanta tougher approach to immigration, whichcould mean reintroducing border controls There seems to be support for a joint European approach to managing immigration. However, there is an unwillingness to give up what is seen to be a national prerogative, the admission of immigrants, to European control. The majority of European citizens favour the reintroduction of border controls within the Schengen zone to improve security and control immigration. Amidst economic difficulties and rising immigration, Europeans want a stronger, more secure Europe where nations are able to effectively regulate immigration and minimize its perceived negative effects.
  56. Ipsos contacts:Bobby DuffyManaging Director, Ipsos MORI Social Research InstituteBobby.duffy@ipsos.comTom Frere-SmithSenior Research Executive, Ipsos MORI Social Research InstituteTom.frere-smith@ipsos.com
  57. Technical noteIpsos Global @dvisor is conducted online in 24 countries:LATAM: Argentina, Brazil, MexicoBRIC: Brazil, Russia, India, ChinaEurope: Belgium, France, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain, SwedenAPAC: Australia, Indonesia, Japan, South KoreaNorth America: Canada, United States of AmericaMiddle East/Africa: Saudi Arabia, South Africa, TurkeyAn international sample of 17,601 adults aged 18-64 in the US and Canada, and age 16-64 in all other countries, were interviewed for thisstudy. Approximately 1000 individuals participated in each country with the exception of Argentina, Belgium, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland,Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Sweden and Turkey, where each had a sample of 500.Fieldwork was conducted in June 2011.Results were weighted to balance demographics and ensure that the samples composition reflected the adult population of each countryaccording Census data.A survey statistic drawn from an unweighted probability sample of this size and a 100% response rate would have an estimated margin oferror of +/-3.1 percentage points (sample of 1,000), or +/- 4.5 percentage points (sample of 500), 19 times out of 20, from the same statisticdrawn from the entire population of adults in each country if they had been polled.Results are nationally representative. Respondents are general population, with the exception of China, India, and South Africa where thesample is made up of more affluent adults.For more information, please visit: ipsosglobaladvisor.com

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