Developing community assets:Innovative ways to empower communitiesShelley Breckenridge#communityassets
© InterfaceAGENDA14.00 Welcome and introductionShelley Breckenridge - Interface – The knowledge connection for business14....
Challenge of communityempowermentDiverse communities and placesDr Peter MatthewsInstitute of Building and Urban DesignScho...
Credits
Contents• ScotCERB – main proposals and themes• Whose community are we empowering?• Putting the community in planning• All...
ScotCERB• Renewing/reinvigorated (restarting?)Community Planning• Reform of community councils• Urban community right-to-b...
Tom Parnell: http://www.flickr.com/photos/itmpa/6200745928/sizes/o/in/set-72157627793156184/Tom Parnell:http://www.flickr....
Individuals Percentage of whom live in bottom 15% SIMD areasAllMen 14.4%Women 15.7%Health problems / disabilityDisabled 22...
Community? PlanningThe Commission heard a consistent view that thepotential benefits of a local partnership approach are f...
ScotCERB“It will be important to ensure thatcommunity empowerment takes accountof diverse communities and reaches bothmore...
The influence of the middle classesTheory name DefinitionI’ll stand as the parish councilchairThat the level or nature of ...
Empowering the powerful“Many equality groups and individuals howeverfeel disassociated and disenfranchised fromcommunity c...
Strategy of equality“„Local control will result in a postcode lottery‟ –Decentralisation will allow different communities ...
“Under no circumstance should anymanagement of spending be transferred to localarea groups. Control of spending at localco...
Concluding thoughts?• Marginalised individuals andcommunities as King Canute?• Spaces for deliberation• Role of representa...
Role of voluntary sector• Community development• As advocates for groups andcommunities• As anchor organisations• Capital ...
‘Hard-to-Reach’ or ‘Easy-to-Ignore’? - A rapid reviewof place-based policies and equalityDr Peter Matthews, Dr Gina Netto ...
Building Community AssetsOpportunities and challenges of the Scottish CommunityEmpowerment and Renewal BillDr Tom Moore (C...
Objectives of this session• What do we mean by community assets?• Scale, distribution and policy context of the community ...
What do we mean by assets?• Ownership of physical assets such as land and buildings that arecontrolled, managed and owned ...
Scale and distribution ofcommunity assets• Current scale:• 75,891 assets owned by 2,718 organisations.• Combined value of ...
Source: DTAS (2012)
Why community assets?• Economic benefits• Income generation• Reduce grant dependency and create independent revenue stream...
Policy context• Community assets hold popular currency in policymaking• Land Reform Act (2003) and the right to buy: rural...
The key ingredients of community assetacquisition• Political will and intent (legislation useful but not a panacea - seeMa...
Challenges to the community assetagenda• The constitution and impact of legislation.• Community engagement and challenges ...
Implications for CommunityEmpowerment & Renewal Bill• There is much that is positive about the community asset agenda:• As...
ReferencesAiken, M, Cairns, B, Taylor, M and Moran, R. (2011) „Community organisations controlling assets: a betterunderst...
Innovative assetsWeb 2.0 and social capital
Wacquant (among others...)“By the closing decade of thecentury, the press of stigmatizationhad arisen sharply due to theex...
Dean and Hastings 1999They are regarded as places of highcrime, peopled by the feckless andunemployed, but a key finding i...
Marked by...• Physicality• Tenure• Disinvestment• Notoriety and myth
Residents‟ perceptions“when I first lived here Wester Hailes Drive youcouldn‟t escape from Wester Hailes that wasyour addr...
Residents‟ perceptions“they look doon the hill at us you knowthey can be we‟re in the middle butthey‟re still looking doon...
Turn back time......1977
The Wester Hailes Sentinelhttp://www.facebook.com/photo.php?v=322812907796229
2008...
Promise of web 2.0• Democratisation of the web• Digital utopians• Digital dystopians
What‟s happened• Meetings.• A lot of meetings.• Getting planning permission• Getting the totem pole in the ground
© RCAHMS
© RCAHMS
Place attachment and social capital
Place attachment and social capital• Photos elicit stories• Stories describe complexities placeattachment• Is this support...
Bonding social capital
Social media is media• Audience is based on content• Banalismo Reminiscenceo Narratives of everyday life• Is this a problem?
Concluding thoughts• University involvement as catalyst• Limit to what we can do• Academics are selfish• Academics are a p...
Prospect Community HousingCaroline RichardsCommunity Projects Officer
Prospect Community Housing• Located in Wester Hailes,South West Edinburgh• We provide and manage899 homes for rent all wit...
Prospect and Wider Role• Core business is housing but buildingcommunity takes more than homes• Initiate and support projec...
• Use of social media to engage with local online users• Encourages interaction, builds a network• Sentinel Newspaper arch...
Journey to Partnership• Social History group- local resident who recognisedpotential value of university involvement• Init...
Ladder To the Clouds• Tales of Things- collectingmemories, linking social history tointeractive technology• QR Codes- info...
Digital Sentinel• Sentinel was an independentcommunity voice• Online resource more sustainable• Co-ordinated by local stee...
Benefits of Partnership• Technical expertise and support- e.g. backoffice set up forDigital Sentinel, QR codes• Funding- a...
Learning Points• Establish reciprocity from the beginning- what is thecommunity gaining from the relationship?• Partnershi...
Contact DetailsCaroline Richardscaroline.richards@prospectch.org.ukFrom There To Here blog:http://hailesmatters.wordpress....
© InterfaceInterfaceConnecting businesses with Scotland’s academia
© InterfaceIntelligent brokeringMatching the bestwith the bestInterface creates a clear path for businesses anduniversitie...
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© InterfaceWe help you access the specialist expertise, knowledge and facilitiesin Scotland’s universities and research in...
© InterfaceThe match makingAcademic PartnersAll Scottish Universities& Research InstitutionsDirectContactViaevents,socialm...
© InterfaceSupport for businesses in Scotland’s AcademiaResearch & technologycapabilitiesContract researchSpecialist exper...
© InterfaceBenefits to business8companiesregistered49 newpatents27 companiesforecasted334 newlicencingdeals43 companiesfor...
© InterfaceBenefits to AcademiaGain animprovedunderstandingoforganisationalrequirementsand operationsStimulateinnovation E...
© InterfaceCollaborative funding opportunities- Studentprojects- Accessfacilities- R&D grants- Innovationvouchers- SMART- ...
© Interface• £1000 - £5000 grant to offset the costs of the collaborative projectwith one of Scotland’s HE institutions• O...
© InterfaceAlbyn Housing Society LtdBenefits• Assess the feasibility of a new innovativemodel of delivering ALS to vulnera...
© InterfaceRenfrewshire Community Health InitiativeBenefits• Greater understanding of the process ofchange from a voluntar...
© InterfaceCreating a path to successCommunication and clearagreement on costs, IP sharingand timelines from outsetExpecta...
© Interfaceshelley@interface-online.org.ukwww.interface-online.org.uk07791 985929@InterfaceOnlineInterfaceOnGet in touch
Developing Community Assets: Innovative ways to empower communities
Developing Community Assets: Innovative ways to empower communities
Developing Community Assets: Innovative ways to empower communities
Developing Community Assets: Innovative ways to empower communities
Developing Community Assets: Innovative ways to empower communities
Developing Community Assets: Innovative ways to empower communities
Developing Community Assets: Innovative ways to empower communities
Developing Community Assets: Innovative ways to empower communities
Developing Community Assets: Innovative ways to empower communities
Developing Community Assets: Innovative ways to empower communities
Developing Community Assets: Innovative ways to empower communities
Developing Community Assets: Innovative ways to empower communities
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Developing Community Assets: Innovative ways to empower communities

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Interface –The knowledge connection for business and Heriot-Watt University present at webinar for third sector organisations and social enterprises. The event discussed developing community assets and looked at innovative ways to empower communities with reference to the Scottish Community Empowerment and Renewal Bill. It also highlighted the range of expertise, knowledge, research and funding available within Heriot Watt University that could help your organisation.
Prospect Community Housing Association presented their innovative ways to empower local communities by partnering with Heriot-Watt University and the University of Edinburgh.

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  • Scottish Community Empowerment and Renewal BillConsultation in summer 2012Focus on community engagement and empowerment in public service delivery – the promise of community planningVarious proposals to reform community councils, including giving them part of local authority budgetsExtending the rural right-to-buy (or bid) to urban communities to take over underused or unused assetsCommunity right to challenge service providersMiscellaneous other provisions around allotments, processes of community engagement
  • Tendency to presume community isn’t “us”. Can be used euphemistically to refer to deprived urban communities to make them the subject of policy intervention.Or an idealistic notion of cohesive rural communities.So first question is – how diverse are these communities?
  • N.B. 15% pointNote-High proportion of disabled and long-term illAll non-white ethnicitiesRoman CatholicMuslim“non-straight” sexualitiesMore data from 2011 census when it becomes available.
  • Reviews of community planning, including the Christie Commission, have often found it wanting in terms of community partnership. for the most part, the process of community planning has focussed on the relationships between organisations, rather than with communitiesSimilar experiences with Local Strategic Partnerships and neighbourhood management in England before 2010. Helen Sullivan and Vivienne Lowndes concluded that:‘[a] partnership whose strength is to bring together diverse agencies and interests may struggle to establish a clear and common identity, recognisable to sceptical, or uninterested, local citizens. This is likely to be a particular problem for strategic partnerships (like LSPs) given their wide ranging remit and responsibilities.’
  • In consultation on Community empowerment and renewal bill SG recognise the weaknesses in Community planningSee comm empower bill as a way to reinvigorate community planningThe ongoing development of community planning and joint working to deliver outcomesAlso in the consultation document, and explicit recognition of diversity and difference and the challenges of this in community empowerment:It will be important to ensure that community empowerment takes account of diverse communities and reaches both more marginalised individuals within communities and more marginalised communities within society -But how realistic is this?
  • Review of literature across public services, in UK, US and Scandinavia for studies from 1980s to the present day.Revealed four causal theories by which middle class activism
  • The consultation responses to the CERB consultation, and excellent analysis demonstrate great reflexivity on the part of organisations who responded, and a recognition of many of the challenges I have highlighted – and the first causal mechanism. For example NHS Lothian stated quite clearly regarding the proposals to empower community councils:“Many equality groups and individuals however feel disassociated and disenfranchised from community councils. They have expressed that they are often cliques who do not represent nor discuss anything of relevance to them, and only those with the loudest voices are acted upon.” As mentioned, activities of community planning are at a strategic level – “council speak” – so people find it difficult to engage.Third causal mechanism; affluent groups are more able and ready to engage at this level and get outcomes they want from the processThe presumption, even within ScotCERB is that community empowerment through community planning will be strategic and state-initiated. Two problems with this – firstly, it returns to a problem with previous social inclusion agendas, that the community you are engaging with are somehow deficient (not strategic enough) and need support to engage with you and in doing so will be improved themselves.Secondly, ignores community empowerment as instrumental citizen-initiated contact – the second causal mechanism.US evidence shows as household income grows you complain about services more, and more effectively; virtuous circle.There is silence within policy to this type of behaviour and its possible effects.Move to the fourth causal mechanism – the general predisposition we discovered to normalising the problems of affluent people and communities – means the sort of deep deliberation needed for community empowerment to be fair and inclusive will probably not occur. Problems with this around co-producing outcomesAffluent community can co-produce its outcomes by being engaged in the PTA or even taking over its libraryDeprived community can co-produce its outcomes by behaving a bit more like “us” and meeting our expectationsBigger point on the local strategy of equality
  • Strategy of equality; strategy of spatial equalityDo we want areas to get the same treatment?Do we want areas to arrive at the same outcomes?Do areas only deserve the services they can afford to pay for?The UK government in it’s Localism proposals explicitly aimed to produce spatial inequality. “variation will reflect the conscious choices made by local people” – our evidence suggests that these local people are more likely to be the most affluent and therefore the most vocal.This version of localism is about a winner-takes-all culture
  • As stated earlier – ScotCERB consultation responses show an amazing reflexivity among the respondees. Among the community councils asking for more power and influence was this striking response by Arnprior Community Council in Stirling to the question regarding whether community councils should have power over budgets: “Under no circumstance should any management of spending be transferred to local area groups. Control of spending at local council and national level is essential to ensure fair and equitable distribution of spending for the entire population of Scotland, rather than for the benefit of individual community groups.”
  • Can we realistically create spaces for deliberation that allow big debates such as the strategy of equality to take place within community planning structures? E.g. of police constable at NP meetingRole of representative democracy – to make difficult decisions; e.g. of environmental servicesIn current austerity, I also return to an idea from global development – you can’t eat community engagementBedroom tax etc. are we asking too much?
  • No uniform model of community assets. Stewards: small, volunteer-run groups that seek to maintain assets. Do not tend to have paid staff or revenue-raising objectives. Community Developers: Normally have paid staff and a range of objectives. Could also be classed as community anchors and will be involved in local service delivery and partnerships. Entrepreneurs: larger, more professionalised social enterprises, still with community roots but possibly have more commercialised purposes and run capital-intensive projects. May seek to grow local economies and be involved in projects that have multiple beneficiaries.
  • No uniform model of community assets. Stewards: small, volunteer-run groups that seek to maintain assets. Do not tend to have paid staff or revenue-raising objectives. Community Developers: Normally have paid staff and a range of objectives. Could also be classed as community anchors and will be involved in local service delivery and partnerships. Entrepreneurs: larger, more professionalised social enterprises, still with community roots but possibly have more commercialised purposes and run capital-intensive projects. May seek to grow local economies and be involved in projects that have multiple beneficiaries.
  • The community asset sector is one of significant scale and value. The vast majority of these were housing assets, but there is significant evidence of ownership of other types of assets. They are largely found in rural areas and in those areas where there is not significant poverty or deprivation. The reasons for this may be varied and may relate to gaps in capacity, aspiration or mechanisms of support.
  • This table from DTAS highlights the recent rise of community assets. You will notice the spike at the turn of the century which coincided with the introduction of the Land Reform Act in 2003 and associated funding streams.
  • The community asset agenda has grown in prominence in recent years. I’ll talk shortly about the policy ideas behind this. Assets are supported for a number of reasons. These are just some of the motivations for community asset ownership. Economic benefits: depending on the type of assets involved, they may generate income or surpluses that can be reinvested into the local community. They can reduce grant dependency. In an era when grants are cut some organisations may look at assets as a vehicle for boosting their resilience. Physical: reversal of local decline as in the case of community land ownership, which also reversed patterns of monopolistic land ownership that had a detrimental effect on communities in the Highlands. Restoration of disused buildings, tackling neighbourhood blight and as part of wider regeneration agendas. Social: they can create tailored solutions that reflect the needs, desires, objectives and priorities of a local community. They can localise decision-making and empower communities to take charge of their own destiny.
  • There are several examples of this in Scotland. The Land Reform Act offered a significant opportunity for rural communities to take land into community ownership. Some people question the effectiveness of the legislation and most examples of community land purchase have actually occurred outwith the Act. This was coupled with the Scottish Land Fund which offered ringfenced funding. New Peoples & Communities Fund offers finance for community-led organisations, particularly aimed at those helping people with employability and preventative action. Government has recently consulted on the Empowerment Bill This includes the introduction of an urban right to buy. The Govt are currently considering whether it should operate in the same way as the rural right to buy and how ‘community’ can be defined in an urban context. Also focuses on the potential for public sector assets to be transferred into community ownership, particularly where they are under utilised or disused.
  • Clearly there has to be some sort of political will to support community assets. By setting the rules of the game in an appropriate manner, government can create an environment in which community assets can thrive. But this isn’t achieved solely through legislation: for example the majority of community land purchases have occurred outside the Land Reform Act. The Land Reform Act has been criticised for its complexity and placing onerous administrative demands on communities. Appropriate resourcing and support is important. This may include finance to support asset acquisition. Many people cite the Scottish Land Fund, with its dedicated ringfenced funding, as being more influential on community land purchase than the legislation itself. But this isn’t ‘blank cheque’ funding – there can be scope for innovation such as revolving loan funds. Scope for infrastructure and support. Again with land reform, the Highlands & Enterprise support service has been hugely important in helping communities navigate the process. This includes access to technical skills and support. This has also been covered in a recent paper we have written on community-led housing and land trusts in England, where intermediary organisations that operate at different geographic scales are crucial to increasing the size and scope of community asset agendas. Partnerships are key. There also needs to be desire from the community and a genuine desire to see things through. Asset acquisition and ownership can be a lengthy and time consuming process which asks a lot of community members and volunteers. Also needs to be considered how and where it fits in with strategic plans for the local area. And to realise that whether it is community, public or private ownership, assets and enterprise still have to be managed in a viable and financially responsible way.
  • The geographical distribution of community assets in Scotland suggests that there are significant challenges to be overcome if asset agendas are to take root across the nation. Legislation may be important but it needs to be configured in an appropriate way. Bureaucratic processes with centralised controls will disincentivise community-led approaches. Legislation needs to offer a genuine and realistic avenue for communities to achieve their objectives, not place onerous demands that may stifle community innovation. If asset-based approaches are to be pursued, space needs to be given and time created for communities to engage and involve their community. Asset acquisition is laden with democratic potential but active citizen participation and engagement takes time. This is particularly relevant where a community is not already or easily defined. Skills and resources can be unevenly distributed within and between communities. Asset acquisition, management and ownership places heavy demands on those who are involved. Engagement with intermediary support services can help ease these burdens but it is important to understand asset ownership may not be for every community. But to offer the opportunity to all, there needs to be easily accessible technical support and opportunities for partnership building. Ownership of land and buildings can be a liability for organisations as well as an asset. Ultimately assets still need to be managed in a financially viable and responsible manner. Much of the asset transfer rhetoric focuses on communities taking over disused or under utilised buildings. It depends what the asset is but it should be acknowledged that although they can tackle blight and manage assets effectively, these assets can also turn into liabilities. Furthermore not all communities will want to take ownership of assets. Many will be happy with service from public providers. There may not be demand for asset transfer and it’s important to recognise that this demand needs to come from communities, rather than responsibility for local services being transferred from the public to the community sector. Fit with wider policies: e.g. there are currently concerns on state aid where assets are transferred at less than best value.
  • There is much that is positive about community assets. They can yield significant benefits for their communities, whether it be by tackling inequalities in land ownership or undertaking neighbourhood regeneration.But it’s not always the only or most desirable option. Needs to be considered on a case-by-case basis and recognise that the needs and objectives of every community are not the same. It is a bespoke solution, not a blanket solution.Furthermore it requires appropriate resourcing that taps into existing mechanisms and support services. It is also worth examining the geographical reach of existing pillars of support as this may explain the uneven geographical distribution of assets in Scotland, which is heavily weighted towards rural areas. There is not a blanket solution to supporting communities but rather a bespoke service that engages at a local level and supports communities in coming up with tailored solutions.Resourcing isn’t necessarily or solely about asking for grant aid, but about ensuring the appropriate infrastructure is in place to support communities technically and financially. Avoiding bureaucratic hurdles in order to be truly empowering.
  • Head office in Edinburgh, a satellite office in Inverness and representation in Glasgow, Dumfries, Perth, Dundee and Aberdeen
  • 24 partner Universities and Research Institutes within Scotland
  • Survey response figures:Companies sent to:Closed won 293In discussion 142Closed lost 139TOTAL 574Responses receivedClosed won 106In discussion 53Closed lost 20TOTAL 179TOTAL RESPONSE RATE 31%
  • Need to include word impact (for REF)
  • Albyn Housing Society Limited began in 1973 by building homes for the incoming workers at the Invergordon smelter. From origins of a handful of staff, the Society now has 63 employees and two offices in Invergordon and Inverness. Albyn currently manages over 2,750 properties either through affordable rent or low cost home ownershp schemes.BackgroundAlbyn Housing Society wanted to investigate the feasibility of offering Assisted Living Services to their vulnerable residents through the use of Assisted Living Technologies as part of their suite of services. Assisted Living Technologies (ALT) are defined as those sensors, devices and communication systems that together allow the delivery of Assisted Living Services (ALS) including telehealth, telecare, wellness, digital participation and teleworking services. Interest in telecare is growing due to concern over caring for increasing numbers of older people and the challenges of service delivery in remote and rural areas. Telecare is viewed increasingly as a means of creating efficiencies and cost savings for service providers, prolonging independence and improving quality of life for service users and supporting carers. The Business ChallengeInterface - The knowledge connection for business facilitated a meeting between Albyn Housing Society and the Centre for Rural Health at the University of the Highlands & Islands to discuss the idea of providing Assisted Living Technologies to their vulnerable customers as part of the suite of services that they currently provide. Albyn Housing wanted to explore what the new service delivery model might look like, how it could benefit the business/customer and how it could be implemented and evaluated. They were also interested in opening up possibilities for training and job opportunities for young people in rural areas in line with their interest in the nEET (not in Education, Employment or Training) sector and community regeneration.The Solutionfunded through a Scottish funding Council Innovation Voucher, researchers from the Centre for Rural Health carried out the feasibility study on behalf of Albyn Housing Society. firstly, a brief literature review was conducted to establish how telecare is currently being delivered both nationally and nternationally. This review was combined with an information gathering exercise to find out more on telecare from key stakeholders in rural communities, Highland Council, Highlands and Islands Enterprise as well as the housing and third sectors. Secondly, interviews were conducted with older Albyn Housing tenants and carers. They were asked about their current awareness and use of telecare as well as their attitudes to using it in the future. A workshop with Albyn Housing staff was undertaken to ascertain their views on the issues involved in delivering a new telecare service. The Dementia Services Development Centre in Stirling was visited so that staff from both collaborative partners could see the telecare equipment demonstrated in a realistic home setting. The research data was collated and analysed in order to develop different options for service delivery. Having examined the conclusions and recommendations of the initial feasibility study into telecare delivery, Albyn Housing Society are looking to develop a longer term collaborative relationship that will allow them to proceed with planning and establishing a telecare service to vulnerable customers.
  • Since 1998, Renfrewshire Community Health Initiative (RCHI) has been the only voluntary sector community health organisation in Paisley working on health improvement with communities to help people cope with life circumstances, and promote behavioural change and self-help. RCHI focuses on people who do not access services currently and are the hardest to reach. They would like to move to a social business model of practice, operating as a non-profit, non-dividend organisation, but with greater freedom to pursue its mission of health improvement whilst maintaining financial sustainability in an increasingly resource-constrained environment.Renfrewshire Community Health Initiative (RCHI) is seeking to change status from a voluntary organisation to a social business. Despite current trends towards encouragement of greater plurality in health provision, the process of transition from voluntary organisation to social business has not been documented before. Ultimately, we aim to conduct a three-year participatory action research (PAR) project to assess lessons learned from such a process of change, what the benefits are for the organisation and, more importantly, assess impacts on clients and communities using instruments to measure health and well-being. The key is that the researcher acts as both facilitator to the receptor organisation (in this case, RCHI) as well as retaining his/her research role. Staff in the receptor organisation effectively act as ‘co-researchers’ who take responsibility for the direction and speed of change within the organisations identified. The funding from the voucher scheme would be used for a ‘scoping study’ for the subsequent three-year study, allowing us to evaluate: the initial concerns and issues for RCHI staff; potential barriers and facilitators to change; the current ways in which success of such organisations is judged (currently though a mechanism labelled ‘social return on investment’); and agree on a change process to be managed, facilitated and studied. The main output for RCHI would be that change process. The proposed plan would be taken forward though an agreed implementation plan that would be led by RCHI’s Board and Manager. A strategic development at Glasgow Caledonian University has been the creation of the Yunus Centre for Social Business & Health, its aims being to assess the sustainability and impact of ‘social business as a public health intervention’. Studies with organisations such as RCHI will be key to the Centre’s success which is why we expect a long-term relationship to emerge from this funding. The benefits to the company will be: greater understanding of the process of change from a voluntary organisation to a social business, leading to improved sustainability and the ability to continue to meet community needs in a funding environment which will require greater flexibility on the part of such organisations. The benefits to GCU will be: building a model of change and of evaluation of health-related social business which will serve as a basis for a PhD studentship, in the case of Renfrewshire Community Health Initiative, and for further research bids related to this voucher-supported project and subsequent PhD. Benefits to the Scottish economy are: further insight into how to create self-sustaining community-based organisations that meet important social needs within a heavily-constrained fiscal environment.The award would be used in a ‘scoping study’, involving:Interviews with key stakeholders, such as RCHI Board members, the RCHI manager and other key customers, requiring RCHI involvement in terms of approaching, explanating to and gaining consenting from interviewees;Analysis of the recordings of these interviews requiring corresponding RCHI involvement so as to ‘vailidate’ researcher’s findings;Reviewing appropriateness of ‘social return on investment’ as a measure of ‘success’ for such entities, all conducted by the employee;Attendance at and observation of RCHI staff meetingsTwo focus groups to set out issues to be addressed and agree a programme of change, which includes RCHI staff time not only in attendance but also in recruiting participants and preparation for the meeting;Field notes would also be used to inform the proposed process of change; andAssessment of RCHI information systems’ ability to be adapted to incorporate measures of health and well-being, including RCHI staff time in explaining current systems, exploring potential for change and piloting such changes.The final report would include an implementation plan which would form the initial template for RCHI to follow in transitioning from a voluntary sector organisation to a social business.The key requirement for the collaboration is an individual with the knowledge of how social enterprises run but also with the research skills to undertake the role of participatory action researcher. The individual would also require knowledge of the policy landscape for social enterprise, including working knowledge of the ‘social return on investment’ framework, and also an understanding of the role of community health initiatives in reducing health inequalities. Senior supervisory skills in each of these aspects would also be required. The Yunus Centre in Social Business & Health at Glasgow Caledonian University possesses such supervisory skills and, through its existing networks, has identified a person who would serve in the PAR role. 3The skills and expertise required within the company would be: transferring knowledge from themselves to the researcher on issues of context, aims and strategy for the future and current and future challenges, via interviews; liaising with ‘customer’ organisations and individuals in receipt of services to arrange contact with the researcher; working through transcripts with the researcher to validate qualitative analysis; facilitation of and attendance at staff meetings and focus groups; arranging access to and assessing current information systems; reading and commenting on final report.The outcome/impact has been much greater than expected. The relationship with Glasgow Caledonian has given RCHI an increased profile and credibility with principal stakeholders. For the university, increased understanding of the challenges facing a small third sector organisation in this environment, and the qualitative data generated, have been used to good effect in framing a successful competitive PhD studentship application, allowing the partners to continue to collaborate for years beyond this initial study. The PhD – entitled “Social business as an innovative and sustainable solution to the provision of pluralistic health care: developing a framework for measuring social impact” – will research RCHI’s transition to a sustainable social business model via a Participatory Action Research approach, thus furthering our understanding of social business as a public health intervention in the context of constrained resources, and advancing the evaluatory agenda serving to underpin knowledge of the effectiveness of such measures.
  • Developing Community Assets: Innovative ways to empower communities

    1. 1. Developing community assets:Innovative ways to empower communitiesShelley Breckenridge#communityassets
    2. 2. © InterfaceAGENDA14.00 Welcome and introductionShelley Breckenridge - Interface – The knowledge connection for business14.05 Challenges of community empowermentDr Peter Matthews - Institute for Building & Urban Design, Heriot-Watt University14.25 Building community assetsDr Tom Moore – Geography & Sustainable Development, University of St Andrews14.45 Innovative assetsDr Peter Matthews – Institute for Building & Urban Design, Heriot-Watt University15.00 Developing assets with a universityCaroline Richards – Prospect Community Housing Association15.15 Accessing the knowledge and expertise of Scotland’s universities and research institutesShelley Breckenridge – Interface – The knowledge connection for business15.30 Live and online Q & A16.00 Close#communityassets
    3. 3. Challenge of communityempowermentDiverse communities and placesDr Peter MatthewsInstitute of Building and Urban DesignSchool of the Built Environment@urbaneprofessor
    4. 4. Credits
    5. 5. Contents• ScotCERB – main proposals and themes• Whose community are we empowering?• Putting the community in planning• All communities are equal but some are moreequal than others• Concluding thoughts
    6. 6. ScotCERB• Renewing/reinvigorated (restarting?)Community Planning• Reform of community councils• Urban community right-to-buy• Community right to challenge• Miscellaneous
    7. 7. Tom Parnell: http://www.flickr.com/photos/itmpa/6200745928/sizes/o/in/set-72157627793156184/Tom Parnell:http://www.flickr.com/photos/itmpa/6200745928/sizes/o/in/set-72157627793156184/
    8. 8. Individuals Percentage of whom live in bottom 15% SIMD areasAllMen 14.4%Women 15.7%Health problems / disabilityDisabled 22.0%Long-term illness 22.5%Disabled AND long-term ill 27.5%Neither long-term ill nor disabled 12.8%EthnicityWhite 15.0%All non-White ethnicities 22.9%ReligionNo religion 14.8%Church of Scotland 12.4%Roman Catholic 26.3%Other Christian 8.6%Buddhist 9.3%Muslim 27.1%Other religions 14.4%Sexual orientationHeterosexual 13.4%Gay / lesbian / bisexual / „other‟ 17.0%Refused 17.6%
    9. 9. Community? PlanningThe Commission heard a consistent view that thepotential benefits of a local partnership approach are farfrom being fully realised; that there are significantvariations in the effectiveness of community planningpartnerships; and that, for the most part, theprocess of community planning has focussedon the relationships betweenorganisations, rather than with communities...(Christie, 2011: 44; emphasis added)
    10. 10. ScotCERB“It will be important to ensure thatcommunity empowerment takes accountof diverse communities and reaches bothmore marginalised individuals withincommunities and more marginalisedcommunities within society.”(Scottish Government, CERB Consultation: 7)
    11. 11. The influence of the middle classesTheory name DefinitionI’ll stand as the parish councilchairThat the level or nature of middle class interestgroup formation allows for the collective articulationof their needs and demands, and that serviceproviders respond to this.I’ll write to my councillor andcomplainThat the level and nature of middle-classengagement with public services on anindividualised basis means that services are morelikely to be provided according to their needs anddemands.I’ll just phone our doctor That the alignment in the cultural capital enjoyed bymiddle classes service users and service providersleads to engagement which is constructive andconfers advantage .I’ll vote for them That the needs of middle class service users, ortheir expectations of service quality, are „normalised‟in policy and practice or even that policy prioritiescan favour middle-class interests.
    12. 12. Empowering the powerful“Many equality groups and individuals howeverfeel disassociated and disenfranchised fromcommunity councils. They have expressed thatthey are often cliques who do not represent nordiscuss anything of relevance to them, andonly those with the loudest voices are actedupon.”NHS Lothian
    13. 13. Strategy of equality“„Local control will result in a postcode lottery‟ –Decentralisation will allow different communities to dodifferent things in different ways to meet their differentneeds. This will certainly increase variety in serviceprovision. But far from being random – as the word„lottery‟ implies – such variation will reflect theconscious choices made by local people. The reallottery is what we have now, where one-size-fits-allpolicies are imposed by the centre whether or not theywork locally.”(Communities and Local Government, 2010: 5)
    14. 14. “Under no circumstance should anymanagement of spending be transferred to localarea groups. Control of spending at localcouncil and national level is essential to ensurefair and equitable distribution of spending forthe entire population of Scotland, rather than forthe benefit of individual community groups.”(Arnprior Community Council)
    15. 15. Concluding thoughts?• Marginalised individuals andcommunities as King Canute?• Spaces for deliberation• Role of representative democracy andpolitical leadership• You can‟t eat community engagement
    16. 16. Role of voluntary sector• Community development• As advocates for groups andcommunities• As anchor organisations• Capital ownership and assets
    17. 17. ‘Hard-to-Reach’ or ‘Easy-to-Ignore’? - A rapid reviewof place-based policies and equalityDr Peter Matthews, Dr Gina Netto and Dr KirstenBesemer, Heriot-Watt Universityhttp://bit.ly/hardtoreach"Sharp Elbows": Do the Middle-Classes haveAdvantages in Public Service Provision and if sohow?Annette Hastings, University of Glasgow, Dr PeterMatthews, Heriot-Watt Universityhttp://bit.ly/sharpelbows
    18. 18. Building Community AssetsOpportunities and challenges of the Scottish CommunityEmpowerment and Renewal BillDr Tom Moore (Centre for Housing Research, University of St Andrews)tm55@st-andrews.ac.ukDeveloping Community Assets Webinar, May 2013
    19. 19. Objectives of this session• What do we mean by community assets?• Scale, distribution and policy context of the community asset agenda.• Reflect on the key ingredients and challenges involved with developing andsupporting community assets.
    20. 20. What do we mean by assets?• Ownership of physical assets such as land and buildings that arecontrolled, managed and owned by place-based community organisations.• No uniform model:• Organisations may be stewards, community developers andentrepreneurs (Aiken et al., 2011).• Assets may be acquired and funded in a variety of ways.• Involved in the ownership of a variety of assets: villagehalls, housing, community facilities, land.
    21. 21. Scale and distribution ofcommunity assets• Current scale:• 75,891 assets owned by 2,718 organisations.• Combined value of £1.45bn.• 66% of assets found in remote rural areas.• Over 90% of non-housing community assets are found in the 80% leastdeprived areas of Scotland, while only 3% are found in the 5% mostdeprived (DTAS, 2012).
    22. 22. Source: DTAS (2012)
    23. 23. Why community assets?• Economic benefits• Income generation• Reduce grant dependency and create independent revenue streams.• Physical benefits• Reverse local decline and tackle community disinvestment (Satsangi,2007).• Restoration of disused or underutilised buildings.• Social benefits• Tailored solutions to better reflect local needs (McKee, 2012).• Place-based community organisations that accord key roles to localpeople in democratic governance structures (Moore and McKee, 2012).• Renewal of local democracy (Satsangi, 2007).
    24. 24. Policy context• Community assets hold popular currency in policymaking• Land Reform Act (2003) and the right to buy: rural communitiesoffered the opportunity to purchase land when it is up for sale.• Big Lottery: Growing Community Assets.• People and Communities Fund (2012-15)• Scottish Community Empowerment & Renewal Bill proposes:• Introduction of an urban right to buy• Expansion of asset transfer
    25. 25. The key ingredients of community assetacquisition• Political will and intent (legislation useful but not a panacea - seeMacleod et al., 2010)• Appropriate resourcing and support is required.• Finance to support asset acquisition.• Investment into infrastructure and partnerships to nurturecommunity capacity (Moore and Mullins, 2013).• Community-led desire, capacity and strategic realism
    26. 26. Challenges to the community assetagenda• The constitution and impact of legislation.• Community engagement and challenges of empowerment.• Skills, resources and desires of communities.• Asset or liability? (see Aiken et al., 2011).• Fit with wider policies and strategies.
    27. 27. Implications for CommunityEmpowerment & Renewal Bill• There is much that is positive about the community asset agenda:• Assets can positively benefit communities, improve local servicesand boost local resilience.• Not always the most desirable option.• Bespoke rather than blanket solution.• History shows it requires stable, dedicated and targeted resourcing.• Tap into existing support services (DTAS, Community LandScotland, Highlands & Islands Enterprise).• Community ownership transcends who and where we are and anynew legislation needs to accompanied by a recognition of this.
    28. 28. ReferencesAiken, M, Cairns, B, Taylor, M and Moran, R. (2011) „Community organisations controlling assets: a betterunderstanding‟, York: JRF, http://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/files/jrf/community-organisations-assets-full.pdfDTAS (Development Trusts Association Scotland) (2012) Community ownership: a baseline study. Availablefrom: http://www.dtascommunityownership.org.uk/content/publications/community-ownership-in-scotland-a-baseline-studyMacleod, C, Braunholtz-Speight, T, Macphail, I, Flyn, D, Allen, S and Macleod, D. (2010) Post LegislativeScrutiny of the Land Reform (Scotland) Act 2003. Available from:http://www.crrs.uhi.ac.uk/publications/reports/reports-and-other-papersMcKee, K. (2012) “Housing Associations and the Big Society: lessons from Scotland‟s community housingsector“. St Andrews: Centre for Housing Research, University of St Andrews. Available from: http://ggsrv-cold.st-andrews.ac.uk/chr/publications.aspxMoore, T. and McKee, K. (2012) „Empowering Local Communities? An International Review of CommunityLand Trusts‟, Housing Studies, 27, 280-290.Moore, T. and Mullins, D. (2013) Scaling-up or going viral? Comparing self-help housing and community landtrust facilitation. Third Sector Research Centre Working Paper 94.Satsangi, M. (2007) „Land tenure change and rural housing in Scotland‟, Scottish GeographicalJournal, 123, 1, 33-47.
    29. 29. Innovative assetsWeb 2.0 and social capital
    30. 30. Wacquant (among others...)“By the closing decade of thecentury, the press of stigmatizationhad arisen sharply due to theexplosion of discourses on thealleged formation of „cité-ghettos‟widely (mis)reprsented as growingpockets of „Arab‟ poverty anddisorder...”
    31. 31. Dean and Hastings 1999They are regarded as places of highcrime, peopled by the feckless andunemployed, but a key finding is that it isinappropriate to talk of the image of anestate. Rather there are fractured images.Individuals emphasise different aspects ofthe estate, and perceive it differently,depending on their own characteristicsand experiences
    32. 32. Marked by...• Physicality• Tenure• Disinvestment• Notoriety and myth
    33. 33. Residents‟ perceptions“when I first lived here Wester Hailes Drive youcouldn‟t escape from Wester Hailes that wasyour address Wester Hailes Drive you know.And I was unemployed a lot of the time youknow in and oot o‟ work and sometimes goingfor a job because of yer address was difficultyou know because Wester Hailes had thisreputation you were all thieves crooks and drugaddicts”
    34. 34. Residents‟ perceptions“they look doon the hill at us you knowthey can be we‟re in the middle butthey‟re still looking doon the hill at usbecause we‟re part o‟ Wester Hailes andthey do not want to be involved wi‟ WesterHailes”
    35. 35. Turn back time......1977
    36. 36. The Wester Hailes Sentinelhttp://www.facebook.com/photo.php?v=322812907796229
    37. 37. 2008...
    38. 38. Promise of web 2.0• Democratisation of the web• Digital utopians• Digital dystopians
    39. 39. What‟s happened• Meetings.• A lot of meetings.• Getting planning permission• Getting the totem pole in the ground
    40. 40. © RCAHMS
    41. 41. © RCAHMS
    42. 42. Place attachment and social capital
    43. 43. Place attachment and social capital• Photos elicit stories• Stories describe complexities placeattachment• Is this supporting bonding socialcapital?• Is there a scope to develop bridgingsocial capital and empowerment?
    44. 44. Bonding social capital
    45. 45. Social media is media• Audience is based on content• Banalismo Reminiscenceo Narratives of everyday life• Is this a problem?
    46. 46. Concluding thoughts• University involvement as catalyst• Limit to what we can do• Academics are selfish• Academics are a pain to work with
    47. 47. Prospect Community HousingCaroline RichardsCommunity Projects Officer
    48. 48. Prospect Community Housing• Located in Wester Hailes,South West Edinburgh• We provide and manage899 homes for rent all withinWester Hailes• Set up by local people in 1988,our community attachment willalways be strong. We’re stillmanaged by a board made upof people who live in the areaswe serve
    49. 49. Prospect and Wider Role• Core business is housing but buildingcommunity takes more than homes• Initiate and support projects andservices that benefit tenants andthe wider community• Wider Role activity complementsexisting area needs and local priorities• Work in partnership• Able to act as an anchor organisation• Wide range of projects- youngpeople, employability, health, environmental,building capacity
    50. 50. • Use of social media to engage with local online users• Encourages interaction, builds a network• Sentinel Newspaper archive shows history of estate• Involved in a local partnership developing innovativeways to publicise and use area’s social history• Social history blog and Facebook page• Positive images that celebrate past and redefine presentFrom There To Here:Engagement via memories
    51. 51. Journey to Partnership• Social History group- local resident who recognisedpotential value of university involvement• Initial contact via Edinburgh University’sUrban Geography Dept-research on marginality• Limited long term impact but led topartnership with Edinburgh College of Art• Community Hacking projectlooking for a community to work with• Led to a set of activities/ projectsfocused on engagement, interactionand capacity building
    52. 52. Ladder To the Clouds• Tales of Things- collectingmemories, linking social history tointeractive technology• QR Codes- information and write back• Code Books- QR coded social history walksdeveloped by Eoghan Howard and theWester Hailes Health Agency• Totem Pole co-ordinated by WHALEArts Agency• QR Code Wall Plaques- Prospect CH workingwith RCAHMS• Our Place In Time: local partnership
    53. 53. Digital Sentinel• Sentinel was an independentcommunity voice• Online resource more sustainable• Co-ordinated by local steering groupdrawn from Our Place In Time• A live community space for Wester Hailes residents toshare current news, views, interests and stories• Content and format being driven by local community• A front page acting as a portal using free to accessplatforms such as Flickr, Youtube, Audioboo etc• Currently training local residents interested inbecoming citizen journalists, uploading content etc.
    54. 54. Benefits of Partnership• Technical expertise and support- e.g. backoffice set up forDigital Sentinel, QR codes• Funding- access to new sources• Fresh viewpoint- new ways of thinking and carrying outprocesses• Linked into a network that presents wideropportunities• Sharing of knowledgeand good practice• On-going support incommunity assetbuilding
    55. 55. Learning Points• Establish reciprocity from the beginning- what is thecommunity gaining from the relationship?• Partnership agenda should be driven by local partners• Understand that the university partner will be lookingfor specific outcomes that may be very different toother partners• Your university partner may speak a different languageon occasion!• Challenge of differing timescales• Long term commitment from allpartners is key to success
    56. 56. Contact DetailsCaroline Richardscaroline.richards@prospectch.org.ukFrom There To Here blog:http://hailesmatters.wordpress.comFrom There To Here Facebook page:https://www.facebook.com/FromThereToHereaWesterHailesStorySocial History Code Books:
    57. 57. © InterfaceInterfaceConnecting businesses with Scotland’s academia
    58. 58. © InterfaceIntelligent brokeringMatching the bestwith the bestInterface creates a clear path for businesses anduniversities to find mutually beneficial collaborations
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    60. 60. © InterfaceCreating an open platform to accelerate innovationHow do we encourage businesses and organisations toadopt an open innovation mind-set to access knowledgefrom out-with their organisations to develop new products,processes and services?• Proactively working with organisationsExpand horizons of innovationOvercoming limited access to expertise andtechnologySupport open innovation culture to draw onknowledge originating from outside business
    61. 61. © InterfaceWe help you access the specialist expertise, knowledge and facilitiesin Scotland’s universities and research institutions that your businessneeds to succeed:
    62. 62. © InterfaceThe match makingAcademic PartnersAll Scottish Universities& Research InstitutionsDirectContactViaevents,socialmedia,word ofmouth,press, etcReferralsViaIntermediaryorganisationsBusinessCommunity
    63. 63. © InterfaceSupport for businesses in Scotland’s AcademiaResearch & technologycapabilitiesContract researchSpecialist expertiseAccess to equipment &facilitiesConsultancyIndustrial placementsTraining, support &developmentStrategy, marketing &planning support
    64. 64. © InterfaceBenefits to business8companiesregistered49 newpatents27 companiesforecasted334 newlicencingdeals43 companiesforecasted 225jobs beingsafeguarded10companiescreated 25jobs33companiesintroduced48 newproducts37 companiesforecasted 81new processesbeingintroduced18companiessafeguarded57 jobs71 companiesforecasted 218new products /services beingintroduced9 companiesreportedexpansioninto 20 newmarkets2011/12 annual survey results; n=179
    65. 65. © InterfaceBenefits to AcademiaGain animprovedunderstandingoforganisationalrequirementsand operationsStimulateinnovation Enhanceskills andknowledgeOpportunitiesfor ongoingcollaborationand follow onprojectsGain ideas forfurtherresearch anddevelopmentprojectsLeadrewardingcollaborationswithinnovativebusinessesDevelop aculture ofknowledgeexchange usingindustryrelevantresearchPublish highqualityresearchpapers
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    68. 68. © InterfaceAlbyn Housing Society LtdBenefits• Assess the feasibility of a new innovativemodel of delivering ALS to vulnerablecustomers.• Evidence gathered is being used todevelop a future project that willdevelop, implement and evaluate thisservice model.• The service will allow the company tomaintain and/or improve their position inthe market, increasing revenue.“Our involvement with Interface has been hugely beneficial for Albyn Housing SocietyLtd as their introduction has been fundamental in developing our relationship withthe Centre for Rural Health and has led to further joint work with UHI. We havealready generated interest from the social housing sector in the work we have doneso far” Calum MacAulay, Chief Executive, Albyn Housing Society Ltd
    69. 69. © InterfaceRenfrewshire Community Health InitiativeBenefits• Greater understanding of the process ofchange from a voluntary organisation to asocial business, leading to improvedsustainability and the ability to continueto meet community needs• Relationship with GCU has given RCHI anincreased profile and credibility withprincipal stakeholders• Framed a successful competitive PhDstudentship application, allowing thepartners to continue to collaborate foryears beyond the initial study
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