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Intersection18: Agile Business Architecture Enabling Agility of Business & IT Projects - Alex Romanov

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Presented at Intersection18 Conference - intersectionconf.com

The key to business architecture is focusing on re-defining the business complexity in terms of highly reusable, independently re-designable, as-simple-as-possible, pattern-based modules (“construction blocks”), which

• Have clear boundaries, clear interactions with other business modules, and clear internal requirements
• May be utilized in multiple business processes of multiple lines of business
• May be out-sourced, in-sourced, or consolidated as internal/external business services
• May be rapidly modified by applying different sets of business rules, and
• Can be independently developed with agile IT methods (by designing the above modules to enable appropriate componentization for, say, SCRUM backlogs prioritizing/planning)

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Intersection18: Agile Business Architecture Enabling Agility of Business & IT Projects - Alex Romanov

  1. 1. ALEX ROMANOV @AVROLABS intersection 18 prague v3
  2. 2. ORGANIZATIONS IN “DOUBLE-PERSONALITY DISORDER” Modern Business Architecture MODERN BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT CREATES CONFLICTING REQUIREMENTS TO BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE
  3. 3. ISSUE… FOR YEARS BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE STRIVED TO PROVIDE A HOLISTIC, MULTI-VIEW METHOD TO DESCRIBE AN ENTERPRISE IN ALL ITS COMPLEXITY… (TO ENABLE BUSINESS TRANSFORMATION)
  4. 4. Metamodel = definition of relationships between objects used to define an enterprise a very, very, very high level GSRM metamodel … DEVELOPED COMPLEX META MODELS… Program Service Accountability Concept Target Group Need Outcome recognizes expresses addresses employs has an established for administers produces Process performs Resources Target Group State exists in a used in Policy realized by Jurisdiction promulgates Relation relates to relates to More and more complex…
  5. 5. • Enterprise = a set of mutually contributing services • Services cross org.unit silos • Processes within Service boundaries • Targeting external or internal needs Instead of Enterprise = set of org.units performing business processes …EVOLVED FROM “ORG STRUCTURE” VIEW TO BUSINESS SERVICES CONCEPT… Org. unit Org. unit Org. unit Org. unit Org. unit Org. unit Service Target Group Target Group Service Support Service Support Service Output Output Output Output Output
  6. 6. …DEVELOPED COMPREHENSIVE SERVICE MODELS… RUS RUS Public and Support Services ROAD USER SAFETY DIVISION SERVICES PUBLIC AND SUPPORT SERVICES PUBLIC SERVICE SUPPORT SERVICE LEGEND Conviction information <Default text> <Default text> Client Monitoring Advisory Record Managed client order Validated finding of vehicle fitness Managed business account agreement Client Notification Managed case 81 Hosting Support (Out of Scope) 82 Telecommunications Support (Out of Scope) 83 IT Service Desk Support (Out of Scope) Managed business account agreement Managed business account agreement Securely produced card Managed business account agreement Managed business account agreement Managed business account agreement Fraud investigation finding Archives of Ontario Managed funds 76 Order Management Permission to deliver MTO-RUS products and services through specific channel locations Ignition Interlock compliance information Managed incident Product and service information Driver assessment Training Certificate Managed incident Managed business account agreement Securely produced card Securely produced card Securely produced card Photo card Managed client record Period of commercial impoundment Managed incident Securely produced card Driver assessment Training Certificate Managed technology infrastructure Managed technology infrastructure 03 Photo Card Police Services Labour & Transportation Cluster RUS CLIENT SERVICES (NOTATIONAL) Packaged Information 06 Driver Control Record Monitoring Business Process Model Model: Program & Service Package: Diagram: SIAM - Road User Safety Author: Business Architecture KM Date: 12/24/2010 Version: 11 ROAD USER SAFETY PROGRAM Service Integration & Accountability Model 02 Driving Instructor Licensing 10 Driver Training (Out of Scope) 11 Driver Training Organization Permission (Out of scope) 01 Driver Licensing 45 Vehicle Inspection 16 Card Production (Out of Scope) 12 Driver Testing (Out of Scope) 46 MVIS Contracting 40 Permission to Operate a Vehicle in Ontario 20 Information Products and Services 25 Road Safety Awareness (Out of Scope) 41 Accessible Parking Permit (Out of Scope) 50 Carrier Licensing 55 Carrier Safety Compliance 51 Carrier Enforcement 52 Oversize / Overweight Permit 53 International Registration Plan 56 Short Line Railway Licensing (Out of Scope) 57 Wrecking Yard Licensing (Out of Scope) 58 Trailer Dealer Licensing (Out of Scope) 35 I&IT Support (Out of Scope) 34 Financial Administration Driving Instructors Drivers Owners of Vehicles in ON, who need to Operate Vehicles in ON Carrier Licensing Applicant Short Line Railway Operators Wrecking Yard Operators 04 Border Crossing Permission Restricted Mobility Residents, Visitors or Transportation Providers 13 Driver Testing Organization Permission 32 Stock Management MGS Permission to issue training certificates Managed appointment 59 Commercial Vehicle Impoundment (Out of Scope) Carrier Intervention/ Sanction 05 Fraud Management Permission to test drivers Information Requestors Ontario Residents Managed stock item Permission to operate a Motor Vehicle Inspection Station 65 Knowledge Management Managed forms Ontario Road Users Managed document 33 Forms Management 60 Business Account Management Managed funds 80 Incident Management (Out of Scope) Published materials MINISTRY OF TRANSPORTATION Managed I&IT Environment Permission to operate as a trailer dealer 31 Document Management 14 Conviction Information (Out of Scope) 63 Service Location Configuration Permission to operate a wrecking facility 15 Vehicle Impoundment (Out of Scope) Permission to operate a short line railway 17 Ignition Interlock (Out of Scope) Managed record 18 Roadside Driver Monitoring (Out of Scope) Managed payment Ministry of Attorney General Permission to operate a Motor Vehicle InspectionMotor Vehicle Inspection Station Managed incident RUS SHARED SUPPORT SERVICES Record of vehicle details Finding of vehicle fitness Infrastructure & Technology Services 37 Payment Management Roadside finding Managed business account agreement May be renamed Client Monitoring and Control 38 Finance Management 70 Product Catalogue Vehicle Registrant Permission to test drivers 39 Vehicle Registration Information 73 Client Management 77 Appointment Scheduling (Out of Scope) 79 Records Management (Out of Scope) Permission to use municipally-defined parking privileges SUPPORT SERVICES PROVIDED BY OPS ORGANIZATIONS Permission to drive Permission to teach driving (for compensation) Permission to cross the border Licence Plate or Snowmobile Decal PUBLIC TARGET GROUPS 42 New Plate 47 MVIS Validation ServiceOntario Trailer Dealers Permission to operate a commercial vehicle on IRP member jurisdictions roads Permission to move an oversize / overweight load on Ontario roads Promotion of Road Safety Awareness Carrier Intervention/ Sanction Carrier Safety Rating Findings Permission to operate commercial motor vehicles Permission to operate a vehicle on the road OSS Licence Plate Requestor Permission to issue training certificates Canadian Citizens Residing in Ontario Driver Training Organization Driver Testing Organization Validated finding of vehicle fitness 75 Notification 72 Case Management Just a couple examples… MOECC Program Vote 1111 Environmental Protection Drinking Water & Environmental Compliance Division DWECD Compliance, Planning, & SAC Branch Compliance Promotion & Support Branch MOECC Program Vote 1109 Environmental Planning and Analysis Environmental Assessment & Permissions Division Environmental Enforcement & Compliance Office EECO Policy & Program Division MOECC Program Vote 1110 Environmental Science & Information Environmental Compliance, Assurance, and Risk Management Environmental Regulations Definition Service (aka Environmental Regulatory Programs Property of Env. Concern (L1) Drinking Water Protection Environmental Assessments Hazardous Waste Local Air Quality Non-Hazardous Waste Nutrient Mgt. Pesticides Source Water Protection Toxic Reductions Transboundary Air Pollution Waste Diversion Waste Water Ontario General Public (Target Group) MAG Regulated Community (Target Group) Court Compliance Enforcement INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY SERVICES SHARED SUPPORT SERVICES IT Incident Management LAND & RESOURCES CLUSTER I&IT Support Managed IT Environment Hosting Support Telecommunications Support IT Service Desk Support Managed IT Incident Managed Telecommunications Infrastructure Managed Technology Infrastructure Environmental Permission Management Environmental Compliance Communications, Information, Education, Training, and Outreach Managed Environmental Compliance Information Payment Management Financial Management /Planning Workforce Planning/ scheduling Managed IT Incident Managed Payment Managed Finnaces Managed Workforce skills & schedules Records of Site condition (RSC) / Brownfields Dry Cleaning (L2) Property of Environmental Concern (PoEC) Drinking Water Wells Environmental Assessments Subject Waste Mgt. Drive Clean Local Air Quality (airzone) Mgt. Vehicle Emissions Enforcement Hauled Sewage Non-Hazardous Waste (Municipal) Agriculture Source Material (GNF) Greenhouse Nutrient Feedwater (NASM) Non-Agriculture Source Material On-Farm Deadstock Pesticides (Pollinator Health) Source Water Protection Water Quantity Toxic Reductions NOx and Sox Cap and Trade Ozone Depleting Substances Industrial, Commercial and Institutional Waste Stewardship Industrial Sewage Municipal Sewage and Stormwater Private, Commercial and Institutional Sewage Laboratory licensing Technical Support & Forensics Environmental Investigation & Enforcement Legal Enforcement Encounter Technical Finding or Assessment Remediation Project Management Managed Remediation Project Master Data Management (Future) Managed Data Entity Profile Management Managed Entity Profile Incident Management Laboratory Samples Analysis (Drinking Water Testing Services 3rd party labs) Water & Waste Operator Certification (WWOCs) (Future) Document/ Record Management Notification/ communication Management Managed document or record Managed Communication Managed Environmental Incident LEGEND Non-MOECC government service MOECC service in scope of CRISP, or affected by CRISP MOECC service out of scope of CRISP Service Output Non- government 3rd party service Program Accountability Target Group Target (sub) Group Environmental Sciences and Standards Division LASB (Labs Services Branch) Laboratory Samples Analysis (ministry labs) Managed Samples & Lab.Results Period of permission (Certificate) Period of Environmental Permission Period of Permission (Licence) Division Accountability Color of service output connectors – for visibility only; has no architectural meaning. Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch Wells Licensing Period of Permission (Well Licence) Branch Accountability ???? accountability Regulatory Submissions Management Managed Regulatory Submission Period of Protection of the Ontario Public from Environmental and Human Health hazards caused by non-compliant members of Regulated Community Managed Environmental Compliance Enablers (Environmental Risk Assessment, Activities planning, Environmental Monitoring, Inspection, Audit, PO Orders, AMPs) Managed Court Services (type: Enforcement Encounter) Transportation Environmental compliance
  7. 7. …DOCUMENTED TONS OF COMPLEX PROCESSES… AD_MELT_11_03 Process Sanction for DT_Provider <<U>> School/ Location Record Event: EV_10_03: Update of MTCU/School/Location/DT_Provider Record or MELT individual User Record requested11_03_04 (UPDATE FOR MELT) Suspend the Participating Authority (Or MELT school/location/ individual) immediately Include: Update MTCU/School/Location/DT_Provider Record or MELT individual User Record (UC_10_03) / Generate Event Update of MTCU/School/Location/DT_Provider Record or MELT individual User Record requested MELT User Record <<U>>
  8. 8. …ORGANIZED WITH FRAMEWORKS & ARTIFACTS… Enterprise Architecture Deliverables CP0 Questionnaire Presentation slides Gate 0 Checklist What How Where Who When Why Business Context Scope (Planner View) Resource Type Line of Business Profile Program Service Program Profile Location Type Geographical Area Type Party Type Role Type Target Group Type Event Type Cycle Type Goal Need Mandate (Program) Target Grp Need X- Ref Business Architecture PIA Conceptual TRA Gate 1 Checklist Gate 2 Checklist Presentation slides Conceptual Model (Owner View) Conceptual Data Model Information Model Semantic Model Fact & Dimension MatrixO1 Interface Data Requirements DocumentM1 Service Life Cycle Business Function Model Service Integration & Accountability Model Service Profile Business Process Model SOA Service SpecificationO3 Business Network Model Governance Model Organization Chart State Transition Model Business Scenario/Busines s Use Case Service Objectives Performance Matrix Business Rule Source Business Rule Profile Program Logic Model System Model (Designer View) Logical Data Model Logical Dimensional ModelO1 System Functional Reqs / Use Case Specs (UML) System Architecture Doc Logical App Design Doc / Model + App Usage Pattern + SOA App. Service ModelO3 Solution Pattern Match Logical App Deployment Model + Quality Level Metrics + App Usage Pattern + Disaster/Major Failure Recovery View Supplementary Specification Logical Architecture Updated PIA Logical TRA Presentation Slides Technology Model (Builder View) Physical Data Model Database Inventory Physical Dimensional ModelO1 Physical App Design Doc / Model + Infrastructure Usage Pattern + SOA App. Service ModelO3 App Implementation DocM2 Application Inventory Physical Deployment Model + Quality Level Metrics + Disaster / Major Failure Recovery View + Infrastructure Usage Pattern User Interface Design Operating Schedule Physical Architecture Updated PIA Physical TRA Gate 3 Checklist Presentation Slides Data Function Network People Time Motivation Gate 4 & 5 Checklists Presentation Slides
  9. 9. WHAT WE HEAR ABOUT CLASSIC BUSINES ARCHITECTURE LATELY: SLOW! WAY TOO COMPLEX! HARD TO MANAGE CHANGE! LOW (AND TOO LATE) VALUE TO IT PROJECT LIFECYCLE! FIND WALKAROUNDS TO AVOID GOVERNANCE CHECKPOINTS!
  10. 10. WELCOME TO REALITY’2018 WE NEED AGILE! WE NEED AGILE! WE NEED DIGITAL! WE NEED AGILE! WE NEED TO OUTSOURCE, NOW! WE NEED AGILE!
  11. 11. CONTRADICTIONS - 1 VERY DETAILED, FRAMEWORK-BASED BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE IS TOO “HEAVY” TO READILY SUPPORT RAPID BUSINESS ADAPTABILITY, RAPID OUTSOURCING DECISIONS. Consistent Business Knowledge Base; Complex end-to-end Models Rapid Business Adaptability; on-demand outsourcing/ Internal services consolidationModern Business Architecture
  12. 12. ISSUE: “SYSTEM BLACK BOX MENTALITY”
  13. 13. • Established, revenue generating • SMEs knew why it was as it was • ~50 years ago: automation • Machine logic: – Followed SME knowledge of that time – Rules converted into code • With time: additional systems • SMEs growing in systems - dominated environment • (System) Behavior documented • 3rd party: same environment Another Enterprise: Service Provider Mainframe Workstation Enterprise Multiple IT updates & Support Systems Mainframe ENTERPRISE FULL OF LEGACY Legacy SME 1st generation SME Policies, Operations Manuals Business Model 3rd party SME Initial Business Processes & Behavior based on Business Goals
  14. 14. Enterprise Silo Silo Silo Another Enterprise: Service Provider Mainframe Workstation THE BLACK BOX: Business Processes defined by tradition & IT implementation EMERGENCE OF THE BLACK BOX MENTALITY • Initial logic blurred in memories • Systems logic is perceived as business logic: – Business described only on its IT surface - UI, flags, fields, screens – Business processes = screen flows – Business rules embedded in code – IT expertise = Business expertise – Because “that’s how it works” – Silos are “unique” because they use different screens of legacy systems • Now Systems totally define how the Business works! Nth generation SME 3rd party SME IT Stakeholders perceive their enterprise as the (IT-driven) BLACK BOX Multiple IT updates & Support Systems Mainframe
  15. 15. BLACK BOX & BUSINESS TRANSFORMATION GENERATIONS OF BUSINESS LEADERS FEEL THE NEED TO MODERNIZE… … BUT DEFAULT TO: • Opportunities = Systems Updates • Investing in IT updates while keeping legacy system-determined business models unchanged Outsource… Disruptive “Digital” Business model… Flexible business rules … Agility…
  16. 16. CONSEQUENCE OF “SYSTEM BLACK BOX MENTALITY” • IT drives the agenda, speculating that it knows, what business wants • “Agility” means “Agile System Change” by default System-inspired business silos – (Montecchi use one system, Capuleti attached to another) “Business transformation” funding model is IT-project-based Little of business strategy outside of system platforms “Business” processes are IT-driven Similar business functions provided by different systems – hard to consolidate Impossible to re-design business outside of IT Vendors sell software on the premise of “easy configuration” way before Complexity Challenges are understood Default “re-platforming” of legacy Business Models/ Processes onto newer systems “Business” requirements in terms of systems - “Siebel has this feature – that’s what we need”
  17. 17. CONTRADICTIONS - 2 THE BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE MANTRA WAS ALWAYS “SYSTEMS AGNOSTIC” THAT’S RIGHT… THEORETICALLY. IN THE “REAL WORLD” OF “SYSTEM BLACK BOX” MENTALITY, BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE MUST LOOK AT SYSTEMS TOO - IT’S THE REALITY Consistent Business Knowledge Base; Complex end-to-end Models Business Adaptability; on-demand outsourcing/ Internal services consolidation Classic System-agnostic Business Architecture “IT Black Box” Mentality, IT-based projects, Funding model Modern Business Architecture
  18. 18. Issue AGILITY OF WHAT?
  19. 19. CRUCIAL POINTS OF the BUSINESS AGILITY MANIFESTO: “BUSINESS AGILITY” IS ABILITY TO MODIFY CONCEPTS AND STRUCTURES OF THE BUSINESS ITSELF... Business Agility Manifesto By Roger Burlton, Ronald Ross & John Zachman https://busagilitymanifesto.org/ The Manifesto sets the Strategy. This presentation focuses on practical tactics Business change depends on a Business Knowledge Base for predicting and mitigating impacts of change Development of software faster is not sufficient for Business survival and growth The measure of agile business is Business Knowledge in the Knowledge Base, and how easily it can be re-configured Avoidable scrap and rework due to Lack of Business Knowledge is pure waste Creation of value for silos rather than for the whole enterprise has no value The Business Knowledge Base is… a mandatory business asset of the Knowledge Age.
  20. 20. • “IT Black Box” Mentality confuses rapid business transformation with rapid IT project delivery • Similar to “You can’t get fired for hiring IBM” (the ‘90’ies), – Now “You can’t get fired for introducing “Agile (IT project) ”… • Often looks like a cargo cult AGILITY MISUNDERSTOOD Dump anything requiring time: • Business Architecture (usually, the first victim) • Even well structured Business Requirements for IT Easy to criticize… BUT FAST IT IMPLEMENTATION IS A VITAL PART OF FAST BUSINESS TRANSFORMATION in IT-BASED BUSINESS, AND MUST BE PROVIDED! Adhere to technicalities: • Agile project roles, events… • SCRUM artifacts / user stories… • “Stand ups” instead of meetings… • User story repositories… • Planning projects by sprints…
  21. 21. CONTRADICTIONS - 3 BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE MUST ADDRESS BUSINESS AGILITY, AGILE IT DELIVERY, AND ALSO BE AGILE ITSELF BECAUSE THERE IS NO TIME! Consistent Business Knowledge Base; Complex end-to-end Models Business Adaptability; on-demand outsourcing/ Internal services consolidation Business Agility Agile IT Project Delivery System-agnostic Business Architecture “IT Black Box” Mentality, IT-based projects, Funding model Modern Business Architecture
  22. 22. Issue RIGID BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE GOVERNANCE OR BUREAUCRACY?
  23. 23. RIGID GOVERNANCE MODELS Timeline Est L1 Est L2 CP0 CP1 CP 2,3 • Project management standard • Funding allocation standard • Checkpoint acceptance standard • GSRM based modeling standard 2-level Initiative/ Project cost estimation Project concept, charter, budget approval & allocation Conceptual business architecture 2-level proof of alignment with Business Strategy Physical, Logical architecture 2-level proof of alignment with Corporate technology strategy Complex large enterprises with multiple lines of business, multiple systems would sink in chaos without rigid governance But they have no time to invest in rigid governance!
  24. 24. CONTRADICTIONS Consistent Business Knowledge Base; Complex end-to-end Models Business Adaptability; on-demand outsourcing/ Internal services consolidation Business Agility Agile IT Project Delivery System-agnostic Business Architecture “IT Black Box” Mentality, IT-based projects, Funding model Rigid Enterprise Architecture Governance Get rid of all “bureaucracy” Modern Business Architecture HOW TO BE WELL ARCHITECTED, YET AGILE?
  25. 25. AGILITY IS A MODERN NECESSITY, AND BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE HAS TO LEARN TO SUPPORT IT, OR ELSE… NOT ENOUGH JUST TO DEVELOP CLASSIC BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE WITH ITS WONDERFUL METHODS (CAPABILITIES, VALUE CHAIN, SOE, BPM, ETC.) Consistent Business Knowledge Base; Complex end-to-end Models Business Adaptability; on-demand outsourcing/ Internal services consolidation Business Agility Agile IT Project Delivery System-agnostic Business Architecture “IT Black Box” Mentality, IT-based projects, Funding model Rigid Enterprise Architecture Governance Get rid of all “bureaucracy” Modern Business Architecture FROM A SLOW “IVORY TOWER LIBRARIAN” - TO AN ACTIVE AND AGILE ON-DEMAND CHANGE AGENT Help generate transformation business cases supporting business agility and IT agility together Dramatically improve/ speed-up IT project scoping and cost estimation Help to significantly cut IT projects duration and cost by reducing of thrashing, scrap, and rework Work directly with Project SDLC, SCRUM, Backlogs, etc. to optimize agile IT delivery plans “Covertly” accumulate, manage, and be ready to present on- demand Business Knowledge sufficient for rapid change Reveal in advance reusable/ out-/in- sourceable business components, be ready with service segregation architecture, on- demand
  26. 26. THERE IS NO SILVER BULLET! APPROACHES DEVELOPED FOR REAL LIFE, MULTI $,$$$,$$$ PROJECTS
  27. 27. BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE AS AGILITY ENABLER COMPONENTIZATION • KEY CONCEPT OF ANY AGILE WORK • BREAK WORK INTO MANAGEABLE SMALL, SELF- SUFFICIENT COMPONENTS • PRIORITIZE • WORK ON THEM ONE BY ONE • RE-PRIORITIZE
  28. 28. AGILE ARCHITECTING… WITH BUILDING BLOCKS “Architecting” is knowing, which blocks to use, how to combine and modify them.
  29. 29. THE IDEA OF ARCHITECTURAL “CONSTRUCTION BLOCKS” IS NOT NEW… THE QUESTION IS: WHAT ARE THE OPTIMAL “CONSTRUCTION BLOCKS” FOR ALL TYPES OF AGILITY?
  30. 30. WHAT MAKES A GOOD COMPONENT/ MODULE? Is this a component? Is this a component? Pattern-based modules are optimal Re-define business complexity in terms of modules, which are: • Highly reusable, • Easily customizable – for multiple purposes • Independently re- designable • Not too small – (hard to manage diversity) • Not too big/complex – (hard to modify)
  31. 31. DESIGNING AGILE ENTERPRISE OF PATTERN-BASED MODULES ENTERPRISE LINE OF BUSINESS LINE OF BUSINESS LINE OF BUSINESS Something unique Clear boundaries/ interfaces Clear interactions with other modules Clear internal structure Utilized in multiple lines of business (with modifications – By business rules, Different sub-processes) May be rapidly Consolidated (Internal business service) May be rapidly Outsourced (External Business Service) IT AGILE DEVELOPMENT BACKLOG Designed for easy Modification (EG by Business Rules) May be prioritized into Backlogs for IT project delivery Agility The more “unique”/customized are business lines / business processes / business functions – the less chance for real agility! May drive well structured, minimalistic, business rule- modifiable business requirements new internal interface new external interface Re-usable patterns of Business components (e.g. functions, parts of process, etc.)
  32. 32. BUSINESS ARCHITECTURAL PATTERNS AS COMPONENTS FOR AGILITY.
  33. 33. The CLASSICS: PATTERN LANGUAGE… from 1977 A classic book by architect & design theorist Cristopher Alexander et al A pattern describes • a problem, occurring over and over • the core solution to that problem, usable a million times over… • Experts DO NOT tackle a problem by inventing a new solution that is distinct from existing ones • Experts DO recall a similar problem they have already solved, and reuse the essence of its solution to solve the new problem
  34. 34. AFTER 1977: PATTERNS, MORE PATTERNS… • Very little pattern thinking in business architecture • Business architects often model over and over – from scratch • What patterns to use for Enterprise agility?
  35. 35. THE 1ST ATTEMPT: CLASSIC GSRM
  36. 36. • GSRM = Governments Strategic Reference Model • Developed for Federal Government of Canada – BTEP • Common language describing the business of “A Government” • Enables re-use of designs of similar programs / services • Adopted as a standard in many jurisdictions • Not a prescription • Works for many other types of business …DEFINED PATTERNS TO DESCRIBE ENTERPRISE
  37. 37. FOR SIMILAR TYPES OF BUSINESS: • Business Services follow the same Service Pattern • Business processes follow the same Process Pattern GSRM PATTERNS: PICK ONE, MODIFY, DONE. Service Target Group Target Group Service Support Service Support Service Output Output Output Output OutputBusiness Process Patterns Business Service Patterns Agility: • No need to re-invent from scratch, much higher speed.
  38. 38. 19 GSRM Service Patterns for ANY Government SERVICE TYPE SERVICE TYPE DESCRIPTION 01 PROVIDE FUNDS Services that acquire or dispense money. 02 PROVIDE RESOURCES Services that acquire or dispense units of resource or periods of use of a resource (includes labour, energy, land, facilities, movable assets, supplies, but excludes funds, information, rules) 03 PROVIDE TRANSPORT Services that move people and resources from point to point (includes energy, moveable assets, supplies, funds, information) 04 PROVIDE ADVISORY ENCOUNTER Services that provide an encounter during which data, information and/or advice is conveyed to a party or a system 05 PROVIDE MATCH, REFERRAL, LINKAGE Services that match, refer or link one party to another 06 PROVIDE NEW KNOWLEDGE Services that conduct research. 07 PROVIDE ADVOCACY AND PROMOTION Services that represent, advocate for or promote government programs and services by speaking to, persuading, or creating awareness in people 08 PROVIDE RECREATIONAL & CULTURAL Services that provide recreational and cultural experiences to people 09 PROVIDE EDUCATIONAL & TRAINING Services that provide educational and training experiences to people 10 PROVIDE CARE & REHABILITATION Services that provide care and rehabilitation to people. 11 PROVIDE PERIODS OF AGREEMENT Services that resolve disputes or create agreements between parties 12 PROVIDE PERIODS OF PERMISSION Services that express government authority by granting permission for a period of time to engage in activities, possess or control property or resources, or hold status, authority or privileges. 13 PROVIDE PERIODS OF PROTECTION Services that guard people and resources from threats. (includes land, facilities, movable assets, supplies, funds, information 14 PROVIDE FINDINGS Services that inspect, investigate and analyze to uncover information and prepare findings and recommendations 15 PROVIDE INTERVENTIONS Services that intervene, respond to threats and emergencies, give aid, and restore order. 16 PROVIDE RULINGS & JUDGEMENTS Services that apply rules and dispense justice. 17 PROVIDE PENALTIES & PERIODS OF SANCTION Services that sanction, force compliance, mete out punishment and apply penalties 18 PROVIDE RULES Services that produce laws, regulations, policies, strategies, plans and designs. 19 PROVIDE IMPLEMENTED CHANGES Services that bring about changes to existing programs and services including organization structure, practices and systems.
  39. 39. 19 GSRM Service Patterns for ANY Government (2) SERVICE TYPE SERVICE TYPE DESCRIPTION 01 PROVIDE FUNDS Services that acquire or dispense money. 02 PROVIDE RESOURCES Services that acquire or dispense units of resource or periods of use of a resource (includes labour, energy, land, facilities, movable assets, supplies, but excludes funds, information, rules) 03 PROVIDE TRANSPORT Services that move people and resources from point to point (includes energy, moveable assets, supplies, funds, information) 04 PROVIDE ADVISORY ENCOUNTER Services that provide an encounter during which data, information and/or advice is conveyed to a party or a system 05 PROVIDE MATCH, REFERRAL, LINKAGE Services that match, refer or link one party to another 06 PROVIDE NEW KNOWLEDGE Services that conduct research. 07 PROVIDE ADVOCACY AND PROMOTION Services that represent, advocate for or promote government programs and services by speaking to, persuading, or creating awareness in people 08 PROVIDE RECREATIONAL & CULTURAL Services that provide recreational and cultural experiences to people 09 PROVIDE EDUCATIONAL & TRAINING Services that provide educational and training experiences to people 10 PROVIDE CARE & REHABILITATION Services that provide care and rehabilitation to people. 11 PROVIDE PERIODS OF AGREEMENT Services that resolve disputes or create agreements between parties 12 PROVIDE PERIODS OF PERMISSION Services that express government authority by granting permission for a period of time to engage in activities, possess or control property or resources, or hold status, authority or privileges. 13 PROVIDE PERIODS OF PROTECTION Services that guard people and resources from threats. (includes land, facilities, movable assets, supplies, funds, information 14 PROVIDE FINDINGS Services that inspect, investigate and analyze to uncover information and prepare findings and recommendations 15 PROVIDE INTERVENTIONS Services that intervene, respond to threats and emergencies, give aid, and restore order. 16 PROVIDE RULINGS & JUDGEMENTS Services that apply rules and dispense justice. 17 PROVIDE PENALTIES & PERIODS OF SANCTION Services that sanction, force compliance, mete out punishment and apply penalties 18 PROVIDE RULES Services that produce laws, regulations, policies, strategies, plans and designs. 19 PROVIDE IMPLEMENTED CHANGES Services that bring about changes to existing programs and services including organization structure, practices and systems. Work of any Ministry of any Government in the World can be described by MODIFICATIONS of these patterns
  40. 40. Each SERVICE PATTERN includes 4 “cycles” of BUSINESS PROCESS PATTERNS: 1. Service Delivery processes 2. Service Planning processes 3. Service Provisioning processes 4. Service Decommissioning processes GSRM PROCESS PATTERN “CYCLES”
  41. 41. GSRM PROCESS PATTERNS: DELIVERY GSRM PROCESS PATTERN NAME DESCRIPTION 1 REGISTER REQUEST FOR SERVICE DELIVERY Receive and record the request for the service. 2 QUALIFY REQUEST FOR SERVICE DELIVERY Determine whether the requester is eligible, and whether it is feasible to provide the service. 3 SET SERVICE DELIVERY SCHEDULE AND NOTIFY Determine when the service will be delivered to a requestor, and notify them, the service provider and other stakeholders of that delivery schedule. 4 OPEN SERVICE DELIVERY CASE Prepare for recurring service delivery to the same client. 5 ALLOCATE RESOURCES TO SERVICE OUTPUT Assign appropriate staff and resources to deliver the service to a client. 6 DEPLOY RESOURCES FOR SERVICE OUTPUT Assign tasks and ensure resources are available at the appropriate location, to deliver the service to a client. 7 PRODUCE SERVICE OUTPUT Perform tasks required for the production of one deliverable. 8 DELIVER SERVICE OUTPUT Send or provide service deliverable to the client. 9 COLLECT AND ACCOUNT FOR A SERVICE OUTPUT FEE Collect a fee for the service, bank the fee and maintain accounting records of fees collected. 10 PROCESS SERVICE EXCEPTIONS Record, analyze, and take corrective action for an exception to the planned production and distribution of a service deliverable. 11 REGISTER SERVICE OUTPUT Record service delivery. 12 MAINTAIN SERVICE OUTPUT Perform any post-delivery activities. 13 CLOSE SERVICE DELIVERY CASE Close out a series of multiple service deliveries to the same client.
  42. 42. GSRM PROCESS PATTERNS: DELIVERY (2) GSRM PROCESS PATTERN NAME DESCRIPTION 1 REGISTER REQUEST FOR SERVICE DELIVERY Receive and record the request for the service. 2 QUALIFY REQUEST FOR SERVICE DELIVERY Determine whether the requester is eligible, and whether it is feasible to provide the service. 3 SET SERVICE DELIVERY SCHEDULE AND NOTIFY Determine when the service will be delivered to a requestor, and notify them, the service provider and other stakeholders of that delivery schedule. 4 OPEN SERVICE DELIVERY CASE Prepare for recurring service delivery to the same client. 5 ALLOCATE RESOURCES TO SERVICE OUTPUT Assign appropriate staff and resources to deliver the service to a client. 6 DEPLOY RESOURCES FOR SERVICE OUTPUT Assign tasks and ensure resources are available at the appropriate location, to deliver the service to a client. 7 PRODUCE SERVICE OUTPUT Perform tasks required for the production of one deliverable. 8 DELIVER SERVICE OUTPUT Send or provide service deliverable to the client. 9 COLLECT AND ACCOUNT FOR A SERVICE OUTPUT FEE Collect a fee for the service, bank the fee and maintain accounting records of fees collected. 10 PROCESS SERVICE EXCEPTIONS Record, analyze, and take corrective action for an exception to the planned production and distribution of a service deliverable. 11 REGISTER SERVICE OUTPUT Record service delivery. 12 MAINTAIN SERVICE OUTPUT Perform any post-delivery activities. 13 CLOSE SERVICE DELIVERY CASE Close out a series of multiple service deliveries to the same client. BPM or “Process Design” Exercises Frequently focus on re-designing (from scratch) Delivery Process Processes.
  43. 43. GSRM PROCESS PATTERNS: PLANNING GSRM PROCESS PATTERN NAME DEFINITION 1 RECOGNIZE SERVICE PLANNING CYCLE The recognition of any pre-determined cycle concerned with establishing direction, setting service delivery objectives, and preparing service delivery activities/timelines. 2 RECOGNIZE SERVICE CONTINGENCY EVENT The recognition of any occurrence of events outside the scope of normal service delivery that may impact service delivery. 3 FORECAST SERVICE DEMAND The determination of the projected need/frequency/volume of service delivery required for a given planning cycle. 4 FORECAST SERVICE RISKS The determination of all threats to the successful achievement of service delivery, including the estimation of their impact, their probability and timeframe of occurrence, their classification and prioritization. 5 SET PERFORMANCE TARGETS FOR SERVICE, PROCESSES, RESOURCES The determination of specific values or expectations for measurable indicators of successful service delivery. 6 MEASURE PERFORMANCE OF SERVICE, PROCESSES, RESOURCES The ongoing monitoring and measuring of pre-determined performance indicators to determine the degree to which they vary from target values or expectations. 7 ESTIMATE SERVICE RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS (labour, energy, land, facilities, movable assets, supplies, funds, information, rules) The determination of the type and level of resources needed, based on the forecasted demand. 8 ALLOCATE RESOURCES TO SERVICE PROCESSES The allocation of resources of appropriate types and levels, based on estimated requirements, to the appropriate service delivery processes.
  44. 44. GSRM PROCESS PATTERNS: PLANNING (2) GSRM PROCESS PATTERN NAME DEFINITION 1 RECOGNIZE SERVICE PLANNING CYCLE The recognition of any pre-determined cycle concerned with establishing direction, setting service delivery objectives, and preparing service delivery activities/timelines. 2 RECOGNIZE SERVICE CONTINGENCY EVENT The recognition of any occurrence of events outside the scope of normal service delivery that may impact service delivery. 3 FORECAST SERVICE DEMAND The determination of the projected need/frequency/volume of service delivery required for a given planning cycle. 4 FORECAST SERVICE RISKS The determination of all threats to the successful achievement of service delivery, including the estimation of their impact, their probability and timeframe of occurrence, their classification and prioritization. 5 SET PERFORMANCE TARGETS FOR SERVICE, PROCESSES, RESOURCES The determination of specific values or expectations for measurable indicators of successful service delivery. 6 MEASURE PERFORMANCE OF SERVICE, PROCESSES, RESOURCES The ongoing monitoring and measuring of pre-determined performance indicators to determine the degree to which they vary from target values or expectations. 7 ESTIMATE SERVICE RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS (labour, energy, land, facilities, movable assets, supplies, funds, information, rules) The determination of the type and level of resources needed, based on the forecasted demand. 8 ALLOCATE RESOURCES TO SERVICE PROCESSES The allocation of resources of appropriate types and levels, based on estimated requirements, to the appropriate service delivery processes. “Planning” business processes Are frequently omitted by BPM or “Process Design” exercises because they are not part of “Customer experience”
  45. 45. GSRM PROCESS PATTERNS: PROVISIONING GSRM PROCESS PATTERN NAME DEFINITION 1 MONITOR SERVICE RESOURCE CONSUMPTION Monitor resource consumption (including staff time) to ensure adequate supply 2 MONITOR SERVICE RESOURCE AVAILABILITY Monitor resource availability (including staffing levels) to ensure adequate supply 3 CONFIGURE PROCESSES TO RESPOND TO DEMAND OR SUPPLY LEVEL LIMITS Adjust processes when demand or supply levels change 4 CONFIGURE SERVICE PROCESSES TO RESPOND TO CONTINGENCY EVENT Adjust processes when contingency event happens 5 SOURCE SERVICE RESOURCES Determine where/how resources are acquired 6 REGISTER AND EQUIP SERVICE SUPPLIERS Sign agreements, register and set up suppliers 7 ACQUIRE AND REGISTER SERVICE RESOURCES Acquire resources (e.g. order supplies, hire staff); and Register resources (in inventory) 8 PAY FOR SERVICE RESOURCES Pay for resources 9 MAINTAIN SERVICE RESOURCES Maintain resources (e.g. upgrade computer, repair equipment, store information) 10 DEPLOY SERVICE RESOURCES GEOGRAPHICALLY Deploy resources to locations (move goods, relocate staff, send information) 11 SET SERVICE SCHEDULE Determine timing & frequency of service delivery 12 CONFIGURE SERVICE RESOURCES Make resources ready to be used in service delivery (e.g. train staff, configure software) 13 PROTECT SERVICE RESOURCES Protect and secure resources 14 PROMOTE SERVICE Promote service to target group (awareness) 15 MONITOR AND MITIGATE SERVICE RISKS Monitor and mitigate risks 16 PROCESS SERVICE COMPLAINTS Accept, analyze and respond to complaints 17 REGISTER AND EQUIP TARGET GROUP MEMBERS Register clients, and provide access privileges, documentation and training to use the service
  46. 46. GSRM PROCESS PATTERNS: PROVISIONING (2) GSRM PROCESS PATTERN NAME DEFINITION 1 MONITOR SERVICE RESOURCE CONSUMPTION Monitor resource consumption (including staff time) to ensure adequate supply 2 MONITOR SERVICE RESOURCE AVAILABILITY Monitor resource availability (including staffing levels) to ensure adequate supply 3 CONFIGURE PROCESSES TO RESPOND TO DEMAND OR SUPPLY LEVEL LIMITS Adjust processes when demand or supply levels change 4 CONFIGURE SERVICE PROCESSES TO RESPOND TO CONTINGENCY EVENT Adjust processes when contingency event happens 5 SOURCE SERVICE RESOURCES Determine where/how resources are acquired 6 REGISTER AND EQUIP SERVICE SUPPLIERS Sign agreements, register and set up suppliers 7 ACQUIRE AND REGISTER SERVICE RESOURCES Acquire resources (e.g. order supplies, hire staff); and Register resources (in inventory) 8 PAY FOR SERVICE RESOURCES Pay for resources 9 MAINTAIN SERVICE RESOURCES Maintain resources (e.g. upgrade computer, repair equipment, store information) 10 DEPLOY SERVICE RESOURCES GEOGRAPHICALLY Deploy resources to locations (move goods, relocate staff, send information) 11 SET SERVICE SCHEDULE Determine timing & frequency of service delivery 12 CONFIGURE SERVICE RESOURCES Make resources ready to be used in service delivery (e.g. train staff, configure software) 13 PROTECT SERVICE RESOURCES Protect and secure resources 14 PROMOTE SERVICE Promote service to target group (awareness) 15 MONITOR AND MITIGATE SERVICE RISKS Monitor and mitigate risks 16 PROCESS SERVICE COMPLAINTS Accept, analyze and respond to complaints 17 REGISTER AND EQUIP TARGET GROUP MEMBERS Register clients, and provide access privileges, documentation and training to use the service “Provisioning & Decommissioning” business processes Also are frequently omitted
  47. 47. BUSINESS FUNCTIONS CATALOGS QUESTIONNARIES FOR RAPID BUSINESS REQUIREMENTS GSRM EXTENSIONS
  48. 48. • Catalogue / cross reference Business Functions across GSRM process patterns Business Process Business Process Business Process Business Process Bus. Funct Bus. Funct Bus. Funct Business Process BUILDING A CATALOG OF BUSINESS FUNCTION PATTERNS Bus. Funct Bus. Funct Bus. Funct Step Step Step Step Step • Re-designing a Process re-use same Functions • Re-designing a Function affects multiple Processes Agility: • Business Architecture focusing on Business Functions provides much higher agility then just process-oriented.
  49. 49. BFM-BASED BUSINESS REQUIREMENTS PATTERN Business Function patterns provide ideal TOC/ Questionnaire for • Rapidly prepared JAD sessions and • Gap-less elicitation of Business Requirements Example: a Fragment of BFM: Agility: • Significantly reduced time (Days vs. Weeks) & much better quality of Business Requirements • Good basis for initial backlogs for agile IT development
  50. 50. GSRM: INITIAL BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE… GSRM PROMICE WAS: • Any government Service & any Business Process can be: – Stereotyped after the standardized patterns – Become compatible with other services/ 3rd party business architectures • Any Business Transformation / IT project can be: – Planned based on GSRM patterns – Contribute pattern-based changes to the body of business knowledge • Much faster, better organized than non-pattern-based models • Huge knowledge bases in different tools stored tons of models. THIS WORKED… BUT…
  51. 51. SATURATION: GSRM JUST COULD NOT KEEP-UP PURE GSRM PATTERNS & GOVERNANCE WERE GREAT FOR INITIAL BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE, BUT… NOT FOR 2018 BUSINESS AGILITY… “Macro” end-to-end process patterns: • Changing a process = heavy re-modeling • Outsourcing / internal consolidations = total remodeling of everything Pure BPM: • No ready patterns for Business Functions / Capabilities • Outsourcing a BF = re- modeling multiple processes Incompatibility with other frameworks - APQC/RETAIL, ACORD Lengthy re-modeling = awkward role of Business Architecture: • Project cost estimation (rush to expensive scenarios) • Business decisions long before modeling complete • IT requirements & development rushed before modeling complete (WHAT AGILITY ?) Business Rules scattered across processes: • Does not help central hierarchical BR repository • Does not facilitate the Rules Engine to replace costly re- coding Possible digitalization interfaces not revealed in advance
  52. 52. SMALL REUSABLE BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE MODULES: NON-GSRM PROCESS PATTERNS
  53. 53. Case Management: High level process Case Management: Client-facing functions Case Management: Support functions CASE MANAGEMENT PATTERN(S) Case Management: State Transition Case open Case eligibility evaluated Case being planned Case being delivered Case results being evaluated Case resolved & closed Case rejected
  54. 54. Inspection case CASE MANAGEMENT – REAL CASEAdmin Operational Resource Inspection/AuditCase(CMA) InspectionCase RequestorCaseManager Reg. Entity Additional Requested Activity Shared Notific ations & commu nicatio ns Case Request Case status updates Compliance Assessment Report Notification Record Case Completed Screen Case Case Accepted? Provide Notification Close CasePlan Case no yes Assess Findings /Assess Case Progress no No additional Activities/ Cases required Additional Case Required? Associate Case & its data to the initiating Case yes Follow-up Case Review Is Case Initiated by Another Case? yes no Required activity is extenal, or internal to the case? Request to consider/plan another case in parallel to the current one externalno internal Request Inspection Request Investigation Request Support Service Additional Activity/Cases are required Open Case Communicate Environmental Case Results (Produce Assessment Report) Additional Activity /Case Was requested? Conduct Inspection Document Inspection findings Process Additionl activity response Associate current case to additional activity case Attach additional activity findings Findings record Case Record (additional Case Record (current) Produce Compliance Abatement Plan (CAP) Determine if appropriate to Release Report to Public Reports & Notifications (e.g. Compliance Assessment Report) ENTITY PROFILE RECORD Party System Activity Locaction ENTITY PROFILE RECORD Party System Activity Locaction Inspection Case Record STATE: PRELIMINARY Inspection Case Record STATE: OPEN/ SCREENED Case Record STATE: planned Case Record STATE: closed Case Record STATE: open/findings added Inspection Case Record Existing Case, which Initiated Case in question BR Criteria for Case Assessment BR Criteria for Case Screening Inspection Case Record Inspection Case Record STATE: DISCARDED Compliance Assessment Report Technical Assessment Report Forensics Report Non- Compliance Identified? n Execute CAP Voluntary Abatement Mandatory Abatement Voluntary Abatement Mandatory Abatement Case Record Inspection Case Record Party: District Area Supervisor Party: Provincial Officer Party: zzz Party: zzz Party: zzz Inspection / Audit Case request Specific case types Screen Environmental Incompliance case / inspection Screen Investigation Case Screen Support (Tech, Forrensics) Case Screen Incident Case Plan Environmental Incompliance case/ inspection Plan Investigation Case Plan Support (Tech, Forrensics) Case Plan Incident Case Perform Activity of Environmental Incompliance case/ inspection Perform Activity of Investigation Case Perform Activity of Support (Tech, Forrensics) Case Perform Activity of Incident Case Assess Findings/ progress of Environmental Incompliance case/ inspection Assess Findings/ progress of Investigation Case Assess Findings/ progress of Support (Tech, Forrensics) Case Assess Findings/ progress of Incident Case Communicate Results of Environmental Incompliance case/ inspection Communicate Results of Investigation Case Communicate Results of Support (Tech, Forrensics) Case Communicate Results of Incident Case Close Environmental Incompliance case/ inspection Close Investigation Case Close Support (Tech, Forrensics) Case Close Incident Case Follow-up Environmental Incompliance case / inspection Follow-up Investigation Case Follow-up Support (Tech, Forrensics) Case Follow-up Incident Case Request Inspection Request Investigation Request Support Service CRISP core processes Follow the same case management pattern. On the top level the processes look similar. The difference between different case types is in the decomposition of each process. Case Completed Screen CAP Case Plan CAP Case Perform Activity of CAP Case Assess Findings/ progress of CAP Case Communicate Results of CAP Case Close CAP Case Follow-up CAP Case Assess need for Environmental Incompliance case / Inspection Assess need for Investigation Case Assess need for Support (Tech, Forensics) Case Assess need for Incident Case Assess need for CAP Case Assign Resources to Environmental Incompliance case / Inspection Assign Resources to Investigation Case Assign Resources to Support (Tech, Forensics) Case Assign Resources to Incident Case Assign Resources to CAP CasePotential need for a case identified Steps prior to Case Management Steps of Actual Case Management Typical CRISP End-to-end business process CAP Case request Inspection/ audit case request Investigation Case request Incident Case request ????? Support Case request Incident Management Case ResolveIncidentManageCase Accountabl e3RD Party Support IncidentReportReceiver (whoeverpicksupthephoneisacasemgrtillthedistrictmgrtakesover) (executive) IssueManager InspectororERP Incident reporter Supervisor CAPCaseManager (e.g.District) Tech.Support/ Forrensic Party: District Manager Determine type of Incident & Mandate Call Log Notify 3rd Party E.g. Municipality Incident not in MOECC mandate Deferred Incident Report Incident Resolution Deferred Incident Information Report Not an Incident define IncidentIncident In mandate Provide additional info No need to open Incident case Incident Case Record State:open Triage/ Assess risk (screening) Risk assessment BR Risk Assessment Matrix Request More Info Notify Directors Notify Sr. mgt Communicate Case Spill Action Center (SAC) management: Further research / Notify 3rd Parties/ Coordinate with 3rd parties Request Immediate Response Not Immediate Response Immediate Response No time limit Assess Incident on-site Assess Compliance Verbal Directions Worksheet/ checklist Notify District Office Incident Notes Assign CAP Case Manager Desk-top Review In Compliance Non compliance, Needs Action Launch sub-cases: E.g. Tech Support, More CAP, investigation, etc. Submit an incident report Provide incident details Monitor incident response status Incident Questions Decision tree More info required Support exec. informing Incident case Record State: in progress U Incident Notes Assign inspector and ERP to geographic area Briefing note Incident Record State: in progress Incident case Record State: contained, closed U Inspectors / ERPs assigned To geographic areas Initiate CAP case Complete Incident case (form) Approval Required? Approve Case Closure y Close Incident Case Incident contained, case closed CAP Case Completed Manage CAP Case CU Incident Case Record State: preliminary BR Procedure Cards Notification HR/workforce record (including skills) HR/workforce record (schedule) Assign inspector to case BR Actions on Procedure Cards (who to notify Notification Notification HR/workforce record (including skills) HR/workforce record (schedule) CAP case Record Party: Ministry officer, Public, or Reg.Entity Party: SAC officer or District Officer Party: Upper mgt in MOECC Party: District Officer Party: District Officer Party: Municipality, And/or Another Ministry Party: Ech support/forensic specialist ENTITY PROFILE RECORD Party System Activity Locaction ENTITY PROFILE RECORD Party System Activity Locaction ENTITY PROFILE RECORD Party System Activity Locaction Prepare information report SAC engagement Required? Day/ night? Assign ERP to case Incident reporter satisfied day Verbal directions documented into CAP (how?) Address immediate situation Notify District for non-immediate response Incident case Record State: in progress Notification HR/workforce record (including skills) HR/workforce record (schedule) nightIf required: Additional activity: Request Technical Support Note: Same District Officer. Different pool because this is managing a separate case– CAP. Incident Report Received Investigation & Enforcement Case Investigate Court Syste m Enforce Assessorof investigationneed Environmental Intelligence Investigation Approver InvestigationcaseScreener Investig ation request or Investigative Committee Sr.Investigation Approver CourtAnalystCourt Region al Investig ative Speciali st(RIS) CrownBrief Approver Investigative CaseManager (Planner) INvestigator Lawyer/ Prosecutor Consider decision to investigate Inspection Case BR Judgement matrix RFI Request to investigate Investigate? Notify CMA to Plan without investigationno Approve investigation Intelligence information Formally Evaluate RFI (ASSESS) yes Approved? yes no Approve Intelligence – need to investigate Approved? no yes Request more info Investigation = GO, Create 1 Page summary Provide more info Investigation requested from existing case? yes Investigation denied no RFI 1 page summary Assess RFI, Provide Recommendation Committee findings Committee recommendation Investigative strategy Assess RFI, comm. Recommendations, Approve Approved? Document reason for disapproval Create Investigative case yes Closure report RFI (approved) Open Investigative case yes Assign Investigative case planner / Mgr Develop Investigation plan Investigation plan Develop resources plan Approve Investigation & resources plan resources plan Organize Evidence/ Prepare Crown Brief Monitor Investigation Collect Evidence Evidence metadata Admin/ update case Crown Brief Close Investigation Case Closure Report Case closed Close case Lay charges Prepare briefing materials Prepare final approval package Notify regional Mgt Briefing materials Final package Create Legal Svcs docs Legal svcs docs Present in Court Authorize Docs Document Court Results Investigative Case Record Determine witness needs Serving docs Witness need? Serve docs to witness Afidavit y Trial Follow-up Case Investigation requested from existing case? Notify Intelligence: investigation disaproved no Court Report (in Court Tracking Database) Update Court Proceedings Case Record Review/ approve Crown Brief Review/ approve Crown Brief Review/ approve Crown Brief Insufficient evidence Notification Record Screening Evaluation Checklist Investigative Case Record HR/workforce record (including skills) HR/workforce record (schedule) Decision record Decision record ENTITY PROFILE RECORD Party System Activity Locaction ENTITY PROFILE RECORD Party System Activity Locaction ENTITY PROFILE RECORD Party System Activity Locaction Party: zzz Party: Provincial Officer Party: Environmental Intelligence officer Party: Provincial Officer/supervisor Party: Provincial Officer Party: Provincial Officer / Superviser Party: Prov. Operations Mgr/ Director Party: Provincial officer / supervisor Party: Provincial Officer Party: zzz Party: Prosecutor Assistant Party: zzz Party: Judge Incident Case Party: EECO (Environmental Enforcement Compliance Officer) Party: EECO (Environmental Enforcement Compliance Officer) Manager Request to Investigate Deny investigation (RFI à close) Party System Activity Locaction Analyze /assess Env.INtelligence MOECC Legal Svcs Branch Review Crown Brief Review finnished Court Order Note: If Court Order is issued, it may trigger theCAP case. Incompliance Reduction Case Manage Inspection/ AuditCase ManageCAPCase Provide Technical/ Forensics supportSupp ort Manage Incident Case Manage CourtCase CMACase Manager CAPCaseManager Reg.Entity Proponnent Provide INvestigati on Provide Legal Consultatio n Tech.Suppor t/Forrensic IMCase Manager (e.g.District) Director Provide Disagreem ent resolution Court Party: Provincial Officer Party: Provincial Officer Party: Investigator Party: MOECC Legal Svcs Branch Party: Proponent (Reg.Entity) CAP Case Completed Screen CAP Case Initiate communicaction with Proponent of CAP Case Plan CAP Case Perform Activity of CAP Case Assess Findings/ progress of CAP Case Communicate Results of CAP Case Close CAP Case Assign Resources to CAP Case Happens automatically: The only resource on the CAP is the PO who initiated it All to discretion of PO PO communicates with Proponent till completion), or waits for completion date ENTITY PROFILE RECORD Party System Activity Locaction History of non- compliance,Severity Trigger: Non-compliance (Leg) Or Non-Conformance Inspection Report (filled checklist) From Incident or Inspection CA Plan: Voluntary abatement = a letter to Operator CAP status report Plan may be: Eg hire a consultant Eg obtain the ECA (Environmental Compliance Approval = by Perm&Appr Div – if permission is required, then prove that you have applied for it (PEP) Eg Take training – demonstrate you ve taken training Eg do smth physical (install smth) Plan has work items; assessment by work item: What to do Date to comply Amicable operator may suggest a date Bad operator = demand date. Abatement complete Party: Tech support/forensic specialist Party: District Officer Informed Judgement Matrix (IJM) – guidance for PO what to do in case of non-compliance. Determine Type of CAP Issue Control Document (Order) Issue Referral to Investigate (RFI) OrderRFI RFI CAP Order CAP Voluntary Abatement Letter Optional Tech Support Request Optional Legal Consultation Party: Regional Director Agree? Party: ERT (Environmental Review Tribunal) Request Director s Reviewn Review & Decide On CAP Director s Order Agree? Provide ERT Judgement Request ERT Judgement n ERC Decision CAP Closed Change CAP due date Still not compliant, but cooperative Escalate Non-compliant & non-cooperative Escalation method? CAP Case Record STATE: open/screen C CAP Case Record STATE: Closed Party: Court/Judge Incident Case Record STATE: closed Inspection Case Record STATE: closed Court Order CAP Case Record STATE: preliminary C CAP Case Record STATE: CLOSED CAP Case Record STATE: OPEN CAP Case Record CAP Case Record CAP case request Director s Response time ERT response time CAP Director s Order ERT Judgement TBD: WHICH BRANCH PROVIDES TECH SUPPORT/ FORENSICS ??? Agility: • Reusable module, modifiable for different lines of business. • Differs by sub-processes, business rules • Manage 1 module pattern; Rapidly modify Business Rules
  55. 55. SHARED CAPABILITIES PATTERNS Manage Documents (shared) Notifications&Communications (shared) ManageEntity Profiles (shared) OperationalResource Administration (shared) MasterDataManagement (shared) MAIN Document Manager Notifications& CommunicationsMgr EntityProfiles Manager ResourceManagerMasterDataManager AllRoles, Allprocesses Manage Documents Manage Notifications &Communications Notificaction/ Communication record managed Msg Msg Manage Entity Profiles Entity Profile record managed Msg Document managed HR scheduling and Administration HR workforce/ schedule managed Msg Master data management Msg HIGH LEVEL MAIN PROCESS Document Or Report HR/workforce record (including skills) HR/workforce record (schedule/ assignment) All types of Meta data, Pick lists CRUD CRUD CRUD CRUD CRUD CRUD Data records Consistency managed ENTITY PROFILE RECORD Party System Activity Locaction Notification/ Communication Always shared: • Documents mgt • Records mgt • Notifications / communications mgt • User profiles mgt • Etc. Always segregate them from core processes No need to “invent a wheel” These patterns are so wide used that simple internet search gives almost everything to know. Agility: • Never reinvent what is industry standard • Change core process, shared capabilities stay intact • Rapidly change shared capabilities via BR modifiers
  56. 56. BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE AS AGILITY ENABLER LIGHT, EASILY MODIFIABLE MODULES PLUS MODIFIERS • AGILITY VIA RAPID MODIFICATION
  57. 57. Pattern Modifiers SIMPLIFIED PATTERNS FROM GSRM CATALOGUE Reference Model GSRM Process Pattern for a Chosen Service Pattern 1. Authenticate Client 2. Record Client Request 3. Record Service Request 4. Determine Eligibility 5. Determine Fees 6. Collect payment 7. Produce product record 8. Assign Product to Client 9. Produce temp. Token, deliver to Client 10. Produce perm. Token, deliver to Client 11. Notify Client, Partners 12.Monitor & Maintain (Sanctions, Expiry, Replacement) Get Client Profile (Data) Update Client Profile (Data) Update Client Profile (Data) Business Rules Get Fee table (Data) Business Rules ... All Business Processes re-modelled as: • Very simplistic, “process skeletons” • Anything specific to – Line of Business – Modification… – Transformation… – Peculiarity… …handled via modifiers Agility: • Business: Rapid re-use / modification for different scenarios, • IT: BR pre-planning enables Rules Engines = rapid change-ready
  58. 58. BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE AS AGILITY ENABLER PATTERN-BASED SEGREGATED SERVICE DESIGN • ARCHITECTURAL PRE-PLANNING OF EVENTUAL OTSOURCING OR INTERNAL CONSOLIDATION OF BUSINESS FUNCTIONALITY • AGILE OUTSOURCING ON DEMAND
  59. 59. All Channels defined by Systems BUSINESS MODEL ANALYSIS Target Groups (As defined in SIAM) Business Service Outputs (As defined in SIAM) Partner Organizations Dedicated Service Providers: (Or DIGITAL clients) Own their own systems; Controlled by - Contracts - SLA - KPI Policies + Data Data Storage + Policy Rules Engine Contracts, SLA, KPI For Service Providers Maintenance of Policies / Business Rules Maintenance of Data Quality Control of Partners’ Services Via SLA & KPI’s Perform customer interaction processes Customer acquisition, & retention still based on Enterprise Customer data , But managed by Dedicated Service Providers Systems, infrastructure, software Channel fees (commissions) People Operate own Channels Acquire/retain customers Use Enterprise Data & Policy Rules Analyze Business Models to: • Identify Customer interaction processes suitable for being moved to 3rd Party - While keeping data & policy rules internally • Reveals Digital Transformations opportunities • Prepares to serve “on demand” digital clients
  60. 60. BUSINESS USE CASE ANALYSIS Inquire Information Process Transaction Inquire Eligibility EVENTUAL 3rd Party Provider The Enterprise Provides Service output, handles core Data & Business Rules Provides all Customer interactions processes; Uses data & Business rules AGILITY = BEING READY WITH PRE-PLANNED PROCESS MODELS WHEN THE NEED TO OUTSOURCE PRE-PLAN process models: • What is “Core” - ALWAYS in the enterprise • What can eventually be outsourced
  61. 61. BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE AS AGILITY ENABLER DESIGN THE BUSINESS KNOWLEDGE BASE FOR AGILITY • ARCHITECTURAL REPOSITORY MUST BE DESIGNED FOR AGILITY • NO ARCHITECTURAL REPOSITORY = NO AGILITY POSSIBLE
  62. 62. REPOSITORY ? FOR AGILITY ? • You need to… say, modify a sewage connection of your house • Go to the city planning department • They pull out the plan of your house & infrastructure around it • Find the component to be modified, it’s functions and interfaces • Now workers can rapidly (in agile way) do the job • The repository of reusable modular blueprints enables speed! • Alternative: “iterative” digging holes to find that pipe here… there… on the other side… IS THAT AGILE?
  63. 63. BUT WE DO HAVE REPOSITORIES, RIGHT? • Projects develop & get approved their “Architectures” • Drop blueprints into a big pile • Next projects bring more… maybe coordinated with the previous… maybe not… • Nothing can be found or re-used… • Re-usable business components are not defined • It’s easier to build from scratch… • Useless. • Nothing agile here. • And no tool can help
  64. 64. BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE FRAGMENTATION • Example of history of project models in a repository (Real) • Models developed in a tool, Governance action items edited in Word, all piled. • People who knew this history are gone • After years… none of these models reflect the real current state • Re-aligning everything is a PROHIBITIVELY HUGE endeavor • Business has no drive/ patience to comprehend/ use this (they are right) • No agility possible! • No value. Artifacts for Check Point 1 Power Designer models Initial BPM set of R1&R2 PD models (all BPM notation) Carrier Original BPM models D&V: Original BPM models ES: Original BPM models 1 Deloitte set of R1&R2 PD models (mixed BPM + UML notation) Carrier: (New use cases, reqts, biz rules) D&V: (New use cases, reqts, biz rules) ES: (New use cases, reqts, biz rules) 4 Carrier set of R1&R2 PD models + Business Requirements (mixed BPM + UML notation) Carrier: Updated UC, Reqts, Biz.Rules D&V: (Not updated – stayed as 2) ES: Updated UC, Reqts, Biz.Rules 5 Carrier set of R1&R2 CP1 artifacts Carrier: Artifacts Created D&V: Not affected ES: Artifacts Created 6 Carrier & ES Artifacts manually updated to satisfy CP1 requirements and action items; PD not updated. DCPA set of R1&R2 PD models (mixed BPM + UML notation) Carrier: Not affected D&V:ES: Not affected 12 DES set of R1&R2 PD models (mixed BPM + UML notation) Carrier: Not affected D&VES: Not affected 15 DCPA model DCPA model DES model DCPA set of CP1 artifacts Carrier: Not Affected D&VES: Not Affected 13 DCPA artifacts DES set of CP1 artifacts Carrier: Not Affected D&VES: Not affected 16 DCPA artifacts DES artifacts Carrier: Gold Package Approved by ARB DCPA Approved by Cluster DES Approved by ARB Carrier model Carrier model Carrier model Carrier artifacts DES artifacts maually updated to satisfy CP1 and action items; PD not updated DCPA artifacts maually updated to satisfy CP1 and action items; PD not updated Carrier artifacts Carrier artifacts Used by RUSMOD for RFP Considered as blueprint by RUS Blueprint Team PHM R1&R2 Model (all BPM notation) Highways set of services 2 MVR business (R1&R2) architecture (all BPM notation) + R3 (MSWord) (CP 1+) Carrier Original BPM models D&V: Original BPM models ES: Original BPM models 3 MVR Model Aligned with SO model Prepared for CP1+ PARB, but project canceled. DCPA R3, R4 MS Word (BA s not willing to create full R3 activity diagrams in PD) DES R3, R4 MS Word (BA s not willing to create full R3 activity diagrams in PD) Carrier R3, R4 (IBM) PD Not delivered Carrier R3, R4 (Infosys) PD Approach ? 7 8 14 17 eCollisions set of R1&R2 PD models (mixed BPM + UML notation) Carrier: Not affected D&V:ES: Not affected 9 eCollisions set of CP1 artifacts Carrier: Not Affected D&VES: Not Affected 10 eCollisions artifacts eCollisions Approved by Cluster Carrier model Minor manual Updates PD not updated Carrier artifacts eCollisions R3, R4 MS Word 11 eCollisions Model Used Carrier as a baseline, updated eCollisions-related material Used Carrier as a baseline, updated DCPA-related material Models refactoring for Carrier to satisfy CP1 modeling quality requirements JAD sessions content; Introduced UML use cases; Requirements; Biz Rules. Used DCPA as baseline; completely re-modeled Driver Licensing based on Customer Interaction Outsourcing model. Refactored processes, business rules, etc. to CP1 quality. PCP/PCI - offline eNotification - offline IRP - offline ODLP - offline Models used by HSC / CYSSC / CAC / JTS
  65. 65. CONTENT: WHAT MUST BE IN THE REPOSITORY? REUSABLE BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE MODULES AGILITY = Managed Repository of MODIFIABLE SPARE MODULES, NOT END-TO-END PRODUCTS
  66. 66. PRINCIPLES OF REPOSITORY FOR BUSINESS AGILITY • Store & Manage: – Re-usable, pattern-based modules – Module modifiers – for specific lies of business – High level framework, keeping the modules together • Repository must be NOT project-based; Must be whole enterprise-based This needs background work to integrate project architectures into the single enterprise architecture AGILITY = ability to rapidly pull out the up-to-date Modular Enterprise Blueprint, and rapidly modify it using pre-defined / pre-approved reusable Construction Modules
  67. 67. BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE AS AGILITY ENABLER BACKGROUND PROCESS • AGILE IS NOT ABOUT “SPRINTING”! • IT NEEDS CONSTANT / PRE-REQUISITE ARCHITECTURAL WORK!
  68. 68. BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE BACKGROUND ENGAGEMENT EVERYDAY BACK-STAGE GOVERNANCE ROUTINE ENGAGEMENT IN A PROJECT EVERYDAY BACK- STAGE INTERACTION WITH OTHER PARTIES Select appropriate process patterns + modifying BRs Draft BFM Sketch of business architecture Evaluate Business Model boundaries for DIGITAL / API / interface opportunities Early engagement Evaluate decision automation opportunities Series of Workshops With Business Business Reqts Business Rules Process Patterns Decision Automation team SCRUM backlog PM / SCRUM Master Business IT BAs & Development Develop / Catalog BA Patterns BR Patterns Decision Patterns Agile (SCRUM) Artifacts Development ACT / ARB / PACT / PARB Educate / Inform Business, IT Stakeholders Develop / maintain Enterprise CDMProject CDM subset EBA Governance B.Arch Repository Maintenance Enterprise EA, ADA Data Mgtmnt team Final Project B.Arch Legacy B.Arch Preservation Legacy B.Arch
  69. 69. BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE AS AGILITY ENABLER GOVERNANCE FOR AGILITY • RIGID MODULAR GOVERNANCE IS THE AGILITY ENABLER
  70. 70. CONCEPTS: GOVERNANCE FOR AGILITY • Govern Architectural Modules + Modifiers • Pre-approve modules (ARB) • Agility: When urgent/necessary, use modules without further approvals • Prioritize continuous integration of changes into Business Architecture Knowledge Base over just storing project deliverables / artifacts • Prioritize rapid compliance assessment of early knowledge-based architecture sketches – over “after the fact” formal artifacts assessment • Guide agile IT projects to use business architecture–based componentization
  71. 71. BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE AS AGILITY ENABLER BUSINESS & IT AGILITY TOGETHER • BETTER PROCESS • AGILITY-ENABLING DELIVERABLES
  72. 72. BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE FEEDING… SCRUM Chaos / absence of high quality requirements is not an “option” for agile solutions delivery in a complex enterprise: • BFM pattern-based Business Requirements form ideal SCRUM backlog Timeline of Business Architecture Engagement POD L1 POD L2 CP0 CP1 CP 2,3 Sketch of BARCH Relevant BFM Structured by BFM: Business Requirements Business Rules Functional SCRUM backlog! SCRUM delivery of B.Arch artifacts SCRUM IT solution Delivery RESULT: • SCRUM delivery of actual B.Arch deliverables (CP1 – even faster!) • SCRUM IT solution delivery • Business rules packages associated with BFM-based Business Requirements can be processed in SCRUM SPRINTS
  73. 73. BUSINESS ARCHITECTURE AS AGILITY ENABLER EDUCATE BUSINESS • YOU ONLY CAN MOVE AS FAST AS THE BUSINESS GETS EDUCATED • DIPLOMATIC MESSAGE
  74. 74. BRINGING BUSINESS AGILITY TO ARCHITECTS, ARB One day session. Audience: Business, Architects, Corporate and Cluster ARB’s, PMO Roger: Strategy of Business Agility Alex: Tactics of utilizing business architecture for Business- & IT Agility
  75. 75. • Practically all major business capabilities have long- established patterns – use them to rapidly define modules for fast change -- Then implement them in agile way • The “theoretical”, even best-intended view of Business Architecture does not matter if not designed for fast change. • “Heavy” artifacts for non-agile governance don’t matter. • No managed repository of architectural modules + modifiers = no agility. • The business must understand and be willing to use the reusable Knowledge Base / reusable components repository – for their own agility – educate them. QUESTIONS? THANK YOU. Alex Romanov Business Architect Consultant. alex.romanov@gmail.com Twitter: @avrolabs http://www.linkedin.com/in/alexromanov

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