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The Economics of Green HPC


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Eurotech on how to realize long-term sustainability strategies in green computing

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The Economics of Green HPC

  1. 1. The economics of green HPCGiovanbattista MattiussiMarketing HPC, Eurotech
  2. 2. Green computing• Green computing is a muchdiscussed subject nowadays• It is good to separate thebuzzwords from the action we, asorganizations, can really afford toundertake to realize long termsustainability strategies• In other words, which is the overallincentive to top the Green500 listother than marketing returns• Sustainability has a cost, has areturn and hence should have aROI
  3. 3. Data center TCO driversDriver Cost componentsIT CAPEX Initial SW and HW capital expendituresSpace occupancy(footprint)Cost of the occupied space and auxiliary infrastructure: rent,opportunity cost, civil, structural and engineering, permits andtaxesData center infrastructure Electrical (UPS, generator, cables…)Cooling (Chillers, AHUs, heat exchangers, pumps…)Facilities (fire prevention, plants, security, building mng systems)Installation Delivery, installation, test and tuning of IT, electrical and coolingequipmentEnergy Cost of energy: IT, cooling, lighting and wasteMaintenance andadditional operationcostsWarranty extensions, support, software licenses, IT maintenance,electrical and cooling maintenance, facilities maintenance, costsof outages, heating, securityOther: disposal, green… Costs of end of life, carbon footprint (missed) incentives, fines…
  4. 4. Main Areas of impact on TCOLinks to sustainabilityEnergy savingsLower cost due toless energyconsumedSpace savingsSavings in realestate, racks,electrical, coolingand networkReliabilitySavings in downtimeindirect cost andmaintenanceSustainability impactHighSustainability impactHighSustainability impactMedium
  5. 5. Energy efficiency - methodsIT equipmentMaximize Flops / WattData CenterFacility PUEData Center orecosystemReuse thermal energy1 IT equipmentMaximize efficiency23Increased work per wattEliminate fansComponent level heatexchangeNewest processors aremore efficientLiquid coolingEnergy aware designOptimize air coolingFree coolingLiquid coolingDirect liquid coolingOptimization of powerconversionDirect liquid coolingMaximize outlettemperatureHolistic view of datacenter planning
  6. 6. PUEs in various data centersSource: IntelGlobal bank’s best data center (of more than 100) 2.25 AirEPA Energy Star Average 1.91 Air/LiquidIntel average >1.80 AirORNL 1.25 LiquidGoogle 1.16 Liquid coils,evaporative tower,hot aislecontainmentLeibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) 1.15 Direct liquidNational Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) 1.10 LiquidYahoo Lockport *(PUE declared in project) 1.08 Free air cooling +evaporative coolingFacebook Prineville 1.07 Free cooling,evaporativeNational Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 1.06 Direct Liquid +evaporative tower
  7. 7. AcceleratorsFirst conclusion• Any reduction of PUE (facility side) costs efforts (especially economicefforts!)• We know how to do point 2 getting successfully to PUEs of 1.x value.Let’s focus on the «1» part of the PUE• One way to do so this through Energy Aware design, a technique thatEurotech has used for many years to dateOptimized designNo unused componentsNo fansSoldered componentsDense architecture (withintegrated interconnect)Optimized powerconversion chainDirect liquid cooling
  8. 8. Less civil, structuraland engineeringcostsLess hardware(racks)Less maintenance(fewer components)Less cooling(ventilation)Less cablingDensity - methodsMOREFlops/m2Direct liquid cooling1High density designSmall form factorsSoldered memoryCompact bladesHigh performanceprocessors23Accelerators
  9. 9. Reliability impacts TCO in 2 ways:- Direct costs, associated with spare parts, extended warranties, supportpersonnel- Indirect costs, related to the business cost associated to an outage.The direct costs depend on the number of components and their estimatedFIT (failure in time) rate, as demonstrated in the MTBF equation where 𝜇is the failure rate of the single component and N the number of components𝜇 is related to quality,operating conditions,monitoring and preventivemaintenance of componentsMTBF =1𝜇 𝑖𝑖=𝑁𝑖=1The indirect impact depends on type of organisation and could range fromthousands to millions € per hour of outage.So the impact of low reliability on the business could offset any saving reachedduring purchase and installation of IT solutions!Reliability – resilience - methods
  10. 10. Impact of downtime
  11. 11. Comparison - investmentInvestment (K US dollars) Datacenter A Datacenter B Datacenter CServers $6,200 $6,200 $6,200Network and other IT $440 $440 $440Building $1,260 $540 $360Racks $280 $120 $60Cooling $2,670 $3,060 $1660Electrical $3,570 $3,570 $2,420TOTAL INVESTMENT $14,420 $13,930 $11,140Data center A – PUE 2.2Data center B – PUE 1.6Data center C – PUE 1.05Medium density (20 kW per rack) – air cooledHigh density (50 kW per rack) – optimized aircooling, rear door liquid coolingHigh density (87 kW per rack) – direct hot liquidcooling, floating Tamb
  12. 12. Comparison – annualized TCOAnnual cost (K US dollars) Datacenter A Datacenter B Datacenter CCost of energy $1,970 $1,430 $640Retuning and additional CFD $6 $3 $0Total outage cost $270 $270 $230Preventive maintenance $150 $150 $150Annual facility and infrastructuremaintenance. $310 $290 $140Lighting $5 $3 $2Annualized 3 years capital costs $2,040 $2,000 $1,980Annualized 10 years capital costs $880 $940 $540Annualized 15 years capital costs $130 $60 $40ANNUALIZED TCO $5,761 $5,146 $3,722Data center A – PUE 2.2Data center B – PUE 1.6Data center C – PUE 1.05Medium density (20 kW per rack) – air cooledHigh density (50 kW per rack) – optimized air cooling, rear doorliquid coolingHigh density (87 kW per rack) – direct hot liquid cooling, floatingTamb
  13. 13. GREEN FIELDBuilding for energy efficiency (i.e.choice of location, free cooling…)to utilize free coolingTARGET PUE 1.2EXISTINGIntroducing an hot water coolinginstallation in existing data centerTARGET PUE 1.4EXTENSION WITH HIGH DENSITYSeparate room for hot watercooling and installation whichfloats with TambTARGET PUE 1.051 Pflop/s installation in Mediterranean climate: hot summers, mild tocold wintersInvestment in data center+ 4 M$ over a standard building(PUE 2.2)Energy savings: 1M $ per yearPayback 4.62 yearsInvestment in data center+ 1M $ over standard equipment(conservative, it can cost less)Payback time: 1 year+ 850K$ $ over standardequipmentPayback time: 1.23 years
  14. 14. Green effects1 Petaflop/s installation – CO2 savingswith water cooling compared to air˜28000 tons of CO2 saved in 5 years.Equivalent to:3800 cars that do not circulate for 1 year30100 saved adult trees40 Km2 of rain forest left untouched