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Scientific approach                              Arnaud Bonnard (Ifsttar)Final EventBrussels, November 22, 2012
Introduction• Objective of this presentation   – Describe the work achieved during the 4 years of     the project   – Give...
General Approach• An innovative combination of 4 well established  methodologies November 22, 2012   General Scientific Ap...
Methodologies that enrich each others   Step 1                           Self-reports                                     ...
Efficient collaborative work• For the design of each methodology   – 1 partner was leading the design   – All partners wer...
Focus GroupsNovember 22, 2012     General Scientific Approach   6
Focus Groups                                                   Focus Groups • Lead methodology designer « a small group of...
Focus Groups                     Research questions / objectives• Get first glimpse of the problem    – Understand        ...
Focus Groups : 2 dimensions                                                             Self-reports approaches           ...
Focus Groups                                                 Sample and sessions• 6 sessions per country : 230 drivers  6 ...
Focus groups                                   A reference process • An interview guide     – Calibrated for a 2:30 hr    ...
Focus groups                              Translated in 6 languages… November 22, 2012   General Scientific Approach     12
Focus groups                             Exploitation of the results • Transcript-based analysis     – Audio recording: wo...
Questionnaire surveyNovember 22, 2012   General Scientific Approach   14
Questionnaire survey                                        Questionnaire survey • Lead methodology designer « a series of...
Questionnaire survey                                           Research question Objectives • Get characteristics about IV...
Questionnaire : 3 dimensions                                                             Self-reports approaches          ...
Questionnaire survey                                                     Target sample • Objective : 800 respondents/count...
Questionnaire survey   Online in 9 countries… ~8000 respondents                                                     Austri...
Questionnaire survey                                                          Sample details                       Gender ...
Questionnaire survey                                Exploitation of the results • Data quality check     – Corrections and...
Naturalistic observationsNovember 22, 2012   General Scientific Approach   22
Naturalistic driving observation                       Naturalistic Driving Observation  • Lead methodology               ...
Naturalistic driving observation                                               Research question Objectives • Get the freq...
Naturalistic driving : 3 dimensions                                                             Self-reports approaches   ...
Naturalistic driving observation                             Inspired by FESTA method November 22, 2012         General Sc...
Naturalistic driving observation                             Inspired by FESTA method November 22, 2012         General Sc...
Naturalistic driving observation                     A naturalistic driving data collection • 30 vehicles, 6 countries   -...
Naturalistic driving observation                                           INTERACTION DAS • A data acquisition system dev...
Naturalistic driving observation                                           INTERACTION DAS November 22, 2012         Gener...
Naturalistic driving observation                                           INTERACTION DAS November 22, 2012         Gener...
Naturalistic driving observation                     The software part : in the vehicles November 22, 2012         General...
Naturalistic driving observation                     The software part : video coding November 22, 2012         General Sc...
Naturalistic driving observation                                   Exploitation of the results •   Raw data set: ~ 100 tri...
Naturalistic driving observation                                   Exploitation of the results November 22, 2012         G...
Experimental observationsNovember 22, 2012   General Scientific Approach   36
In depth observation                                         In-depth observation • Lead methodology designer « Driving be...
Naturalistic driving observation                                               Research question Objectives • to get a goo...
In-depth observation : 1 dimension                                                             Self-reports approaches    ...
In depth observation                       Inspired by “Wiener Fahrprobe” • Standardised route • Observation grids • With ...
In depth observation                                  Sample size and IVT          Country          CC           SL       ...
In depth observation                                                                                            1 set of d...
In depth observation                                                                                            1 set of d...
In depth observation                                    6 routes : 1 per country November 22, 2012     General Scientific ...
In depth observation                       2 observers, 2 different tasks November 22, 2012        General Scientific Appr...
In depth observation                                 Exploitation of the results• Standardised observer   – Count of the e...
Conclusion• INTERACTION scientific approach takes maximum  advantage of the 4 scientific approaches… November 22, 2012   G...
Conclusion• INTERACTION scientific approach takes maximum  advantage of the 4 scientific approaches… November 22, 2012   G...
Conclusion• INTERACTION scientific approach takes maximum  advantage of the 4 scientific approaches… November 22, 2012   G...
Conclusion• INTERACTION scientific approach takes maximum  advantage of the 4 scientific approaches… November 22, 2012   G...
Conclusion• INTERACTION scientific approach takes maximum  advantage of the 4 scientific approaches… November 22, 2012   G...
Conclusion                                                             Self-reports approaches            The population  ...
Conclusion                                                             Self-reports approaches            The population  ...
Conclusion                                                             Self-reports approaches            The population  ...
Conclusion                                                             Self-reports approaches            The population  ...
Conclusion                                                             Self-reports approaches            The population  ...
ConclusionThank you for your attention.Before the presentation of the results… do you have any questions ?November 22, 201...
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(2) Interaction Final Event - Scientific approach

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Interaction FP7 project aims to understand driver interactions with in-vehicle technology. Four systems have been investigated : Cruise control, speed limiter, navigation system and mobile phone. This presentation explains the general scientifc approach of the project.

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(2) Interaction Final Event - Scientific approach

  1. 1. Scientific approach Arnaud Bonnard (Ifsttar)Final EventBrussels, November 22, 2012
  2. 2. Introduction• Objective of this presentation – Describe the work achieved during the 4 years of the project – Give the keys to understand how the results were obtainedNovember 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 2
  3. 3. General Approach• An innovative combination of 4 well established methodologies November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 3
  4. 4. Methodologies that enrich each others Step 1 Self-reports Focus groups Focus groups Literature review Literature review Step 2 Questionnaire survey Questionnaire survey Observations Step 3 Naturalistic observation Naturalistic observation In-depth observation In-depth observation Refinement of the Guide for the Generation of the research design research hypothesis research hypothesisNovember 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 4
  5. 5. Efficient collaborative work• For the design of each methodology – 1 partner was leading the design – All partners were contributing Common agreement on reference methodology• During the tests – Strong commitment to follow the reference methodology – Local adaptations were discussedNovember 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 5
  6. 6. Focus GroupsNovember 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 6
  7. 7. Focus Groups Focus Groups • Lead methodology designer « a small group of people is engaged in a roundtable discussion of selected topics of interest in an informal setting » November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 7
  8. 8. Focus Groups Research questions / objectives• Get first glimpse of the problem – Understand  Why, when and where drivers use the systems under study How drivers use the systems? – Identify  if drivers understand and recognise the support provided by the systems and how the system functions;  what drivers think about the effectiveness of the system;  possible misuse of the system. – Highlight  why some drivers do not use the system?  if systems provide the expected assistance?  features that drivers would change to get an ideal system November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 8
  9. 9. Focus Groups : 2 dimensions Self-reports approaches The population of IVT users Focus groups The motives of IVT use Questionnaire survey The context of IVT use Naturalistic observation The modalities of IVT use In-depth observation The effects of IVT use Observations approachesNovember 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 9
  10. 10. Focus Groups Sample and sessions• 6 sessions per country : 230 drivers 6 countries : Czech republic, Finland, Navigation Cruise Control (CC) System (NS) France, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Speed Limiter (SL) Mobile Phone UK (MP) Young drivers: 5-8 Participants 5-8 Participants Up to 24 years-old (CC and SL users; (NS and MP users; CC and SL non-users) NS and MP non-users) Between 1 and 5 years of driving licence A minimum of 10 000 km driven last 12 months Have the system at least for one year Standard drivers: 5-8 Participants 5-8 Participants Between 35 and 55 years-old (CC and SL users; (NS and MP users; CC and SL non-users) NS and MP non-users) More than 10 years of driving licence Between 10 000 and 20 000 km driven last 12 months Have the system at least for one year Experienced drivers: 5-8 Participants 5-8 Participants Between 35 and 55 years-old (CC and SL users; (NS and MP users; CC and SL non-users) NS and MP non-users) More than 10 years of driving licence A minimum of 30 000 km driven last 12 months Have the system at least for one year November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 10
  11. 11. Focus groups A reference process • An interview guide – Calibrated for a 2:30 hr session • A questionnaire November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 11
  12. 12. Focus groups Translated in 6 languages… November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 12
  13. 13. Focus groups Exploitation of the results • Transcript-based analysis – Audio recording: word by word transcription – Dispatching of the answers in “categories of analysis” and “sub categories” – Qualitative analysis category by category – Synthesis in each country and at consortium level  Highlight shared opinions and specific point of views November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 13
  14. 14. Questionnaire surveyNovember 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 14
  15. 15. Questionnaire survey Questionnaire survey • Lead methodology designer « a series of questions in order to gather information from a extensive sample of respondents » November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 15
  16. 16. Questionnaire survey Research question Objectives • Get characteristics about IVT users • Get drivers opinions on – the interaction with the systems – advantages and disadvantages of the systems, • Get the context in which the users declare to use the systems, and the frequency and intensity of the use • Get the driving context in which driver consider IVT useful vs. not useful November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 16
  17. 17. Questionnaire : 3 dimensions Self-reports approaches The population of IVT users Focus groups The motives of IVT use Questionnaire survey The context of IVT use Naturalistic observation The modalities of IVT use In-depth observation The effects of IVT use Observations approachesNovember 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 17
  18. 18. Questionnaire survey Target sample • Objective : 800 respondents/country • Screening questions – Driving licence – Driving experience (at least 1000 km/year) – Use of at least one of the in-vehicle technologies in question (cruise control, speed limiter/alert and navigation system)  Target sample : IVT users, not representative of driver population November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 18
  19. 19. Questionnaire survey Online in 9 countries… ~8000 respondents Austria Portugal Czech Republic Spain Finland UK France Holland Australia November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 19
  20. 20. Questionnaire survey Sample details Gender (%) Age group (%) Total Country Male Female 14-22 23-35 36-55 56-80 (N) Australia 42 57 3 22 41 34 725 Austria 56 43 4 38 48 11 732 Czech Republic 46 53 19 48 26 7 791 Finland 41 59 11 49 37 3 837 France 41 59 9 66 8 17 1177 Netherlands 34 64 2 21 64 13 774 Portugal 61 39 11 64 21 5 1032 Spain 55 44 8 51 33 8 791 UK 41 59 6 34 32 29 818 total 46% 53% 8% 44% 34% 14% 7677 November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 20
  21. 21. Questionnaire survey Exploitation of the results • Data quality check – Corrections and re-coding when possible – Ambiguous cases not included in the analysis • Descriptive analyses about the sample characteristics • Statistical significance of the usefulness of the system / the benefits of each system were tested with Χ2 tests • Averages of usefulness / Averages for opinions were tested with t tests  Confirm Focus Group findings… and guide the design of the observation studies November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 21
  22. 22. Naturalistic observationsNovember 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 22
  23. 23. Naturalistic driving observation Naturalistic Driving Observation • Lead methodology • Coordination and designer results analysis « Observing how drivers interact with their In- Vehicle Technologies during their every day life » November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 23
  24. 24. Naturalistic driving observation Research question Objectives • Get the frequency and intensity of the use of the systems • Get the driving context in which the systems are used • Study uses and misuses of the systems November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 24
  25. 25. Naturalistic driving : 3 dimensions Self-reports approaches The population of IVT users Focus groups The motives of IVT use Questionnaire survey The context of IVT use Naturalistic observation The modalities of IVT use In-depth observation The effects of IVT use Observations approachesNovember 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 25
  26. 26. Naturalistic driving observation Inspired by FESTA method November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 26
  27. 27. Naturalistic driving observation Inspired by FESTA method November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 27
  28. 28. Naturalistic driving observation A naturalistic driving data collection • 30 vehicles, 6 countries - Czech republic - The Netherlands - Finland - Portugal + Spain - France - UK • ~100 drivers • Each driver was observed 4 to 6 weeks • ~3000 hr of observation  Target drivers : intensive users of IVT November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 28
  29. 29. Naturalistic driving observation INTERACTION DAS • A data acquisition system developed by « A low cost, reliable and versatile system to monitor driver behaviour and interactions with IVT » November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 29
  30. 30. Naturalistic driving observation INTERACTION DAS November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 30
  31. 31. Naturalistic driving observation INTERACTION DAS November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 31
  32. 32. Naturalistic driving observation The software part : in the vehicles November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 32
  33. 33. Naturalistic driving observation The software part : video coding November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 33
  34. 34. Naturalistic driving observation Exploitation of the results • Raw data set: ~ 100 trips per driver • Enrichment of data through expert coding from video • Automatic identification of relevant situations for PI calculation • Mean speed Indicators computation Std of speed Mean duration Std of duration … November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 34
  35. 35. Naturalistic driving observation Exploitation of the results November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 35
  36. 36. Experimental observationsNovember 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 36
  37. 37. In depth observation In-depth observation • Lead methodology designer « Driving behaviour of a test person observed on a standardised route by two observers » November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 37
  38. 38. Naturalistic driving observation Research question Objectives • to get a good overview of the influence of the IVT – on the driving task – the communication processes – the behaviour of the drivers in critical situations November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 38
  39. 39. In-depth observation : 1 dimension Self-reports approaches The population of IVT users Focus groups The motives of IVT use Questionnaire survey The context of IVT use Naturalistic observation The modalities of IVT use In-depth observation The effects of IVT use Observations approachesNovember 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 39
  40. 40. In depth observation Inspired by “Wiener Fahrprobe” • Standardised route • Observation grids • With specific adaptations – 2 rides : 1 with IVT, 1 without IVT November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 40
  41. 41. In depth observation Sample size and IVT Country CC SL SA NS MP Czech Republic 15 15 15 Finland 15 15 15 France 15 15 15 15 The Netherlands 20 20 20 Portugal 8 8 8 8 Spain 9 9 9 9 UK 15 15 15 15 Total (N) 77 32 35 97 97 November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 41
  42. 42. In depth observation 1 set of design rules…Start / End RIDE 1 Navigation System lllllll lllllll lllllll 15’ 10’ lllllll l lll ll l ll ll lll l l lll lll ll ll l l lllllll lllllll ll ll ll ll lll lll ---------------------------------- l lllll l l lll lll ll ll l l lllllll lllllll ll ll ll ll lll lll -------------------------------- l lll ll l ll ll lll llll l lll ll ---------------------------------- -------------------------------- 15’ lll ll l ll ll ll ll ll ll ll ll ll 10’ lll ll l ll ll ll l lll ll ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll l lll ll ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll l lll ll ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll l lll ll ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll l lll ll ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll l lll ll ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll l lll ll ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll l lll ll ll ll ll lll ll l lll ll l ll ll ll lll ll l lll ll l ll ll ll Mobile Phone November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 42
  43. 43. In depth observation 1 set of design rules…Start / End RIDE 2 Cruise Control lllllll lllllll lllllll 15’ 10’ lllllll l lll ll l ll ll lll l l lll lll ll ll l l lllllll lllllll ll ll ll ll lll lll ---------------------------------- l lllll l l lll lll ll ll l l lllllll lllllll ll ll ll ll lll lll -------------------------------- l lll ll l ll ll lll llll l lll ll ---------------------------------- -------------------------------- 15’ lll ll l ll ll ll ll ll ll ll ll ll 10’ lll ll l ll ll ll l lll ll ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll l lll ll ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll l lll ll ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll l lll ll ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll l lll ll ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll l lll ll ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll l lll ll ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll lll ll l ll ll ll l lll ll ll ll ll lll ll l lll ll l ll ll ll lll ll l lll ll l ll ll ll Speed Limiter / Speed Alert November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 43
  44. 44. In depth observation 6 routes : 1 per country November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 44
  45. 45. In depth observation 2 observers, 2 different tasks November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 45
  46. 46. In depth observation Exploitation of the results• Standardised observer – Count of the errors per section – Dispatching of the errors in the categories of analysis – Statistical analysis (Wilcoxon test) to compare with and without system• Free observer – Dispatching of the events in “categories of analysis” and “sub categories” – Qualitative analysis category by category – Synthesis in each country and at consortium level  Highlight the effect of IVT use November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 46
  47. 47. Conclusion• INTERACTION scientific approach takes maximum advantage of the 4 scientific approaches… November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 47
  48. 48. Conclusion• INTERACTION scientific approach takes maximum advantage of the 4 scientific approaches… November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 48
  49. 49. Conclusion• INTERACTION scientific approach takes maximum advantage of the 4 scientific approaches… November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 49
  50. 50. Conclusion• INTERACTION scientific approach takes maximum advantage of the 4 scientific approaches… November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 50
  51. 51. Conclusion• INTERACTION scientific approach takes maximum advantage of the 4 scientific approaches… November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 51
  52. 52. Conclusion Self-reports approaches The population of IVT users Focus groups The motives of IVT use Questionnaire survey The context of IVT use Naturalistic observation The modalities of IVT use In-depth observation The effects of IVT use Observations approachesNovember 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 52
  53. 53. Conclusion Self-reports approaches The population of IVT users Focus groups The motives of IVT use Questionnaire survey The context of IVT use Naturalistic observation The modalities of IVT use In-depth observation The effects of IVT use Observations approachesNovember 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 53
  54. 54. Conclusion Self-reports approaches The population of IVT users Focus groups The motives of IVT use Questionnaire survey The context of IVT use Naturalistic observation The modalities of IVT use In-depth observation The effects of IVT use Observations approachesNovember 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 54
  55. 55. Conclusion Self-reports approaches The population of IVT users Focus groups The motives of IVT use Questionnaire survey The context of IVT use Naturalistic observation The modalities of IVT use In-depth observation The effects of IVT use Observations approachesNovember 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 55
  56. 56. Conclusion Self-reports approaches The population of IVT users Focus groups The motives of IVT use Questionnaire survey The context of IVT use Naturalistic observation The modalities of IVT use In-depth observation The effects of IVT use Observations approachesNovember 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 56
  57. 57. ConclusionThank you for your attention.Before the presentation of the results… do you have any questions ?November 22, 2012 General Scientific Approach 57

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