The role of prebiotics in pangasius production


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In India, the steady growth in freshwater aquaculture is led by the recent production of the Pangasius catfish. In fact, Andhra Pradesh, the fifth largest state in the country, is now know as the “Fish Bowl” of India for its rich production of pangasius.

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The role of prebiotics in pangasius production

  1. 1. March | April 2014 The role of prebiotics in pangasius production The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2014 Perendale Publishers Ltd.All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058 INCORPORATING FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
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  3. 3. I n India, the steady growth in freshwater aquaculture is led by the recent produc- tion of the Pangasius catfish. In fact, Andhra Pradesh, the fifth largest state in the country, is now know as the “Fish Bowl” of India for its rich production of pangasius. Catfish production is the fastest grow- ing fish farming in the country’s aquaculture sector; however it appears as the higher the production increases, the higher the risk for disease outbreak among the species. Under intensive production methods and poor culture management, fish are exposed to stressful conditions leading to growth reduction and higher susceptibility to various diseases. Red disease often occurs during the change from the dry to rainy season and dur- ing the flood season. Signs of Red disease include the fraying and reddening of fins, and irregular, vari- ably sized areas of de-pigmentation and red pigmentation that can develop anywhere on the body surface, leading to open sores and ulcers. Infections can occur in any age, but losses tend to be most severe in fry and small fingerlings. Pseudomonas fluorescens, thought to be the causative agent of the Red disease, or Bacterial Hemorrhagic Septiciemia disease of pond- cultured fish, is considered a primary pathogen of freshwater and opportunistic pathogen for different fish species grown in marine and brackish waters worldwide. Clinical symptoms of the bacteria include darkening of the skin and hemorrhage in skins and the fins. According to a study conducted by the Department of Aquaculture, Bangladesh Agricultural University (Faruk, Md. A.R. 2008), the most prevalent symptoms of the Red disease in pangasius hypophthalmus, are red spot, followed by anal protusion, tail and fin rot, pop eye, dropsy and gill rot. The 100 fish farmers interviewed also reported other conditions like cotton wool type lesion, ulceration and white spot, but at lower rates. Economic losses were estimated to be 3.6 percent of the farmers’ total yearly income in fish production due to ill-health. The successful control of disease in aqua- culture requires a multifaceted approach, whereby better management practices are combined with the use of specially selected fish stock and adequate nutrition to improve overall fish health. In intensive culture systems, improvement The role of prebiotics in pangasius production by Dr Serge Corneillie, general manager, Alltech Japan - Email: table a: the length growth of catfish fry treatment t1 t2 t3 t4 Initial lengtj (cm) 0.6±0.02a 0.6±0.02a 0.6±0.02a 0.6±0.02a Final length (cm) 4.24±0.91a 4.39±0.99ab 4.99±1.22b 5.63±1.25c length gain (cm) 3.83±0.87a 3.97±0.90ab 4.74±1.26b 5.46±1.43c DlG (cm/day) 0.13±0.03a 0.13±0.03a 0.16±0.04b 0.18±0.05c SGr (%/day) 6.70±0.76a 6.81±0.66ab 7.30±0.87b 7.72±0.86c table 1: Culture parameters in trial ponds. Ponds Stocking numbers area (ha) Stocking Density (no/m2) Initial average body weight (g) Days of culture (DoC) t1 46,600 2 2.33 135 38 t2 25,000 0.8 3.13 80 38 t3 38,450 1.4 2.8 213 37 C1 69,752 2.2 3.1 256 30 C2 69,993 2.2 3.1 194 30 C3 76,251 2.2 3.5 201 28 aactigen™ at 1kg/tonne (applied along with premix in floating feed) bantibiotic treatment. one at start of trial 4/10/2009 + following treatments at disease outbreak. note: as this is a field trial, we were limited in controlling some parameters such as initial weight and days of culture. 10 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | March-April 2014 FEATURE
  4. 4. of natural health and immunity in fish is dependent on proper nutrition. From a commercial perspective, mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) have been used in aqua diets for almost 20 years. The return on investment, based on increased perform- ance and improvement in efficiency, has been demonstrated in countless academic and commercial trials. The major source of these functional carbohydrates is the cell wall fraction of bakers’ and brewers’ yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recently, new data has become available on a second-generation, purified and more bioactive fraction derived from a selected strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This natural Mannan Rich Fraction of carbohydrate (MRF) has been shown to block unfavorable organ- isms from the gut. This carbohydrate supports nutrient utilisation, maintains digestive function and enzyme activity, controls inflammation and reduces the gap between ideal and actual performance. These mechanisms have been confirmed using nutrigenomic data. (Note: The compound is commercially available as ActigenTM (Alltech Inc) which is a bioactive fraction derived from yeast cell wall and has shown favorable results on growth perform- ance and health status of the pangasius catfish.) Indirectly, recent studies have illustrated the potential to reduce cost of antibiotic inputs in aquaculture through the improve- ment of gut health and nutrient absorption and ultimately a healthy immune status of the fish. Gut health and immunity The gastrointestinal tract is a prominent part of the immune system. Microorganisms are kept at bay by an extensive immune system comprising gut- associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). In terrestrial animals including humans, the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in affecting nutrition, health of the host and in the balancing beneficial and harmful bacteria. A ratio of 80 percent March-April 2014 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | 11 FEATURE Extruder OEE for the Production of Fish FeedExtruder OEE for the Production of Fish Feed AMANDUS KAHL GmbH & Co. KG, Dieselstrasse 5-9, D-21465 Reinbek / Hamburg, Phone: +49 40 727 71 0, Fax: +49 40 727 71 100,
  5. 5. beneficial to 20 percent harmful bacteria is considered normal. The bacteria in the water surrounding the fish are continuously ingested either with the feed or when the host is drinking, causing a natural interaction between the microbiota of the ambient environment and the gut envi- ronment. If the bacterial challenge exceeds a certain level, the health of the animal is in danger, as the animal alone cannot defend itself sufficiently. The potential for reducing stress and enhancing immunity and disease resistance by nutritional feed additives and functional feed materials has been demonstrated in warm- blooded animals. However, very little work in this area has been conducted in aquaculture. Thus, the effects of nutrition and feeding strategies need to be assessed to develop economically viable feeds and feeding prac- tices to optimize growth, improve stress resistance, immune response and disease resistance and improve the product quality of aquaculture species. However, is this really possible? The answer is yes, through the pro- motion of early gut development with nucleic acids, organic trace minerals as well as ‘feeding the gut’ to maintain intestinal health. Recent research A recent study in Vietnam examined how to improve the survival rate of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthal- mus) fingerlings by adding rotifers and Actigen. The trial, conducted from June 10 to September 20, 2012, focused on three diets containing 0.04% Actigen (2nd treatment), 0.08% Actigen (3rd treatment) and 0.12% Actigen (4th treatment) and one diet without containing Actigen (1st treatment) were evaluated. Rotifers and Actigen addition had positive results in improving survival rate as well as in stimulating growth rate of catfish fingerlings. The survival rate of the fish in the fourth treat- ment improved approximately 34 percent comparing to that in the first treatment. The more concentration of Actigen was added, the higher survival rate of fish achieved. Therefore, the average survival rate of the catfish fingerlings increased from the first treatment (8.31%), the second treatment (9.36%), the third treatment (10.13%) and the fourth treatment (11.16%) (see figure 4.1). The growth rate of fish also increased when increasing Actigen concentration added. The average length and weight of fish at the 30th day in 1st treatment was 4.24cm and 0.77g, 4.39cm and 0.82g for fish in 2nd treatment, 4.99cm and 0.93g for fish in 3rd treatment, 5.63cm and 1.08g for fish in 4th treatment (see figure 4.6). In another study in India, researchers looked at the immune competence of Pangasius hypophthalmus when subjected to the prebiotic during grow-out in ponds. This was conducted in a farm located in Losari, West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India. The farm contained 30 ponds of which 20 suffered from higher than normal outbreaks of disease (see Table 1). The farm was applying antibiotics (Enrofloxacin @ 15g/tonne of fish biomass) to treat disease. As disease outbreaks became more frequent, the farmer faced losses from heavy mortalities and increasing costs of treatments. Researchers selected three ponds as treatment ponds (T1, T2, T3) and three control ponds (C1, C2, C3), where the standard procedure of using antibiotics was continued. During the three-month trial, weekly sam- pling by weighing 100 fish was carried out. Data recorded included growth rate and fish mortality (see Table 2 and Figure 1). The diets used were a standard balanced floating feed. The treatment diet contained the prebi- otic at 1kg/tonne of feed. Fish in the control ponds were fed the standard balanced floating feed with antibiotic treatments added at 5g/tonne of fish biomass for five days in each application. The researchers concluded that the addi- tion of the prebiotic helped in reducing the mortalities and dependence on the antibiot- ics and also ensured better returns for the farmer. Based on the above field observations they concluded that, the use of the prebi- otic in the extruded feeds will enhance the complete utilization of feed, thereby leading to less excretion (less pollution) and higher profitability for the farmer. Conclusion Often it has been hypothesized that fish invest more energy in immunity than in other physiological functions. Moreover, seasonality is thought to act as an important factor in determining the levels of fish physiology and immunological activity. However, the inclusion of certain immune enhancers can help fish to improve their immune status and spend less energy on those defense mechanisms leading to lower inputs for treating fish. table 2: Summary of production parameters and inputs used Ponds aBW (g) Initial aBW (g) final Biomass Increase (g) Feed Used (tonne) actigen used (kg) antibiotic used (g) Mortality (number) t1 135 470 335 28.01 28.01 - 7 t2 80 447 367 16.52 16.52 - - t3 213 639 426 29.48 29.48 - - C1 256 846 590 61.73 - 6.97 350 C2 194 610 416 52.41 - 6.99 500 C3 201 713 512 62.47 - 7.62 275 Figure 1. Growth performance of pangasius catfish over three months Figure 2: Survival rate of catfish fry 12 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | March-April 2014 FEATURE
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  7. 7. LINKS • See the full issue • Visit the International Aquafeed website • Contact the International Aquafeed Team • Subscribe to International Aquafeed The Role of prebiotics in Pangasius production Poultry hydrolysates enhance stress resistance & stress tolerance – in Pacific white shrimp Volume 17 Issue 2 2014 - m ARCH | APRIl INCORPORATING fIsh fARmING TeChNOlOGy Microalgae and aquaculture – feed and cycle management Aquaculture UK – our guide to the UK's premier aquaculture event This digital re-print is part of the March | April 2014 edition of International Aquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link above. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE