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Intro Bus chapter 10

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  • See Learning Goal 1: Explain Taylor’s scientific management. Intrinsic means from within; when you have a drive to succeed and are motivated by purpose, passion, and mission.
  • See Learning Goal 1: Explain Taylor’s scientific management. Extrinsic rewards are often temporary and driven by money, recognition and results.
  • See Learning Goal 1: Explain Taylor’s scientific management.
  • See Learning Goal 1: Explain Taylor’s scientific management. Taylor was looking for the most efficient way or the one right way to do something. Workers were, in a sense, thought of as machines that could be fine tuned.
  • See Learning Goal 1: Explain Taylor’s scientific management.
  • See Learning Goal 2: Describe the Hawthorne studies and their significance to management. The Hawthorne studies were conducted in Cicero, Illinois at the Western Electric plant over a six year period.
  • See Learning Goal 3: Identify the levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and apply them to employee motivation.
  • See Learning Goal 3: Identify the levels of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and apply them to employee motivation. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs This slide reproduces the illustration of Maslow’s Hierarchy from the chapter. Most people in the class, especially those that have taken basic psychology, may be familiar with Maslow and the premise of human needs hierarchy. Use this opportunity to relate Maslow’s need theory to the work environment: Workers require competitive salaries, benefits and clean work environments. Employees have the need for security against termination in their jobs and the feeling of being safe against bodily harm while performing their job functions. On the job, workers have the need to feel a part of a successful group, driven by achievement. Employees seek opportunities for advancement, empowerment, recognition, and responsibility through additional work-related performance. Companies must attempt to satisfy these needs through opportunities within the organization.
  • See Learning Goal 4: Distinguish between the motivators and hygiene factors identified by Herzberg.
  • See Learning Goal 4: Distinguish between the motivators and hygiene factors identified by Herzberg. Herzberg’s article in the Harvard Business Review, “One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?” is a classic and explores his idea of job content in depth.
  • See Learning Goal 4: Distinguish between the motivators and hygiene factors identified by Herzberg.
  • See Learning Goal 5: Differentiate among Theory X, Theory Y, and Theory Z. McGregor’s Theories Theory X suggests that employees dislike work, avoid responsibility, have little ambition, and are motivated by threat and fear. Theory Y argues that people like work, seek responsibility, and are motivated by empowerment. If a manager believes theory X or Theory Y, s/he would tend to treat the employees accordingly. Ask the students: Would you be a Theory X or Y manager? How do you believe employees should be treated? Would you prefer to work for a Theory X or Y manager? (The majority if not all would say they would rather work for a Theory Y manager. It should be pointed out that how a manager treats employees is often dictated by the situation. A manager may hold Theory Y values but may have to use Theory X perspective depending upon the situation with the employee.)
  • See Learning Goal 5: Differentiate among Theory X, Theory Y, and Theory Z.
  • See Learning Goal 5: Differentiate among Theory X, Theory Y, and Theory Z.
  • See Learning Goal 5: Differentiate among Theory X, Theory Y, and Theory Z.
  • See Learning Goal 6: Explain the key principles of goal-setting, expectancy, reinforcement, and equity theories.
  • See Learning Goal 6: Explain the key principles of goal-setting, expectancy, reinforcement, and equity theories. Peter Drucker developed the idea of MBO in his 1954 book The Practice of Management.
  • See Learning Goal 6: Explain the key principles of goal-setting, expectancy, reinforcement, and equity theories. Victor Vroom developed the expectancy theory.
  • See Learning Goal 6: Explain the key principles of goal-setting, expectancy, reinforcement, and equity theories.
  • See Learning Goal 6: Explain the key principles of goal-setting, expectancy, reinforcement, and equity theories.
  • See Learning Goal 6: Explain the key principles of goal-setting, expectancy, reinforcement, and equity theories.
  • See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition. Herzberg argued factors such as responsibility, achievement and recognition were more important motivational factors in the long-run than pay. He believed that if you wanted to motivate employees you should focus on enriching the job.
  • See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition.
  • See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition.
  • See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition.
  • See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition. High Performance Teams This slide presents characteristics of high performance teams. This list is compiled from the Wall Street Journal on high performance teams. Ask the students in teams to explore these characteristics as they relate to teams they have been on. Which of these characteristics apply to their team and which are lacking? What modifications do they need to make to move towards being a high performance team?
  • See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition. What’s Good for You This slide offers simple tips for motivating employees in your business. A motto to remember is the Golden Rule: Treat others like you want to be treated. Ask the students where the recommendations in the slide fit in Maslow’s or Herzberg’s theories.
  • See Learning Goal 7: Show how managers put motivation theories into action through such strategies as job enrichment, open communication, and job recognition. What’s Bad for You This slide ties into the previous slide and offers tips on what to avoid in order to enhance employee morale. Ask students why these factors negatively impact employee morale.
  • See Learning Goal 8: Show how managers personalize motivation strategies to appeal to employees across the global and across generations. In a globalized world managers must recognize that what is appropriate in one culture might not work in another.
  • See Learning Goal 8: Show how managers personalize motivation strategies to appeal to employees across the global and across generations. Managers must consider cultural differences, and they must also contend with employees in different age groups. To start a discussion ask students what issues they may encounter if they managed employees from Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y?
  • See Learning Goal 8: Show how managers personalize motivation strategies to appeal to employees across the global and across generations.
  • See Learning Goal 8: Show how managers personalize motivation strategies to appeal to employees across the global and across generations.
  • Chap010

    1. 1. * * Chapter Ten Motivating Employees Copyright © 2010 by the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. McGraw-Hill/Irwin
    2. 2. INTRINSIC REWARDS * * <ul><li>Intrinsic Rewards -- Personal satisfaction felt for a job well done. </li></ul><ul><li>Kinds of Intrinsic Rewards: </li></ul>The Value of Motivation <ul><ul><li>Pride in your performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of achievement </li></ul></ul>10-
    3. 3. EXTRINSIC REWARDS * * <ul><li>Extrinsic Rewards -- Something given as a recognition of good work. </li></ul><ul><li>Kinds of Extrinsic Rewards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay Raises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awards </li></ul></ul>The Value of Motivation 10-
    4. 4. TAYLOR’S SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT * * <ul><li>Scientific Management -- Studying workers to determine the most efficient ways of doing things and then teaching those techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Three Key Elements to Increase Productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods of Work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules of Work </li></ul></ul>LG1 Frederick Taylor: The Father of Scientific Management 10-
    5. 5. TAYLOR’S FOUR KEY PRINCIPLES * * <ul><ul><li>Study how a job is performed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gather time & motion information. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check different methods. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Codify the best method into rules. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose workers whose skill matches the rules. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish a fair level of performance and pay. </li></ul></ul>LG1 Frederick Taylor: The Father of Scientific Management 10-
    6. 6. TIME-MOTION STUDIES * * <ul><li>Time-Motion Studies -- Studies of which tasks must be performed to complete a job and the time needed to do each task. </li></ul><ul><li>Led to the development of the Principle of Motion Economy -- Every job can be broken down into a series of elementary motions; developed by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. </li></ul>LG1 Frederick Taylor: The Father of Scientific Management 10-
    7. 7. HAWTHORNE STUDIES: PURPOSE AND RESULTS * * <ul><li>Researchers studied worker efficiency under different levels of light. </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity increased regardless of light condition. </li></ul>LG2 Elton Mayo and the Hawthorne Studies <ul><li>Researchers decided it was a human or psychological factor at play. </li></ul><ul><li>Hawthorne Effect -- People act differently when they know they are being studied. </li></ul>10-
    8. 8. MASLOW’S THEORY of MOTIVATION * * <ul><li>Hierarchy of Needs -- Theory of motivation based on unmet human needs from basic physiological needs to safety, social and esteem needs to self-actualization needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Needs that have already been met do not motivate. </li></ul><ul><li>If a need is filled, another higher-level need emerges. </li></ul>LG3 Motivation and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 10-
    9. 9. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY of NEEDS * * LG3 Motivation and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 10-
    10. 10. HERZBERG’S MOTIVATING FACTORS * * <ul><li>Herzberg’s research centered on two questions: </li></ul>LG4 Herzberg’s Motivating Factors <ul><ul><li>What factors controlled by managers are most effective in increasing worker motivation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do workers rank job-related factors in order of importance related to motivation? </li></ul></ul>10-
    11. 11. JOB CONTENT * * <ul><li>Herzberg found job content factors were most important to workers – workers like to feel they contribute to the company. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivators -- Job factors that cause employees to be productive and that give them satisfaction . </li></ul>LG4 Herzberg’s Motivating Factors 10-
    12. 12. JOB ENVIRONMENT * * <ul><li>Job environment factors maintained satisfaction but did not motivate employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene Factors -- Job factors that can cause dissatisfaction if missing but that do not necessarily motivate employees if increased . </li></ul>LG4 Herzberg’s Motivating Factors 10-
    13. 13. THEORY X and THEORY Y * * <ul><li>Douglas McGregor proposed managers had two different sets of assumptions concerning workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Their attitudes about motivating workers was tied to these assumptions. </li></ul><ul><li>McGregor called them Theory X and Theory Y. </li></ul>LG5 McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y 10-
    14. 14. ASSUMPTIONS of THEORY X MANAGERS * * <ul><li>Workers dislike work and seek to avoid it. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers must be forced or threatened with punishment to get them to perform. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers prefer to be directed and avoid responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Only effective motivators are fear and money. </li></ul>LG5 McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y 10-
    15. 15. ASSUMPTIONS of THEORY Y MANAGERS * * <ul><li>People like work, it’s a part of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers seek goals they are committed toward. </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to goals depends on perceived rewards. </li></ul><ul><li>People can use creativity to solve problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual capacity is only partially realized. </li></ul><ul><li>People are motivated by a variety of rewards. </li></ul>LG5 McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y 10-
    16. 16. THEORY Z * * <ul><li>William Ouchi researched cultural differences between the U.S. (Type A) and Japan (Type J). </li></ul><ul><li>Type J committed to the organization and group. </li></ul>LG5 Ouchi’s Theory Z <ul><li>Type A focused on the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Z is the hybrid approach of Types A and J. </li></ul>10-
    17. 17. GOAL-SETTING THEORY * * <ul><li>Goal-Setting Theory -- Setting ambitious but attainable goals can motivate workers and improve performance if the goals are accepted, accompanied by feedback, and facilitated. </li></ul>LG6 Goal-Setting Theory and Management by Objectives 10-
    18. 18. APPLYING GOAL-SETTING THEORY * * <ul><li>Management by Objectives (MBO) -- Involves a cycle of discussion, review and evaluation of objectives among top and middle-level managers, supervisors and employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers formulate goals in cooperation with everyone. </li></ul><ul><li>Need to monitor results and reward achievement. </li></ul>LG6 Goal-Setting Theory and Management by Objectives 10-
    19. 19. EXPECTANCY THEORY in MOTIVATION * * <ul><li>Expectancy Theory -- The amount of effort employees exert on a specific task depends on their expectations of the outcome. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees ask: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can I accomplish the task? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s my reward? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the reward worth the effort? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations can vary from person to person. </li></ul></ul>LG6 Meeting Employee Expectations: Expectancy Theory 10-
    20. 20. NADLER & LAWLER’S MODIFICATION * * <ul><li>Researchers Nadler and Lalwer modified expectancy theory and suggested five steps for managers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine what rewards employees value. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine worker’s performance standard. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure performance standards are attainable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tie rewards to performance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be sure employees feel rewards are adequate. </li></ul></ul>LG6 Meeting Employee Expectations: Expectancy Theory 10-
    21. 21. USING REINFORCEMENT THEORY * * <ul><li>Reinforcement Theory -- Positive and negative reinforcers motivate a person to behave in certain ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement includes praise, pay increases and recognition. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement includes reprimands, reduced pay, and layoff or firing. </li></ul><ul><li>Extinction is a way of trying to stop behavior by not responding to it. </li></ul>LG6 Reinforcing Employee Performance: Reinforcement Theory 10-
    22. 22. EQUITY THEORY * * <ul><li>Equity Theory -- Employees try to maintain equity between inputs and outputs compared to others in similar positions. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers often base perception of their outcomes to a specific person or group. </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived inequities can lead to reduced quality and productivity, absenteeism even resignation. </li></ul>LG6 Treating Employees Fairly: Equity Theory 10-
    23. 23. ENRICHING JOBS * * <ul><li>Job Enrichment -- A motivational strategy that emphasizes motivating the worker through the job itself. </li></ul>LG7 Motivation Through Job Enrichment <ul><li>Based on Herzberg’s motivators, such as responsibility, achievement and recognition. </li></ul>10-
    24. 24. KEY CHARACTERISTICS of WORK * * <ul><li>Skill Variety </li></ul><ul><li>Task Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Task Significance </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul>LG7 Motivation Through Job Enrichment 10-
    25. 25. TYPES of JOB ENRICHMENT * * <ul><li>Job Enlargement -- A job enrichment strategy that involves combining a series of tasks into one challenging and interesting assignment. </li></ul><ul><li>Job Rotation -- A job enrichment strategy that involves moving employees from one job to another. </li></ul>LG7 Motivation Through Job Enrichment 10-
    26. 26. USING OPEN COMMUNICATION * * <ul><li>Create a culture that rewards listening. </li></ul><ul><li>Train managers to listen. </li></ul><ul><li>Use effective questioning techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove barriers to open communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask employees what’s important to them. </li></ul>LG7 Motivating Through Open Communication 10-
    27. 27. WORK WELL with OTHERS Keys for Productive Teamwork * * <ul><li>Have a common understanding of your task. </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify roles and responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Set rules. </li></ul><ul><li>Get to know each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate openly and often. </li></ul>Source: Wall Street Journal Research, September 2007. Recognizing a Job Well Done LG7 10-
    28. 28. WHAT’S GOOD for YOU Most Positive Remedies for Employee Moral * * Recognizing a Job Well Done LG7 10-
    29. 29. WHAT’S BAD for YOU Most Negative Actions for Employee Morale * * Recognizing a Job Well Done LG7 10-
    30. 30. MOTIVATING EMPLOYEES ACROSS the GLOBE * * <ul><li>Cultural differences make worker motivation a challenging task for global managers. </li></ul><ul><li>High-Context cultures require relationships and group trust before performance. </li></ul>LG8 Motivating Employees Across the Globe <ul><li>Low-Context cultures believe relationship building distracts from tasks. </li></ul>10-
    31. 31. MOTIVATING ACROSS the GENERATIONS * * <ul><li>Baby Boomers (1946 – 1964) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experienced great economic prosperity, job security, optimism about their future. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generation X (1965 – 1980) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raised in dual-career families, attended day care, feeling of insecurity about jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generation Y or Millenials (1980 – 2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raised by indulgent parents, used to many comforts like computers and cell phones </li></ul></ul>LG8 Motivating Employees Across Generations 10-
    32. 32. GENERATION X in the WORKPLACE * * <ul><li>Desire economic security but focus more on career security more than job security. </li></ul><ul><li>Good motivators as managers due to emphasis on results rather than work hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Tend to be flexible and good at collaboration and consensus building. </li></ul><ul><li>Very effective at giving employee feedback and praise. </li></ul>LG8 Motivating Employees Across Generations 10-
    33. 33. MILLENIALS in the WORKPLACE * * <ul><li>Tend to be impatient, skeptical, blunt and expressive. </li></ul><ul><li>Are tech-savvy and able to grasp new concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Able to multi-task and are efficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight a strong sense of commitment. </li></ul><ul><li>Place a high value on work-life balance. </li></ul><ul><li>Fun and stimulation are key job requirements. </li></ul>LG8 Motivating Employees Across Generations 10-

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