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International Seminar in Personal Networks, realizada en la Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona 3, 4 y 5 de julio de 2013.

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Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
from Chilean isolated villages case studies.
Research funded by the Fondo de Desarrollo de Ciencia y Tecnología
(FONDECYT) n.1120866 del Gobierno de Chile.
José Ignacio Porras
CISPO – Universidad de los Lagos
Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
The research aims to analyze the effect of different
frequency and uses of Internet in the individual social
capital of people living in critical isolated villages.
Make a
contribution to the
knowledge about
the social impact of
Internet in the
Chilean Society.
Explore theoretical
relationship
between Social
Capital and
Internet
Advice policy
makers to renew
strategies for
integration of
isolated villages.
It´s assumes the notion of social capital supported by Nan Lin. This author places
the roots of social capital in the interaction between individuals and the resources
actually or potentially available. Thus, the concept of social capital is treated as
investment in social relations with expectations of access to resources (Lin, 1999)
Social Capital Concept from Social Network Theory
Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
Internet and Social Capital Literature
Does the Internet
Increase, Decrease, or
Supplement Social
Capital?
Does the Internet
strengthens or
weakness social ties?
What is the role of
Internet as a plataform
of civic engagement
and collective action?
• H1. High frequency and social use of Internet modifies the pattern of relationships among
persons who lives in critical isolated villages diversifying social networks
and, therefore, extending opportunities for the access and the mobilization of resources.
• H2.- High-frequency and social users of Internet who live in critical isolated villages
contribute to the communitarian social capital extending and diversifying social structure
and, therefore, make a more favorable situation to collective action process.
• H3.- High frequency and social users of Internet who live in critical isolated villages
contributes to strength communitarian identity moving beyond geographical constrains.
Hypotheses
Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
Method Research
Villages
Rio Ibáñez
Lago Verde
Tortel
Villa O´Higgins
Case Studies
Villages
Maria Pinto
San Pedro
Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
Critical
Isolated
Conditions
High
Isolated
Conditions
Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
The Aysen Region
The third largest region in Chile (108.494,4
km²), it is the most sparsely populated region
with a population of 105,000. The population
density is 0,85 inhabitants per km ². (93,51
hab/km² - Spain)
Being the last region to be joined to Chile, an
european setlement, promoted by the Chilean
government, started at the beginning of XX
century. Coyhaique, the regional capital, was
founded in 1929.
Road access to Aysen region from the rest of
Chile is provided by the Carretera Austral. It
was started in 1976 and finished in 2003.
During the last 5 years, the Chilean
government has subsidized a high quality
access to Internet in Aysen.
Ad

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International Seminar in Personal Networks, realizada en la Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona 3, 4 y 5 de julio de 2013.

  • 1. Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach from Chilean isolated villages case studies. Research funded by the Fondo de Desarrollo de Ciencia y Tecnología (FONDECYT) n.1120866 del Gobierno de Chile. José Ignacio Porras CISPO – Universidad de los Lagos
  • 2. Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach The research aims to analyze the effect of different frequency and uses of Internet in the individual social capital of people living in critical isolated villages. Make a contribution to the knowledge about the social impact of Internet in the Chilean Society. Explore theoretical relationship between Social Capital and Internet Advice policy makers to renew strategies for integration of isolated villages.
  • 3. It´s assumes the notion of social capital supported by Nan Lin. This author places the roots of social capital in the interaction between individuals and the resources actually or potentially available. Thus, the concept of social capital is treated as investment in social relations with expectations of access to resources (Lin, 1999) Social Capital Concept from Social Network Theory Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach Internet and Social Capital Literature Does the Internet Increase, Decrease, or Supplement Social Capital? Does the Internet strengthens or weakness social ties? What is the role of Internet as a plataform of civic engagement and collective action?
  • 4. • H1. High frequency and social use of Internet modifies the pattern of relationships among persons who lives in critical isolated villages diversifying social networks and, therefore, extending opportunities for the access and the mobilization of resources. • H2.- High-frequency and social users of Internet who live in critical isolated villages contribute to the communitarian social capital extending and diversifying social structure and, therefore, make a more favorable situation to collective action process. • H3.- High frequency and social users of Internet who live in critical isolated villages contributes to strength communitarian identity moving beyond geographical constrains. Hypotheses Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 5. Method Research Villages Rio Ibáñez Lago Verde Tortel Villa O´Higgins Case Studies Villages Maria Pinto San Pedro Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach Critical Isolated Conditions High Isolated Conditions
  • 6. Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach The Aysen Region The third largest region in Chile (108.494,4 km²), it is the most sparsely populated region with a population of 105,000. The population density is 0,85 inhabitants per km ². (93,51 hab/km² - Spain) Being the last region to be joined to Chile, an european setlement, promoted by the Chilean government, started at the beginning of XX century. Coyhaique, the regional capital, was founded in 1929. Road access to Aysen region from the rest of Chile is provided by the Carretera Austral. It was started in 1976 and finished in 2003. During the last 5 years, the Chilean government has subsidized a high quality access to Internet in Aysen.
  • 7. Key Informants Qualitative Interviews Survey Social Networks Interviews and Focus Groups 2012 2013 Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 8. Researchers •José Ignacio Porras, Cientista Político (Investigador Responsable) •John W. Durston, Antropólogo •Rubén Pino, Sociólogo •Miguel Pérez Bade, Cientista Político •Erika Silva Urbano, Educadora •Catalina Careaga, Antropóloga Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 9. www.internetycapitalsocial.cl Events Preliminar Seminar Regional and Local Workshops Ending Seminar Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 10. Preliminary Findings Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 11.  Survey Design: 38 core questions + 5 social characterization questions  Sample for quotas: 623 cases (4 villages in Aysen adn 2 villages in control group. People aged over 14 living in selected villages and Internet users (at least once per week). The implementation of the survey was face to face. Period: november 2012 Survey Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 12. Sociodemographics Variables 44.8 55,2 Men Women Gender Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 13. 0.8 43.1 50.2 5.9 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Menos de 15 años Entre 15 y 29 años* Entre 30 y 50* Más de 50 Aged Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 14. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Estudia* Trabaja* Estudia y trabaja* Dueña de casa* Jubilado Desocupado o cesante 7.7 77.2 2.1 10.4 0 2.7 Occupation Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 15. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% Hogar Trabajo Lugar de estudio Cibercafes Telecentros Celular Otro 79.90% 37.40% 2.50% 1.80% 5.10% 15.00% 1.20% Main Internet Access Point Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 16. Frequency Use of Internet 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Menos de 1 vez a la semana 1 ó 2 veces a la semana De 3 a 6 días por semana Todos los días 2.9 18.9 17.9 60.4 Nada o Muy Poco Bastante o Siempre 1- 2 times a week 3 – 4 times a week 4- 6 times a week Everyday Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach Nada o muy poco Siempre o bastante
  • 17. Types of Use General User Uso General Social User n.1 Uso Social 1 Social User n.2 Uso Social 2 No specific purposes Highest frequency: To be connected with nuclear and exted family as well as friends . 52,7%vs 47,3% Higuest frequency: To search new relationships 67,6%vs 32,4% Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 18. How Internet contributes to overcome the isolation perception? 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% Uso General- Nada o muy poco Uso General- Siempre o bastante Uso Social 1- Nada o muy poco Uso Social 1- Siempre o bastante Uso Social 2- Nada o muy poco Uso Social 2 - Siempre o bastante 17.10% 8.10% 17.30% 3.50% 11.80% 6.00% 51.30% 40.00% 48.80% 36.90% 40.90% 42.20% 31.60% 51.90% 34.00% 59.60% 47.30% 51.70% Nada o Muy Poco Medianamente Mucho o Completamente Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 19. Expansion and diversification of social network Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 20. In the last three years, the persons that you consider to be friend…..? 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% Uso General - Nada o muy poco Uso General - Siempre y bastante Uso Social 1- Nada o muy poco Uso Social 1- Siempre o bastante Uso Social 2- Nada o muy poco Uso Social 2 - Siempre o bastante 6.90% 6.70% 7.70% 6.00% 7.70% 4.60% 58.40% 54.30% 59.90% 50.60% 58.50% 49.00% 34.70% 39.00% 32.40% 43.40% 33.80% 46.40% Ha disminuido Se ha mantenido Ha aumentado Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 21. In the last three years, the persons that you have know outside of your village… 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% Uso General- Nada o muy poco Uso General- Siempre o bastante Uso Social 1- Nada o muy poco Uso Social 1- Siempre o bastante Uso Social 2- Nada o muy poco Uso Social 2 - Siempre o bastante 3.00% 2.90% 3.60% 2.40% 2.90% 3.30% 46.50% 40.40% 47.70% 36.20% 46.60% 34.20% 50.50% 56.70% 48.60% 61.40% 50.50% 62.50% Ha disminuido Se ha mantenido Ha aumentado Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 22. In assessing the extent to which the use of Internet is correlated with changes in friendships ("Strong ties") and new persons known outside of the villages (“Weak ties"), it is possible to identify significant differences according to frequency and type of uses of Internet. This situation is less clear for Internet users living in high isolation conditions (control group) • H1. High frequency of social use of Internet modifies the pattern of relationships of the persons who lives in critical isolate villages extending and diversifying social networks and, therefore, extending the opportunities for the access and the mobilization of resources. On the other hand, low frequency use of Internet, whatever type of use, is high correlated with poor and homogeneous social network. Not only on-line, but also off- line. Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach Expansion and diversification of social network
  • 23. Access to secondary resources, who support me? Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 24. If you should have to face a serious problem (financial, health…), whom you ask for help? 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% Uso General- Nada o muy poco Uso General- Siempre o bastante Uso Social 1- Nada o muy poco Uso Social 1- Siempre o bastante Uso Social 2- Nada o muy poco Uso Social 2 - Siempre o bastante 77.20% 76.80% 82.20% 79.20% 83.20% 74.60% 26.10% 29.10% 26.50% 33.50% 27.10% 37.30% 20.70% 19.00% 16.20% 24.10% 16.80% 29.40% Familia Famia Nuclear Familia Extendida Amigos Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 25. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% Uso General- Nada o muy poco Uso General- Siempre o bastante Uso Social 1- Nada o muy poco Uso Social 1- Siempre o bastante Uso Social 2- Nada o muy poco Uso Social 2 - Siempre o bastante 13.20% 14.20% 16.10% 11.70% 14.00% 13.60% 56.60% 57.20% 60.00% 54.70% 60.70% 49.40% 30.20% 28.60% 23.90% 33.60% 25.20% 37.00% Ninguno (Nadie) Al menos 1 (Alguien) Más de 2 diferentes (varios) If you should have to face a serious problem (financial, health,…), how many persons would provide you help? Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 26. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% Uso General- Nada o muy poco Uso General- Siempre o bastante Uso Social 1- Nada o muy poco Uso Social 1- Siempre o bastante Uso Social 2- Nada o muy poco Uso Social 2 - Siempre o bastante 78.30% 67.00% 74.60% 65.00% 73.20% 60.90% 21.70% 33.00% 25.40% 35.00% 26.80% 39.10% No tiene 1 o más How many of these persons live outside of your villages and you are frequently connected with them by Internet? Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 27. Some significant differences can be appreciated in terms of number of sources of Social Capital. When increases frequency and social use of Internet, the sources of Social Capital tend to be extend and diversified beyond territorial constrains of the villages.  No matters frequency or type of Internet use. A nuclear family appears as the principal source of support. In a second place it is the extend family and friends. The nuclear family appears mentioned as first sources of support in high isolated villages (control group), but it increases the importance of other sources of social capital. H1. High frequency of social use of Internet modifies the pattern of relationships of the persons who lives in critical isolate villages extending and diversifying social networks and, therefore, extending the opportunities for the access and the mobilization of resources. Access to secondary resources or who support me? Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 28. From Individual Social Capital to Communitarian Social Capital Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 29. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% Uso General- Nada o muy poco Uso General- Siempre o bastante Uso Social 1- Nada o muy poco Uso Social 1- Siempre o bastante Uso Social 2- Nada o muy poco Uso Social 2 - Siempre o bastante 80.00% 74.70% 79.30% 72.30% 76.30% 74.30% 9.50% 13.80% 10.10% 15.00% 12.60% 12.50%10.50% 11.40% 10.60% 12.60% 11.00% 13.20% Nunca o Muy rara vez A veces Diariamente o frecuentemente How many times you move outside of your village? Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 30. 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% Se ha mantenido - Nunca o Pocas Veces Se ha mantenido - Siempre o muchas veces Ha aumentado -Nunca Ha aumentado - Siempre o algunas veces 13.60% 6.50% 11.30% 4.50% 62.10% 19.60% 54.70% 17.30% 24.30% 73.90% 34.00% 78.20% Se comunica poco o nada Se comunica a veces Se comunica bastante o siempre How many times you meet with people of your villages?. (According to increase or preserve new social ties in Internet. ) Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 31.  Some preliminar findings support a new conjeture: the emergence of a new form of brokerage in critical isolated villages by those people who extend and diversified social capital in nternet. Under conditions of high density of social structure inside of the critical isolated villages and the homogenity of resources mobilized in, there is a favorable situation for the transference of the extend and diversified individual social capital beyond of territorial constrains. H2.- High-frequency and social users of Internet who live in critical isolated villages contribute to the communitarian social capital extending and diversifying social structure and, therefore, make a more favorable situation to collective action. Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 32. February 2012, social mobilization in Aysen Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 33. In sum up Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 34. High-frequency and social use of Internet provides chances to increase social networks and, therefore, resources. Under high level isolated living conditions it can suppose, as much, a supplement of previous social capital. But under critical isolations living conditions it makes a significant difference as a result of breaking social enclosure in terms of high density of social structure and homogeneity of resources mobilized it. Conclusions. Individual Social Capital New alternative routes for communitarian development are also opened by the high-frequency and social users of Internet. They emerge as a new kind of brokerage in the village supplement traditional ones. Communitarian Social Capital Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach
  • 35. José Ignacio Porras Martínez Profesor-Investigador Centro de Investigación Sociedad y Políticas Públicas (CISPO) Universidad de los Lagos – Campus Republica, Santiago- Correo: joseiporras@yahoo.com www.internetycapitalsocial.cl Internet and Social Capital. A preliminary approach