Advances in Molten Salt Thermal Storage [CSTP 2010]


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Kelly Beninga, Global Director, Renewable Energy, WORLEYPARSONS GROUP

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Advances in Molten Salt Thermal Storage [CSTP 2010]

  1. 1. Advances in Molten Salt Thermal Storage Kelly Beninga - Global Director, Renewable Energy Presentation to IntertechPIRA CSTP Conference May 5, 2010
  2. 2. 38 countries | 118 offices | 32,200 project services personnel Power Infrastructure & Minerals & Metals Hydrocarbons Coal Environment Base Metals Fixed Offshore Production Advanced Coal Resource Infrastructure Coal Facilities Gas Turbine Based Plants Urban Infrastructure Chemicals Floating & Deepwater Solutions Nuclear Coastal & Marine Ferrous Metals Offshore & Onshore Pipelines Renewable Energy Water & Wastewater Alumina & Systems (Solar, Wind, Biomass, Transport Aluminium Onshore Oil & Gas Production Geothermal) Environment Iron Ore Facilities Transmission Networks Gas Cleaning Heavy Oil & Oil Sands LNG Liquefaction & Re-gasification WorleyParsons is one of the world’s largest engineering and project delivery firms, servicing the Refining & Petrochemicals global energy and infrastructure markets. We have the track record, technical expertise, project Sulphur Management delivery systems, and resource depth to deliver a comprehensive range of solutions to clients, Specialty Capabilities customized to meet the needs of any project spanning the full spectrum of a project’s life cycle.2
  3. 3. Office Locations Europe Canada 2,200 8,450 Middle East 2,350 Africa 850 Asia Americas 4,800 5,750 Australia/New Zealand 7,800 38 countries 118 offices 32,200 project services personnel3
  4. 4. Utility-Scale Renewable Energy Engineering Services currently Current global experience includes 144 projects – Concentrating Solar Thermal Power 35 9000+ – Solar Photovoltaic 13 MW of utility-scale renewable energy projects – Wind (on and off-shore) 45 – Biomass power 41 – Geothermal 84
  5. 5. Utility Scale Solar Power Experience  Over 5000 MW in Design with multiple molten salt storage projects  Current Solar projects in: – Parabolic Trough – Central Receiver – Linear Fresnel – Photovoltaic (Concentrating PV, Flat-plate tracking or fixed PV)  CSP Customers include: – NextLight – Ausra – NextEra – Iberdrola – BrightSource Energy – SMUD – BP Alternative Energy – PG&E – Solar Reserve - Nevada Power – Cogentrix Locations: – California – Australia – New Mexico – Spain – Arizona – Abu Dhabi – Nevada - Chile – Florida – Hawaii5
  6. 6. Types of Molten Salt Thermal Storage  Eutectic mixture of 60% NaNO3/ 40% KNO3 salt  Two Tank Direct – Salt from cold tank heated directly in solar receiver, then directed to hot tank  Two Tank Indirect – Secondary heat transfer fluid is heated in solar receiver then heat is transferred to salt for storage  Single-Tank Thermocline - A single tank for storing both the hot and cold fluid is used, with the hot fluid on top and the cold fluid on the bottom. Most of the salt can be replaced with a low-cost filler material6
  7. 7. Two-Tank Direct Molten Salt Storage (SolarReserve)7
  8. 8. Two Tank Indirect Molten Salt Storage8
  9. 9. Single Tank Thermocline Storage9
  10. 10. Storage System Cost Comparison10
  11. 11. Solar Millennium - Andasol 1 Experience  Andasol 1 - 50 MW trough plant in Spain includes the first commercial molten salt storage system  Two-tank indirect system uses 7.5 hrs, 1010 MW-hrs of storage11
  12. 12. Thermocline Storage Demonstration  Sandia National Laboratories has demonstrated a 2.5- MWhr, backed-bed thermocline storage system  quartzite rock and sand filler material  Additional test loop planned at SolarTAC in Colorado12
  13. 13. Molten Salt Storage Scale-up  Storage tank size currently limited to Andasol dimensions (14m H x 37m D), 1010 MW-hr  Modularization used to scale up storage size  4 to 6 tanks used for larger (250 MW+) plants  Larger salt pumps required13
  14. 14. NextLight/ WorleyParsons Agua Caliente 250 MW14
  15. 15. APS/Abengoa - Solana 280 MW Plant15
  16. 16. Salt Freezing  Commercially available salts freeze at relatively high temperatures 120 to 220°C (250-430°F).  Special care must be taken to ensure that the salt does not freeze in the solar field piping during the night  Salt freezing is a bigger issue for troughs than central receivers  The Italian research laboratory, ENEA, has proven the technical feasibility of using molten-salt in a parabolic trough solar field with a salt mixture that freezes at 220°C (430°F)  Sandia National Laboratories are developing new salt mixtures with the potential for freeze points below 100°C (212°F)16
  17. 17. Sandia Advanced Salts  Patent application S-112,575, Low-Melting Point Inorganic Nitrate Salt Heat Transfer Fluid, R. W. Bradshaw and D. A. Brosseau, allowed Dec. 2008, in USPO review.  Second application S-114-222, Low Melting Point Heat Transfer Fluid, filed Dec. 2008, Cordaro and Bradshaw17
  18. 18. DOE Sponsored Research18
  19. 19. DOE Baseload Solicitation •Goal: develop CSP system capable of competing in the baseload power market by 2020 to •displace coal, a major source of CO2 emissions •Budget: $15M in FY10, $52M total over 5 years •Requirements: •Systems must have a capacity factor of 75% (10+ hours of storage) •Cost of competing power estimated at 8-9 cents/kWh (assuming restriction on coal •emissions requires sequestration that raises cost of coal power) •At least 85% of electricity must come from CSP •Design concepts of 100 MW or greater –19
  20. 20. Rocketdyne/ DOE Research20
  21. 21. SENER/ Torresol Energy21
  22. 22. Salt Storage Financial Considerations Use of storage in Spain driven by somewhat artificial market factors – 50 MW size limitation Financial viability in US dependant on storage cost, utility time-of-day pricing and capacity credit Storage costs range from $50 to $125 per kW-hr Escalating salt costs Molten salt central receiver storage currently lower cost than trough because of direct heating, larger temperature band Storage cost reductions needed to support cost effectiveness of CSP22
  23. 23. Contact Us WorleyParsons can support all your renewable energy needs Kelly Beninga Bill Pietrucha, PE Global Director Project Manager Renewable Energy Solar Power + 303 928 4242 + 916 817 3985 + 916 599 9933 mobile + 916 719 2521 mobile bill.pietrucha@worleyparsons.com23