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Pathways to resilience in informal coastal settlements

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This presentation was given by David Dodman, International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), as part of a webinar hosted by the International Science Council and UNRISD on 'Moving beyond exposure: Addressing climate-related risks in informal coastal settlements'.

Find out more: http://www.unrisd.org/coastal-cities-webinar

Published in: Science
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Pathways to resilience in informal coastal settlements

  1. 1. 1 David Dodman February 2019Author name Date David Dodman February 2019 International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) Moving Beyond Exposure: addressing climate-related risks in informal coastal settlements Webinar, 26 February 2019 Pathways to resilience in informal coastal settlements Dr David Dodman david.dodman@iied.org
  2. 2. 2 David Dodman February 2019 Climate Risk Source: IPCC Fifth Assessment
  3. 3. IPCC Global Warming of 1.5°C Summary for Policy Makers Global warming of 2°C is expected to pose greater risks to urban areas than global warming of 1.5°C (medium confidence). The extent of risk depends on human vulnerability and the effectiveness of adaptation for regions (coastal and non- coastal), informal settlements, and infrastructure sectors (energy, water, and transport) (high confidence). Building resilience for residents of low-income and informal settlements in coastal areas is increasingly urgent
  4. 4. 4 David Dodman February 2019 Coastal Settlements: Hazards and Exposure Sources: IPCC Fifth Assessment / NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center
  5. 5. 5 David Dodman February 2019 Hazards and Exposure: changes in means; changes in extremes; informality Source: NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center
  6. 6. 6 David Dodman February 2019 Sources: IPCC Fifth Assessment; IPCC Cities and Climate Science Coastal Settlements: Informality and Vulnerability Sea-level rise Coastal erosion, land loss, more floods from storm surges; hundreds of millions of urban dwellers living in low elevation coastal zones. Many informal settlements close to the sea with poor quality housing and lacking drainage infrastructure.
  7. 7. 7 David Dodman February 2019Author name Date David Dodman February 2019 Addressing informality and poverty is necessary to transform adaptation • Strengthening livelihoods and income generation: building resilience of assets • Social protection: building adaptive capacity and ability to respond • Information: to inform actions • Financial support: decentralised, flexible, community-managed funds • Relocation and new build: people can be willing to move if risks are reduced and if sites meet needs and capacities to pay Good quality ‘risk reducing’ infrastructure and services and better housing quality are at the centre of reducing risks from extreme weather – recognised by IPCC
  8. 8. 8 David Dodman February 2019 Relocating to reduce risk: Barriers • Mistrust: citizens don’t trust governments; governments don’t trust residents • Financial drivers: centrally located land sought by investors; cheaper land (for relocation) doesn’t meet needs of residents • Creation of new risks: from inappropriate or inaccessible housing • Process: lack of consultation and engagement
  9. 9. 9 David Dodman February 2019 Relocating to reduce risk: Promising examples Nairobi (Kenya): Development of relocation plan (ending of forced evictions) Close engagement between citizens and government Learning from examples elsewhere (Mumbai railway) Appropriate compensation Recognising (to an extent) absentee structure owners Solo (Indonesia): Mayor encouraged dialogue with riverbank households Residents could choose and purchase land sites in safer locations Services and official identity cards provided (But elsewhere – despite dialogue – agreements were not reached)
  10. 10. 10 David Dodman February 2019 Relocating to reduce risk: Emerging principles • Consultation and engagement at every stage • Recognition of priorities and needs (livelihoods, social networks) • Understanding threats from climate change: co-production of knowledge and maps • Underpinned by appropriate finance
  11. 11. 11 David Dodman February 2019 References Lines, K., and Makau, J. (2017) Muungano nguvu yetu (unity is strength): 20 years of the Kenyan federation of slum dwellers. International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). http://pubs.iied.org/10807IIED/ Satterthwaite, D., Archer, D., Colenbrander, S., Dodman, D., Hardoy, J., & Patel, S. (2018). Responding to climate change in cities and in their informal settlements and economies. Background paper for IPCC Cities and Climate Science conference. https://citiesipcc.org/wp- content/uploads/2018/03/Informality-background-paper-for-IPCC- Cities.pdf Taylor, J. (2015). "A tale of two cities: comparing alternative approaches to reducing the vulnerability of riverbank communities in two Indonesian cities." Environment and Urbanization 27(2): 621-636. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0956247815594532

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