Spray-dried plasma from porcine blood in diets for Atlantic salmon parrs


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Since the late 1970s, Atlantic salmon aquaculture has grown into a global industry that annually produces over 1.4 million tonnes of salmon with an estimated value of US$7,812 million according to 2012 FAO statistics. The growth of salmon aquaculture has been accompanied by a continuous improvement in feed formulation and technology to maximize growth and survival of salmon at different stages of development. The search for new and alternative feed ingredients and formulations continues in order to ensure sustainability of this industry.

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Spray-dried plasma from porcine blood in diets for Atlantic salmon parrs

  1. 1. I N C O R P O R AT I N G f i s h far m ing t e c h no l og y January | February 2013 Spray-dried plasma from porcine blood in diets for Atlantic salmon parrs International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
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  3. 3. FEATURESpray-dried plasmafrom porcine blood in diets forAtlantic salmon parrsby Enric Gisbert PhD, Research Scientist, IRTA-San Carlos de la Rápita,Spain and Javier Polo PhD, APC Europe SA, Granollers, SpainS ince the late 1970s, Atlantic salmon fishmeal replacer, and as a aquaculture has grown into a global pellet colouring agent. industry that annually produces over On a nutritional basis, 1.4 million tonnes of salmon with an blood meals with the high-estimated value of US$7,812 million according est digestibility are gener-to 2012 FAO statistics. The growth of salmon ally those which have been aquaculture has been accompanied by a con- spray dried. Spray-dried tinuous improvement in feed formulation and proteins are subjected to technology to maximize growth and survival of less heat damage and dena-salmon at different stages of development. The turing of the protein during search for new and alternative feed ingredients the drying process com-and formulations continues in order to ensure pared to traditional ren-sustainability of this industry. dered or ring-dried proteins. Aquaculture feed manu- A major challenge for the aquaculture facturers that use blood feed production industry is to identify and meal and blood products validate stable, predictable and high qual- in their feeds are mainly ity sources of alternative proteins for the concentrated in Asia and manufacture of aqua feeds. In this context, North and South America, any satisfactory alternative feed ingredient whereas European feed must be able to supply comparable nutri- producers are using non-tional value at a competitive cost. Global ruminant blood products recognition that terrestrial animal by-product mainly in marine fish feed meals, especially non-ruminant blood meals because it is now legally and blood products, represent the largest accepted by EU regulation and largely untapped safe source of animal (Tacon, 2005). protein available within the international aquafeed industry. Spray dried-plasma Despite the fact that blood meal and as a feed ingredientblood products have been shown to be cost- Spray-dried blood, red effective nutrient sources for farmed fish and blood cells (haemoglobin) shrimp, it was estimated that less than five per- and plasma proteins have cent of total global manufactured aqua feeds long been recognized as high (21 million tonnes in 2005) contained blood quality feed ingredients for meal (2–5% average dietary inclusion level). swine, cattle and poultry. Figure 1: Final size distribution in body weightBlood meal is mainly used as a cost-effective Spray-dried plasma (SDP) is (BW) of Atlantic salmon fed diets containing graded levels of spray dried plasma (SDD)source of highly digestible animal protein, as a a feed ingredient composed 18 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013
  4. 4. Fatten up your bottom line. Bühler high-performance animal and aqua feed productionsystems are used by leading companies around the world. These producers know theycan rely not just on the technology itself, but also on the support that accompanies it. Aservice combining local presence with global expertise both lowers feed mill operatingcosts and increases capacity utilization. To find out more, visit www.buhlergroup.comBühler AG, Feed & Biomass, CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland, T +41 71 955 11 11, F +41 71 955 28 96fu.buz@buhlergroup.com, www.buhlergroup.comInnovations for a better world.
  5. 5. FEATUREof a diverse mixture of functional proteins and The quantity of oil needed to dissolve the ated by biological, histological and biochemical other biologically important components. SDP highest level (9%) of SDP was also used for parameters, such as growth, survival, feed has an excellent amino acid profile with high incorporating lower levels of SDP in all the conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (99%) digestibility of amino acids (Bureau et al., experimental feeds. This strategy assured (PER), organisation of the intestinal mucosa, 1999) and it has been noted in multiple publica- that diets were isolipidic (31%), although proximate body composition, haematocrit, tions that it improves animal growth, feed intake they did not have similar levels of dietary serum protein profile and blood cell count. In and feed efficiency. In addition, SDP has been proteins (ranged from 43.3% in SDP0 diet to addition, smoltification success was assessed recommended for inclusion in animal diets as a 50.1% in SDP9 diet). This variation in protein by evaluating fish survival, as well as, the histo-source of immunological support due to their content of diets did not invalidate the pos- logical organisation of gill filaments and plasma high levels of globulin proteins (Campbell et sible results of this study, since the dietary osmolality and electrolyte composition.al., 2010). Although blood products have many protein levels tested were higher than those good qualities, there is scarce literature on the generally recommended for this species at this Weight and sizeeffects of dietary SDP inclusion in fish feeds developmental stage (Bendiksen et al., 2003). At the end of the trial, the mean weight (Johnson and Summerfelt, 2000). Different studies have reported that dietary of salmon fed different diets was similar protein levels higher than 39-40 percent do (92.8-98.5 g) regardless of the SDP level Effects of SDP on Atlantic not affect growth performance in this species incorporated on the feed. However, the size salmon smolts at the tested dietary lipid level. distribution of individual body weight was In a recent study, we evaluated the inclu- significantly affected by the diet. Size het-sion of SDP derived from porcine blood Evaluating SDP effect erogeneity is a common feature in salmonid (AP820P; APC Europe, SA) as a feed ingredi- Diets were tested in triplicate in Atlantic farming that affects the overall performance ent in commercial feeds for Atlantic salmon salmon parr (45.4 ± 5.76 g) for a period of of the rearing process. (Salmo salar) parr and its effect on growth 86 days (0 g salinity /l, 12.5ºC, 12 h L:12 h D), The results of the hierarchical size effect performance, feed utilization, organisation and then fish were smoltified and kept in marine are the establishment of a group of dominant functionality of the digestive system and water (35 g salinity/l, 16ºC, 18 h L:6 h D) for fish that do not allow smaller (subordinate) haematological parameters. SDP was incor- two weeks in a IRTAMAR® recirculation unit. ones to feed normally. Therefore, under porated into diets at increasing levels (0, 3, 6 Fish were fed four times per day (0830, 1200, conditions promoting hierarchy formation, and 9%) and was prepared by dispersing it in 1600 and 2000 h) with automatic feeders set the largest fish at the beginning are expected olive oil and then spraying it on commercial at the feed ratio of 0.9% of stocked biomass. to get the largest share of the feed, grow the salmon feed (Skretting T2 Select, Skretting). The feed ratio was periodically adjusted by fastest and have the highest weight at the end Diets were named SDP0, SDP3, SDP6 or means of intermediate samplings for weight of the production process. SDP9 considering the inclusion levels of SDP and growth performance. Under the present experimental condi-in experimental feeds. The effect of SDP in salmon was evalu- tions, salmon fed SDP6 had the most homo- Natural ingredients for aqua feed • Pro-Bind Plus a nutritional, gelatin based pellet binder, especially for pelleted (shrimp) feed. Improvement • Hydrolyzed feather protein a fish meal alter- by nature native, especially for carnivorous fish species. • Muco-Pro® high contents of natural proteins, amino acids and peptides. • Gelko a spraydried attractant and binder. • Blood meal and Hemoglobin Powder high protein content and good digestibility, for better feed conversion. Visit our booth (Y21) at the Aquatic during the VIV Asia in Bangkok March 13-15 info@sonac.biz January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 19
  6. 6. FEATUREgeneous distribution in body weight among the intestinal mucosa of fish fed the SDP9 the tested diets. Thus, fish fed SDP6 had a diet may be linked to the ability of SDP higher proportion of fish within the mode to support the immune-competence of of the population (81-120 g), and a lower the fish. This hypothesis needs further proportion of fish belonging to smaller (40-80 research in order to be validated, although g) or larger (121-170 g) size classes in com- previous studies on other fish species parison to the control group. The same trend seem to support this idea.was observed when data were expressed in The nutrition provides by SDP has standard length or using the Fulton’s condition been reported to improve immune com-factor. These findings are of practical impor- petence in shrimp (Russell and Campbell, tance since the improved size distribution 2008), eel (Jensen and Nielsen, 2003) and might reduce the tasks of size selection dur- in trout challenged by Yersinia ruckeri, that ing processing, and also diminish hierarchical in addition of the consistent results in ter-dominance situations that ultimately maximize restrial animals, indicate the improve per-the harvested biomass and reduce the cost formance of these animals under stressed associated with growing fish to harvest size. farming conditions.Survival and FCR Conclusions All fish from different experimental groups SDP is an excellent ingredient for were able to successfully osmoregulate and Atlantic salmon parr and smolt diets since keep their hydromineral equilibrium of their it is a highly digestible protein source that body fluids after smoltification, as data on improved feed and protein efficiency plasma osmolality and electrolyte content ratios and promoted a more homogene-indicated. Although there were no differences ous distribution of body weight in the in survival among salmon fed different diets, tested population. The SDP9 diet result-parr fed diets containing SDP showed a slight, ed in an increase in goblet cell number but not significant, higher survival after smol- in the intestinal mucosa, which supports tification in comparison to the control group the idea that SDP may provide support (SDP0), which may be due to the higher pro- to the innate host defense mechanism portion of small-sized parr in the SDP0 group. of the gut. Based upon the FCR and The enhanced nutrition supplied by SDP in PER results of this study, the optimal diets also improved FCR and PER; salmonoids dietary inclusion level of SDP in diets for fed SDP3 and SDP6 diets had the lowest FCR Atlantic salmon parr was calculated to be and highest PER values, respectively. These 4.1 percent. Research is being currently results indicated that the nitrogen content conducted on the use of SDP in diets from these diets was much more efficiently for marine fish species, in particular for used by fish. Growth performance and proxi- gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), and mate biochemical composition of fish were the preliminary results are really encour-similar among dietary groups, although fish aging and within the same line to those Figure 2: Broken analysis of foodfed SDP3 and SDP6 consumed less feed in obtained in Atlantic salmon. conversion (FCR) and protein efficiencycomparison to the control diet. The reduction rates (PER) from Atlantic salmon fedin feed consumption and high PER coupled References different diets containing graded levels of spray-dried plasma (SDP). The valuewith the high digestibility of SDP may also APC Inc (2003). Evaluation of BIOFEND® within the inner rectangle indicatesresult in less nitrogen waste in the effluents of (spray-dried plasma) on growth and the estimated level of SDP inclusion inaquaculture facilities, which is considered a key sur vival of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus diets considering the results of the usedelement for the long-term sustainability of the mykiss) challenged with Yersinia ruckeri. methodology.aquaculture industry. Discoveries Tech Briefs, Volume 6, 2 pages. Februar y 2003, APC Inc., Iowa, IA Digestion and intestinal mucosa 50010, USA (www.americanprotein.com/ Jensen, S. and M. Nielsen. (2003). Effect of APC Functionality of the digestive system was products/biofend/images/Discoveries621803. plasma additives on eels being introduced to not affected by diets, as fish had similar activ- pdf). red head disease. Poster paper presented at ity levels of pancreatic and intestinal diges- Bendiksen, E.A., O.K. Berg, M. Jobling, A.M Aquaculture Europe 2003, 8-12 August 2003, tive enzymes. However, fish fed SDP9 had Arnesen and K. Masoval. 2003. Digestibility, Trondheim.increased number of goblet cells in the intes- growth and nutrient utilisation of Atlantic salmon Johnson, J.A. and R.C. Summerfelt. 2000. Spray-tinal mucosa, but height of intestinal villi was parr (Salmo salar L.) in relation to temperature, dried blood cells as a par tial replacement for not modified in this group. The major func- feed fat content and oil source. Aquaculture 224: fishmeal in diets for rainbow trout Oncorhynchustion of intestinal goblet cells and their main 283-299. mykiss. J. World Aquac. Soc. 31: 96-104.secretory products, mucins, is the formation Bureau, D.P., A.M. Harris, and C.Y. Cho. 1999. Russell, L. and J.M. Campbell. (2000). Trials show of mucus layers which serve as the ‘front line’ Apparent digestibility of rendered animal protein promise for spray-dried plasma protein in shrimp for the innate host defense mechanism. These ingredients for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus feeds. The Global Aquaculture Advocate, 3(6):42-mucus layers play key roles in the establish- mykiss). Aquaculture 180: 345-358. 43.ment of the commensal intestinal microbiota Campbell, J.M., J. Polo, L.E. Russell and J.D. Crenshaw. Tacon, A.G.J. 2005. The Current and Potential use and protection from colonisation and invasion 2010. Review of spray-dried plasmas impact on of Blood products and Blood meal in Aquafeeds. by the pathogenic microbiota. Thus, the intestinal barrier function. Livestock Science 133: Report Prepared For European Animal Protein reported higher abundance of goblet cells in 239-241. Association, 53. 20 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013
  7. 7. FEATURE FEATURE diet. A dispensable amino acid is one that rich in energy, minerals and essential fatty A chief and readily available source can be synthesized by the animal in quanti- acids. It is used at levels up to 50 percent in of high quality animal protein is chicken ties sufficient for maximal growth. Most catfish fry feeds, up to 12 percent in catfish viscera which are considered as a waste simple - stomach animals, including catfish fingerling feeds and from 0-8 percent in in the poultry industry. In the poultry require the same 10 indispensable amino grow-out fish feeds. processing industry, viscera accounts for acids. Fishmeal remains the major dietary pro- nearly 30 percent of the byproducts. tein source in fish feed but escalating Fishmeal is a major protein source in aqua- Natural Protein Justification for chicken viscera Nutrition for Optimal Growth cost, uncertainty unavailability and lesser feed especially for carnivorous species. as a replacement for fishmeal quantity has necessitated the use of other Increasing demand, unstable supplies and Fishmeal is the most important compo- protein sources to reduce feed cost without high prices of fishmeal with the expansion nent in fish feed making. Fishmeal contains compromising growth. Therefore, efforts of aquaculture have made it necessary 60-80 percent protein of excellent quality, have long been directed to find alternate to search for alternative protein sources. C which is highly palatable to fish. Since fish- protein sources of good quality which are Moreover, price of fishmeal is often high. M meal is a good source of essential amino less expensive and readily available as sub- It is necessary to replace fishmeal with Y acids, it is often used to supplement feeds stitutes for fishmeal component in practical cheaper protein sources.CM containing plant proteins. Fishmeal is also diets. Plant protein sources such as defatted MY Hatchery FeedsCY SuperioCMY Factory direct and distributor sales. ing r id Fe Experts in international logistics. Prov eds K ts® for up ul s M I C R O A L G A L, LFor more informationI about using S A N D spray driedC T I O Nplasma D U C T S A R V A L & W E A N N G F E E D AP 820P P R O D U animal P R O or S e ri o r R e trademarks or registered trademarks of Reed Mariculture Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Instant Algae, Instant Zooplankton, RotiGrow, Shellfish Diet, Instant Algae® single species, blends and custom feeds AP 301P spray dried hemoglobin in your aquacultureOtohime® premium Japanese larval and diets, contact APC. and “Providing Superior Feeds for Superior Results”are © 2012-2013 Reed Mariculture, Inc. All Rights reserved. RotiGrow® grow-out, enrichment and greenwater feeds weaning feeds; 17 sizes from 75 µm to 10 mm Shellfish Diet® for all stages from D-Larvae to TDO™ top-dressed with Haematococcus, natural broodstock stimulants, and more! Instant Zooplankton® clean Mini-L160 rotifers and ClorAm-X® detoxifies and removes ammonia, Parvocalanus copepod cultures chlorine and chloramines in fresh and salt water 10 Liter Cubitainer 1 kg Bag Reed Mariculture Inc | The easiest to use, cleanest and most effective feeds on the market feed@ampc-europe.com TO L L - F R E E : 1-877-732-3276 | VOICE: 408-377-1065 | FAX: 408-884-2322 | www.reed-mariculture.com VIV Asia 2013 March 13-15, 2013 | BITEC Bangkok, Thailand oon! AMINODat® Aqua – Coming s Enhance your knowledge about your Visit us at VIV Asia, Bangkok raw materials. REGISTER NOW 13. – 15 .03.2013 Booth B 0 60 for FREE entrance and Hall 106, high quality conferences at www.viv.net Special themes www.evonik.com/feed-additives | feed-additives@evonik.com The world’s most promising meeting point to boost your business from Feed to Meat. 12-01-496 AZ_AMINODat Aqua-International Aquafeed Magazine, 190x132mm_Satzspiegel_Jan-Feb13.indd 1 14.12.12 14:31 January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 11 January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 21
  8. 8. This digital re-print is part of the January | February 2013 edition of International LINKSAquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a fullonline magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features onthe docstoc website.Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. I N C O R P O R AT I N G f I s h fA R m I N G T e C h N O l O G y • See the full issue • Visit the International Aquafeed website Chicken viscera for fish feed formulation Profitable aquafeed moisture control • Contact the International Aquafeed Team Spray-dried plasma – from porcine blood in diets for Atlantic salmon parrs The shrimp feed industry in China – an overview • Subscribe to International Aquafeed Vo l u m e 1 6 I s s u e 1 2 0 1 3 - Ja n ua ry | f e b r ua ryTo purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paperedition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the linkabove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE www.aquafeed.co.uk