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Resilience

Resiliency in child & adolescent development. Ways to promote resiliency and thrive in the face of adversity

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RESILIENCERESILIENCE
Why Do Some People Thrive In The Face Of
Adversity?
Michael Torres, PsyD
Resilience
Resilience: An Engineer’s TermResilience: An Engineer’s Term
Resilience is:
1. The property of a material to absorb energy when it is
deformed elastically and then, upon unloading, to have
this energy recovered.
2. The property of a material that enables it to resume its
original shape or position after being bent, stretched, or
compressed; elasticity.
Holocaust Memorial BerlinHolocaust Memorial Berlin
Survivors of KatrinaSurvivors of Katrina
Our Soldiers in IraqOur Soldiers in Iraq

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Resilience

  • 1. RESILIENCERESILIENCE Why Do Some People Thrive In The Face Of Adversity? Michael Torres, PsyD
  • 3. Resilience: An Engineer’s TermResilience: An Engineer’s Term Resilience is: 1. The property of a material to absorb energy when it is deformed elastically and then, upon unloading, to have this energy recovered. 2. The property of a material that enables it to resume its original shape or position after being bent, stretched, or compressed; elasticity.
  • 6. Our Soldiers in IraqOur Soldiers in Iraq
  • 7. Children From the Gaza StripChildren From the Gaza Strip
  • 8. Tiananmen Square June 5, 1989Tiananmen Square June 5, 1989
  • 9. Werner & Smith Study of Hawaiian Children (1992)Werner & Smith Study of Hawaiian Children (1992) Werner and Smith began a longitudinal study in 1955 of children fromWerner and Smith began a longitudinal study in 1955 of children from Kauai. Many of the children in the study grew up with alcoholic orKauai. Many of the children in the study grew up with alcoholic or mentally ill parents. Werner noted that of the children who grew up inmentally ill parents. Werner noted that of the children who grew up in these very bad situations, 2/3 exhibited destructive behaviors by 18,these very bad situations, 2/3 exhibited destructive behaviors by 18, such as chronic unemployment, substance abuse, and teensuch as chronic unemployment, substance abuse, and teen pregnancies (for females). However, 1/3 of these youngsters did notpregnancies (for females). However, 1/3 of these youngsters did not exhibit destructive behaviors. By age 32, 2/3 of the remainingexhibit destructive behaviors. By age 32, 2/3 of the remaining participants “had turned into caring and efficacious adults.” Wernerparticipants “had turned into caring and efficacious adults.” Werner called the latter groupcalled the latter group resilientresilient. Resilient children/families had traits. Resilient children/families had traits that made them different from non-resilient children/families.that made them different from non-resilient children/families.
  • 10. What Is Resilience?What Is Resilience?  People with Resilience harness inner strengths and rebound more quickly from a setback or challenge, whether it’s a job loss, an illness or the death of a loved one (Mayo Clinic).  We are all born with an innate capacity for Resilience, by which we are able to develop social competence, problem-solving skills, a critical consciousness, autonomy, and a sense of purpose (Benard, 1995).  Both the capacity to be bent without breaking and the capacity, once bent, to spring back (Goldstein, 1997).  Resilience is a two dimensional construct concerning the exposure of adversity and the positive adjustment outcomes of that adversity (Luthar & Cicchetti, 2000).  Resilience is primarily defined in terms of the “presence of protective factors or competence…despite high-risk status, chronic stress, or following prolonged or severe trauma (Egeland, Carlson, & Sroufe, 1993)
  • 11. Research Driven To UnderstandingResearch Driven To Understanding ProtectiveProtective FactorsFactors  Protective Factors help an individual/family respond positively to an adverse event or chronic stressor.  Protective Factors are recognized as cumulative.  Multiple Protective Factors Are Involved.  Protective Factors develop throughout infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood.
  • 12. Protective Factors in Resilient ChildrenProtective Factors in Resilient Children (Benard & Marshall, 1997; Werner, 1984, 1990)(Benard & Marshall, 1997; Werner, 1984, 1990)  Outgoing personality originating in infancy  Good early bonding to caregiver  A variety of alternative caregivers who played important roles as positive identification models  Mothers had steady employment from outside the home  Required to participate in household chores  Clearly defined role boundaries within family system  Absence of colic  Average intelligence  More likely to be female  They experienced no separations from their primary caregiver during the 1st year of life  They were more likely to be the oldest child  They did not have another sibling born before they turned two  They attended good schools that set appropriately high standards, and that also included teacher feedback to students
  • 13. Protective Factors (continued)Protective Factors (continued)  High self-esteem  Strict parental supervision  Positive coping skills  They tended to perceive their +/-experiences constructively  Good interpersonal skills  Good impulse control  High energy and were active  Enjoyed school  Capable of using Faith to maintain a + view of a meaningful life**  Autonomous/Independent  Capable of asking for help
  • 15. FromFrom TIMETIME Article: “The Biology of Belief”Article: “The Biology of Belief” Feb 23, 2009 p.62-72Feb 23, 2009 p.62-72****  Neal Krause, a sociologist and public health expert at Univ of Michigan conducted a longitudinal study beginning in 1997 of 1,500 people. He focused on how regular church goers weather economic downturns as well as stresses and health woes that go along with them. He found that parishioners benefit when they receive social support from their church. He also found that those people who give help fare even better than those people who receive it. Furthermore, people who maintain a sense of gratitude for what’s going on in their lives had a reduced incidence of depression. Finally, in a later unpublished study, he found that people who believe their lives have meaning live longer than people who don’t.
  • 16. Protective Factors by Developmental StageProtective Factors by Developmental Stage (Luthar, 1991; Garmezy, 1993; Garmezy & Rutter, 1983 Lee et al., 1991; Werner,(Luthar, 1991; Garmezy, 1993; Garmezy & Rutter, 1983 Lee et al., 1991; Werner, 1982, 1989a, 1990)1982, 1989a, 1990) Infancy – Active – Energetic – Easy Going – Socially Responsive – Capacity to Elicit and Receive Attention – Good Frustration-Tolerance – Positive Neurochemical Makeup
  • 17. Protective Factors by Developmental StageProtective Factors by Developmental Stage  Toddlerhood – Intelligence – Autonomy – Sociability – Adequate Cooperation and Compliance – Sensitive – Positive Sense of Self – Androgynous  Males have deeper affective expression and sociability  Females are better coordinated, not timid, interested in environmental exploration
  • 18. Protective Factors by Developmental StageProtective Factors by Developmental Stage Middle Childhood – Superior Reasoning and Problem Solving – Continue Autonomy, Androgyny, Sociability – Guided by Internal Locus of Control – Probing Drive to Understand – Mastery-Oriented Help Seeking Behavior – Take Initiative to Question, Suggest, Observe, and Imitate
  • 19. Protective Factors by Developmental StageProtective Factors by Developmental Stage Adolescence – Intelligence Can Make Them More Sensitive – Spend More Time on Homework and Cooperating With Teachers – Good Self Concept – Less Likely To Commit Delinquent Acts – Previously Developed Factors Promote a Cumulative Effect
  • 20. Other Related Terms To KnowOther Related Terms To Know  Salutogenesis (Antonovsky, 1979) – “Why, when people are exposed to the same stress which causes some to become ill, do some remain healthy?” (Antonovsky, 1979) – “Only by focusing on health can we make advances in developing a broad range theory of successful coping that derives from familiarity with a wide range of studies on different diseases and health outcomes” (Antovonosky & Bernstein, 1986)
  • 21. Other Related Terms To KnowOther Related Terms To Know Thriving – A Stressor may in fact enhance the functioning of the person (Ickovics & Park, 1998). – See the Journal of Social Issues (1998): Special Issue – “Thriving: Broadening the paradigm beyond illness to health” – “The person may not merely return to the previous level of functioning, but may surpass it in some manner” (Carver, 1998)
  • 22. Other Related Terms To KnowOther Related Terms To Know  Hardiness – Involves people who are chronically under stress (e.g., soldiers, upper executives). – Three subconstructs:  Commitment as opposed to alienation in life  Control as opposed to powerlessness  Challenge as opposed to threat – Hardy persons have considerable curiosity and tend to find their experiences interesting and meaningful. Further, they believe they can be influential through what they imagine, say and do (Kobasa et al., 1981).
  • 23. Other Related Terms To KnowOther Related Terms To Know  Learned Resourcefulness – An acquired repertoire of behaviors and skills (mostly cognitive) by which a person self-regulates disruptive internal responses (e.g., emotions, cognitions, or pain) that interfere with the smooth execution of a desired behavior (Rosenbaum & Ben-Ari, 1985). – Three Phases:  Representation – of an individual experience, without any conscious effort, a cognitive and/or emotional reaction to changes within her/himself or the environment.  Evaluation – of the changes, first, as desirable or threatening, then, if threat is appraised, evaluation whether anything can be done about it.  Action – to minimize negative effects of the internal or external changes.
  • 24. Other Related Terms To KnowOther Related Terms To Know  Personal Causation (De Charms, 1968) – “Being the master of one’s fate” or “being an agent of change in the environment.”  Stamina (Strumpfer, 1990) – “The physical and moral strength to resist or withstand disease, fatigue, or hardship; endurance.”  Potency (Ben-Sira, 1985) – “A person’s enduring confidence in his own capacities as well as confidence in and commitment to his/her social environment, which is perceived as being characterized by a basically meaningful and predictable order and by a reliable and just distribution of rewards.”  Locus of Control (Rotter, 1966) – The perception that the consequences of your behavior is under internal or external control.  Self Efficacy (Bandura, 1982) – Perception of how well you can deal with life in a competent and resourceful manner.
  • 25. Psychobiological Mechanisms of Resilience and Vulnerability: Implications for Successful Adaptation to Extreme Stress Dennis S. Charney, M.D. Objective: Most research on the effects of severe psychological stress has focused on stress-related psychopathology. Here, the author develops psychobiological models of resilience to extreme stress. Method: An integrative model of resilience and vulnerability that encompasses the neurochemical response patterns to acute stress and the neural mechanisms mediating reward, fear conditioning and extinction, and social behavior is proposed. Results: Eleven possible neurochemical, neuropeptide, and hormonal mediators of the psychobiological response to extreme stress were identified and related to resilience or vulnerability. The neural mechanisms of reward and motivation (hedonia, optimism, and learned helpfulness), fear responsiveness (effective behaviors despite fear), and adaptive social behavior (altruism, bonding, and teamwork) were found to be relevant to the character traits associated with resilience. Conclusions: The opportunity now exists to bring to bear the full power of advances in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of behavior to facilitate the discoveries needed to predict, prevent, and treat stress-related psychopathology.
  • 26. Characteristics of Resilient PeopleCharacteristics of Resilient People www.Mayoclinic.com/health/resiliencewww.Mayoclinic.com/health/resilience Check if you agree  I'm able to adapt to change easily.  I feel in control of my life.  I tend to bounce back after a hardship or illness.  I have close, dependable relationships.  I remain optimistic and don't give up, even if things seem hopeless.  I can think clearly and logically under pressure.  I see the humor in situations, even under stress.  I am self-confident and feel strong as a person.  I believe things happen for a reason.  I can handle uncertainty or unpleasant feelings.  I know where to turn for help.  I like challenges and feel comfortable taking the lead. – Based on the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Connor K.M., Davidson J.R. ©2003.
  • 27. Promoting Protective FactorsPromoting Protective Factors  Opportunities for Participation – Promoting environments that promote critical thinking and dialogue (especially around current social issues), making learning more hands-on, involving students in curriculum planning, using participatory evaluation strategies, letting students create the governing rules of the classroom, and employing cooperative approaches (e.g., peer tutoring, cross age mentoring, and community service)  Setting High Expectations – Promoting curriculum that is thematic, experiential, challenging, comprehensive, and inclusive of multiple perspectives – especially those of silenced groups.  Promote Caring Relationships – Someone who conveys an attitude of compassion, who understands that no matter how awful a child’s behavior, the child is doing the best he/she can given his/her experience.
  • 28. Five Resilient Building Blocks to CounterFive Resilient Building Blocks to Counter Depression (Grotberg, 1999)Depression (Grotberg, 1999)  Trust – Examine the people in your life you Can Trust  Identity – Who am I? – Where am I headed? – Who are the important people in my life? – What have I accomplished?  Industry – Encourage the Youth to work diligently at a task  Initiative – Help the Youth take initiative in their lives  Promote Autonomy – Reminding the youth that mistakes are learning opportunities
  • 29. Tips To Improve ResilienceTips To Improve Resilience  Get Connected  Use Humor and Laughter  Learn From Your Experiences  Remain Hopeful and Optimistic  Take Care of Yourself  Accept and Anticipate Change  Work Toward Goals  Take Action  Learn New Things About Yourself  Think Better of Yourself  Maintain Perspective
  • 30. Consider PromotingConsider Promoting Mature Coping/DefensesMature Coping/Defenses (Vaillant, 1993)(Vaillant, 1993)  Altruism – assisting others in the way you would hope to be assisted; the self is partly satisfied.  Sublimation – channeling anxiety/discomfort into a socially appropriate activity/behavior.  Suppression – involves the semi-conscious decision to postpone paying attention to a conscious impulse and/or conflict.  Anticipation – being prepared for future discomfort; spread anxiety out over time; self inoculation of taking one’s affective pain in small, anticipatory amounts.  Humor – ideally offers pleasure to both the user and observer. Distinguished from Wit (displacement) and Sarcasm (passive-aggression).
  • 31. PresentPresent HandoutsHandouts forfor Parents/Teachers and TeensParents/Teachers and Teens Including APA’sIncluding APA’s The Road to ResilienceThe Road to Resilience