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Modems, Malaysia, And Modernity


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Modems, Malaysia, And Modernity

  1. 1. Modems, Malaysia, and Modernity Characteristics and Policy Challenges in Internet-Led Development Chapter 11 Nasya Bahfen Information Society & Multiculturalism Professor Han Woo Park Presented by Azman Bidin 2009.11.19
  2. 2. Where is Malaysia?
  3. 3. Malaysia at a Glance Source: * Ringgit Malaysia (RM) Currency Total $384.388 billion - Per capita $14,081 GDP Federal constitutional elective monarchy and Parliamentary democracy Government Peninsular Malaysia - rubber and oil palm processing and manufacturing, light manufacturing industry, electronics, tin mining and smelting, logging and processing timber; Sabah - logging, petroleum production; Sarawak - agriculture processing, petroleum production and refining, logging Main Industries* 54% Malay, 25% Chinese, 7.5% Indian, 11.8% other Bumiputera, 1.7% other Ethnics Malay and English Languages (Official) 329,845 km2 (66th) Size 28,310,000 Population
  4. 4. Geert Hofstede™ Cultural Dimensions
  5. 5. World Internet Statistics
  6. 6. Alexa Ranking <ul><li>Country Top Sites </li></ul>
  7. 7. Menu <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Truly Asia on The Internet </li></ul><ul><li>The Cyber Public Sphere </li></ul><ul><li>Socialising and Shopping Online </li></ul><ul><li>Future Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1.0 Introduction Internet Culture of Technological Mind to Adopt New Communication Forms Young and Mobile Specific Social Engineering Policies Political Activists Publishing, Networking, Blogosphere Reformasi Easily Targeted Print and Broadcast Media Malaysia Identity
  9. 9. 1.0 Introduction <ul><li>Kuala Lumpur City Centre as a Symbol of Malaysian Modernity </li></ul><ul><li>Petronas Twin Towers, office towers (450 meters, eighty-eight storey) </li></ul><ul><li>Suria KLCC, the shopping mall at the base of Petronas Twin Towers </li></ul><ul><li>Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre </li></ul><ul><li>Maxis Tower or Menara Maxis </li></ul><ul><li>Aquaria KLCC, public aquarium </li></ul><ul><li>Dewan Filharmonik Petronas, the philharmonic concert hall at the base of Petronas Twin Towers </li></ul><ul><li>Mandarin Oriental Hotel </li></ul><ul><li>Traders Hotel </li></ul><ul><li>ExxonMobil Tower or Menara ExxonMobil </li></ul><ul><li>The Binjai On The Park, luxury condominiums </li></ul><ul><li>Asy-Syakirin Mosque </li></ul><ul><li>Lot C, KLCC, a proposed office tower and retail space extension to Suria KLCC </li></ul><ul><li>Lot D1, KLCC, an undeveloped land, which currently serves as a car park lot, in front of Mandarin Oriental hotel </li></ul><ul><li>KLCC LRT station, an underground light rail transit station serving the Twin Towers </li></ul>
  10. 10. 1.0 Introduction <ul><li>Internet Adaptation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Youth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media Communities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economy and Cultural Potential of Internet is grasped. </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge the capacity in building communities of shared interests and challenge established political thoughts. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet as tools for the opposition activists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malaysiakini (Malaysia Now) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parti Islam SeMalaysia (PAS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keadilan (Justice Party) led by Anwar Ibrahim </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These played critical part (through the Internet) as the country recovered from 1997 financial crisis and growing middle class reformasi . </li></ul>
  11. 11. 1.0 Introduction <ul><li>Internet themes: (cyber presence ) adaptation by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the young for business, education, and social purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>opposition figures and journalists for political purposes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Malaysia Identity : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Societal composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manifestations of religious and cultural diversity online </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Internet as an alternative news source due to strict government regulation on conventional media. </li></ul><ul><li>Young online consumers , netizens , social networking, shopping </li></ul><ul><li>Middle class broadband take up rate and public wireless connectivity are on the rise . </li></ul>
  12. 12. 2.0 Truly Asia on The Internet <ul><li>Tourism Malaysia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian dancers, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malay musicians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigenous people of Borneo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Colonial byproducts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese: Teochew, Cantonese, Hokkien </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malay: Bugis, Kelantan, Minangkabau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indian: Punjabi, Tamil, Hindi </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Being of Malay origin is equal to professing the Muslim faith. </li></ul><ul><li>Islam is the only religion to which the Malays subscribe which is also to some minority Indian minority. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 2.0 Truly Asia on The Internet <ul><li>21 st Century political Islam is pluralistic and pro democratic. </li></ul><ul><li>Islam represents stability, solidarity, moral direction and alternative to secular modernity </li></ul><ul><li>Post 911 many Malays cognizant as increase focus on Islam by media. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim first and Malaysian second. </li></ul><ul><li>Malay: believe in Islam, speak Bahasa Melayu and practice and devotion to adat (Malay custom). Ethnic marker and social construct. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 2.0 Truly Asia on The Internet <ul><li>Ethnic Chinese dominates the country economy. </li></ul><ul><li>The New Economic Policy (NEP, 1971) to redress imbalances in the educational and economic position of the Malays. MARA (Council of Trust for People) encourages ownership and investment in business for bumiputra (son of the land). </li></ul><ul><li>Melayu Baru (The New Malay): modern, successful in business with Islamic principles. </li></ul><ul><li>Mahathir’s Vision 2020 with Malaysia Boleh (Malaysia Can) in social engineering the middle class. </li></ul><ul><li>1990s reflected NEP success. Malay-owned investments, professionals and managerial roles. This was followed up by Vision 2020. JARING emerged as first ISP followed by Telekom Malaysia. </li></ul>
  15. 15. 2.0 Truly Asia on The Internet <ul><li>Large internet take up by young people proved success in government’s push for technology-driven development. </li></ul><ul><li>Echoed the offline racial and cultural plurality </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders encouragement for future lifestyle adoption: creativity, imagination and freedom. </li></ul><ul><li>Techno tribalism: both the government and opposition parties attracts cyber communities with common interests. </li></ul>
  16. 16. 3.0 The Cyber Public Sphere <ul><li>Blends of mediascapes and ideoscapes: mainstream media linked to processes of identity construction and nation-building. i.e. sales promotion in newspaper for the middle eastern tourists </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysiakini founder: “ we have a plethora of publications… but we don’t have a free press.” independent, opposition, activists, online news (without printed publication) alternative to prime media. </li></ul><ul><li>A few times had been ‘disturbed’ by the government, despite the pledge that there is no censorship of the Internet. Small lens, Wide view, No lies </li></ul>
  17. 17. 3.0 The Cyber Public Sphere <ul><li>1998, Anwar Ibrahim , deputy Prime Minister was sacked by PM, Mahathir. </li></ul><ul><li>The internet became the place for his supporters to get news, publish activities and updates. Reformasi followers </li></ul><ul><li>Keadilan led by Anwar’s wife, along with PAS and DAP reached about 25% of voting population. In 2008 March, for the first time in country history the 2/3 majority of the government was denied. Thanks to blogs, video sharing and alternative news source provided by the internet. </li></ul>
  18. 18. 4.0 Socialising and Shopping Online <ul><li>Uffa 20: </li></ul><ul><li>Friendster </li></ul><ul><li>Pahang </li></ul><ul><li>Scarf </li></ul><ul><li>shopping, eating, sleeping, traveling </li></ul><ul><li>Smallville, Roswell, Thais series, The Princes </li></ul><ul><li>Pirates of The Caribbean, Eiffel I’m in Love </li></ul><ul><li>Syazwin 19: </li></ul><ul><li>Friendster </li></ul><ul><li>Pahang </li></ul><ul><li>single </li></ul><ul><li>chatting on the net, camping </li></ul><ul><li>Chronicles of Narnia, manga comics </li></ul><ul><li>Kent (young): </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Selangor </li></ul><ul><li>non-smoker, works long hour </li></ul><ul><li>to increase social network </li></ul><ul><li>MCMC Stats, Internet Demographic: </li></ul><ul><li>70%, below 40 </li></ul><ul><li>40%, below 25 </li></ul><ul><li>-Youth: best market for IT-related ideas </li></ul><ul><li>-Products of 1971’s NEP: daily users </li></ul><ul><li>-Government endorsement and support </li></ul><ul><li>-Social and business lives, 1/5 of population utilises the Internet </li></ul>
  19. 19. 4.0 Socialising and Shopping Online <ul><li>Malaysia: Islamic customs; Singapore: Confucian values versus Western lifestyles. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet reinforces presence of Western cultures: songs, films, TV shows into living rooms of young Malaysians. </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of widespread support for local or indigenous musicians, artists, movies and TV shows made foreign produce more prominent. </li></ul><ul><li>Global consumerism: MTV, Satellite TV, Internet broadband and Mobile phones; influenced youths </li></ul>
  20. 20. 4.0 Socialising and Shopping Online <ul><li>Internet used by Malaysia youths as source of info and networking tool </li></ul><ul><li>Web Presence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instant Messenger: MSN, QQ, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SNS: Friendster, Myspace, (popular among ethnic Chinese) and FriendX </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FriendX resembles Cyworld’s minihompy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can decorate with items - rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point systems similar to “acorns” as “currency” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Points can be bought or earned free from activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Online presence creates access to purchasing decisions. Government and commercial organisations realise and recognise the importance of this youth market </li></ul><ul><li>P&G with Malaysian partners launched Friendster profile for it’s shampoo product which claimed to receive 800,000 hits monthly, 24,000 linked as fans. </li></ul><ul><li>Graduan: runs by a businesswoman for fresh graduates who seeking jobs. The print versions are distributed to universities. </li></ul><ul><li>Vision 2020: to be a developed and first world nation. </li></ul><ul><li>Active youth and wired nation help in shaping the professionalism and business duties </li></ul><ul><li>Online lifestyle is second nature for youth and also promotes reformasi. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet reflects policy and desire of the Malaysia public in the quest for first-worlddom. </li></ul><ul><li>Once all are reached and achieved, where will modernity leads the nation is an open for suggestions </li></ul>
  21. 21. FriendX Features
  22. 22. 5.0 Future Challenges <ul><li>Internet as New Electronic Space adopted by many created active Malaysian public sphere accessible globally. Known as one of the most developed Muslim-majority countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Mahathir (in office 1981 - 2003) ‘created’ mega projects such as KLCC, KL-International Airport , Multimedia Super Corridor. A medical doctor with long vision for the nation. </li></ul><ul><li>Abdullah (in office 2003 – 2009). Islamic Studies background, could not gain enough support to continue in office. Replaced in April 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>Government policy: censorship-free, help youth in businesses and economy development. By product: effective political resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>Opposition took advantage of the Internet freedom to form resistance through reformasi campaigns. PAS, Keadilan, DAP with Malaysiakini give continuous pressure to the government. </li></ul>
  23. 23. 5.0 Future Challenges <ul><li>Reformasi began in 1997 by Anwar , during global and regional economy crisis. Backed by educated, suburban students and professionals. Is still shaping the future of the country </li></ul><ul><li>The government reacted by using mainstream media more rigorously to counter internet-based news to avoid ‘misinformation’. Limiting the internet is difficult and well learned by the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution to issues of adaptation and ramifications remains in progress. </li></ul>
  24. 24. 6.0 Conclusion <ul><li>Abdullah was perceived as economically forward outlook with Islamic credentials. Got replaced in April 2008 due to internal political pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Ruling Government Political “instability” due to opposition was reflected by 2008 March 8 th election. Partly (big) due to the internet which was also supposed to assist economic development. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet usage in Malaysia themes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposition political presence: activists and journalist. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Youth tech-savvy netizens: shop, study, work and interact socially online. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural dimensions reflected by online manifestation of diverse ethnic composition, promotion and support for computer-literate society in the wired world. </li></ul><ul><li>Abdullah (with religious background) was expected to balance between </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the need for technology led economic development spearheaded by youth and educated netizens. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The importance of vibrant, flourishing free Malaysian Internet environment. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Thank You <ul><li>Terima Kasih </li></ul><ul><li>감사합니다 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>