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Gender: research evidence stereotypes

  1. research evidence stereotypes GENDER Integronomia ergonomics and sustainability - research, consultancy, design These slides contain data that researchers, in different subjects, published in scientific journals Sonia R. Marino architect and european ergonomist
  2. Biology, physiology, genetics…
  3. Prototype of the worker •  Male, 40 year old, 70 Kg •  Usually the cooling standards of the offices are based on the metabolism of this prototype of the worker 70 Kg =
  4. Sustainable cooling? It based on women •  Women have a slightly lower metabolic rate than men, therefor women would be at ease even in less cooled environments Review of current climate standards would reduce waste of energy
  5. Gender and immune system •  The activation and suppressing of genes of the immune system is different between men and women •  That difference could explain the higher incidence of autoimmune diseases in women •  It is necessary to produce "gender drugs” that calculate the differences
  6. Pain and gender •  And pain ? •  Microglia, a particular group of immune cells, transmit the pain to the male brain, cells T and B in the female brain
  7. Stress, anxiety, performance …
  8. Dangerous situations •  At the sight of the negative images, in women the areas related to pain and pleasure with centers become more activated, men those involved in decision-making processes and the autonomic nervous system •  This could indicate that faced with dangerous situation the man has a greater propensity to action
  9. Gender anxiety! •  Women are more anxious •  It seems due to a genetic variant in the brain which leads to a dysregulation of serotonin
  10. Stress, empathic abilities and gender •  Basically males under stress become more self-centered and less empathetic •  For women, it is quite the opposite, they become more "prosocial"
  11. Alcool, performance and gender •  Subjects had to press a green button when a green light blinked, they did not had to do anything if a blue button blinked •  Tipsy subjects were less and less able to keep from pressing the blue light button, but the performance of the men were three times worse than those of women
  12. Pilots and plane crashes •  Men and women both cause plane crashes, but ... men drivers tend to have accidents because of distraction, or bad decisions, like flying in bad weather or on a plane with known technical issues •  Generally women are more cautious
  13. We know the female is peaceful … Franz Xaver Simm
  14. Hurricanes … •  In the United States, hurricanes with female names cause a greater number of victims than ”male" hurricanes
  15. … stereotypes are dangerous •  The discrepancy is due to a psychological phenomenon related to gender stereotypes •  Hurricanes with a female name are perceived as less violent, more weak, therefore the people do not follow the precautionary measures and evacuation directives !!! After Katrina, 2005
  16. Perception's diversity, colours and …
  17. Different communication •  The male brain circuits are optimized for good communication within each hemisphere, in female brain communication there is better between the two hemispheres •  In the cerebellum exactly the opposite happens
  18. Women prefer pink … •  In every civilization and culture, there is this preference that probably is due to a natural predilection, selection started at the time of the hunter-gatherer societies when women would have developed a special sensitivity and attention to the reddish color of the ripe fruits
  19. … though the colour blue •  Universally the color blue likes more •  For this preference the reason could be in good time and good and clean source water its signal value
  20. Women at risk blindness •  A study on blindness showed that in the world about two- thirds of blind people are women •  In the underdeveloped areas 40% of women are more likely to be blind than men •  The phenomenon is not only connected to the disastrous situation in which women often live in third world countries, indeed the difference is even higher in industrialized nations
  21. Colour or movement •  Gender difference in the concentration of receptors in cells of the visual cortex during embryogenesis results some differences in the architecture perception •  Women excel in the discrimination of color tone shades, men in the ability to capture changes in the fast-moving stimuli
  22. Gender and visual memory •  Women memorize better human physical appearance, clothing or face strangers they meet •  The difference between the sexes is not great, but it is indicative of another different interpersonal sensitivity area between women and men
  23. Colour perception •  The achromatopsia, partial or total color blindness, is caused by changes in the genes for the opsin, a protein contained in the rods, especially in men •  The red opsin would have been maintained by natural selection to provide to humans a better color perception, especially women
  24. Red or green face ? •  In male caucasians the spectrum of light from the face is more shifted toward the red end of the spectrum. In female caucasians generally it lies at the green end •  The discovery could have interesting implications for the development of technologies for facial recognition
  25. Orientate, look for, …
  26. Find the products and lines •  Women are faster than men in finding products on shelves and in choosing between similar products, and they have a better sense of direction at the supermarket •  Men seem to be faster in finding parking space and they are more apt in queuing up and pay at the check-out counter
  27. Orientate: map or memories ? •  Men are better in reading road maps than women, but if it is to reach a known destination the female brain keeps better track of the points of reference
  28. Mind map •  The subjects were monitored to verify how much energy is depleted to pick some mushrooms •  Although there were no major differences in the number of mushrooms they picked men climbed over the mountains and consuming more energy 70% than women •  Women stopped more often but they gave the impression of knowing exactly where to go
  29. Love, where are the •  Women decide better search strategies faster than men •  A study tested the behavior of individuals when they search for objects: men were very good at discovering the hidden ones, women were great when it came to remembering where those objects had been put
  30. Preconceptions and prejudices It is easier to break an atom than a prejudice
  31. Gender disparities in online sales •  If a woman sells a thing on eBay, she gets a much lower price than a salesman •  With the same product, women receive fewer deals
  32. Blah blah blah … •  Women say an average of 16,215 daily words, against 15,669 for men •  The difference, about 3% on average, does not appear statistically significant •  Until now it was believed that women said about 20,000 daily words against 7,000 for men
  33. Beyond gender differences •  Most brains are a diverse mosaic of female, male and intermediate characteristics •  Despite the existence of gender differences in the brain, it cannot be asserted the existence of two distinct categories: "male brain" and "female brain"
  34. Sense of humour •  According to Christie Nicholson, “Gender humor", for a woman who has a sense of humour is the person who makes her laugh, for a man who laughs at his jokes •  When relationship continues, recent studies show that the male humour becomes less important, but the woman’s irony becomes a blessing
  35. Less different than we think •  Neurological differences between males and females are minimal, compared to the impositions of the social norms; for instance, male children like the dolls just like female children, some time after in preschool age the differences starts when adults suggest the roles Environmental factors condition more than we think