Oxygenation technology poised to transform aquaculture worldwide


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Interest is burgeoning in a unique new low-pressure oxygenation system that is poised to transform the world of aquaculture. The uniqueness of the technology is based on its ability to perform three critical functions in one system— dissolving oxygen in the water, producing the correct hydrodynamics and stripping out potentially harmful inert gases like nitrogen — via a very low energy requirement. Moreover, the system is easily installed, including as a retrofit to existing fish tanks, and is virtually maintenance-free.

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Oxygenation technology poised to transform aquaculture worldwide

  1. 1. May | June 2012 Feature title: Oxygenation technologypoised to transform aquaculture worldwide International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2012 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
  2. 2. FEATUREOxygenation technology poised totransform aquaculture worldwideby Stefan Dullstein, Head of Industrial Segment Aquaculture & Water Treatment, Linde Gases Division, GermanyI nterest is burgeoning in a unique new ing aquaculture production being transferred units to prevent inert gas build-up will, in low-pressure oxygenation system that from sea cages to land-based sites for the many cases, become obsolete. is poised to transform the world of full duration of a marine fish’s lifecycle. This Depending on the application, pumping aquaculture. change has confronted the industry with the pressures as low as 0.05 to 0.2 bar are normal- challenge of oxygenating large fish tanks that ly sufficient to oxygenate the incoming water, The uniqueness of the technology is based can accommodate fish stock from infancy to strip nitrogen and create optimal tank hydro-on its ability to perform three critical functions maturity. dynamics. This low operating pressure makes in one system— dissolving oxygen in the The ground-breaking patented SOLVOX® the system very energy efficient. OxyStream water, producing the correct hydrodynamics OxyStream is a combined oxygenation and also requires very low maintenance, because it and stripping out potentially harmful inert flow system which not only dissolves the is not associated with any ancillary equipment gases like nitrogen — via a very low energy optimal amount of oxygen in the inlet water to manage water pressure.requirement. Moreover, the system is easily flow, but also distributes it evenly at an adjust-installed, including as a retrofit to existing fish able flow pattern through the tank, ensuring Producing fish in captivitytanks, and is virtually maintenance-free. fish stock benefit from the physical exercise Aquaculture using sea cages came into its BOC, a member of the Linde Group, leads the SOLVOX OxyStream from a UK perspective. SOLVOX® OxyStream, developed by involved in swimming against the current. The own as recently as the 1980s, when the fish Linde Gas and launched in August 2011, has flow regime can be fully tailored according to industry recognised it would be more cost been proven to improve the living conditions fish size, stock density and fish species, such effective to produce fish in captivity in the of fish inside the tank, allowing for a significant as salmon or cod. The system comprises a ocean rather than to trawl for wild fish. Today increase in fish production volume, optimise standalone unit and is installed individually in aquaculture is moving to on-land farming, fish meat quality and considerably improve each tank, so water flow and oxygen dosing with the most significant inroads being made operations from an environmental standpoint. can be individually controlled for each tank. in Norway, where there is a massive demand Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is The micro-bubbles created by SOLVOX® for salmon and cod. This places an enormous the discipline of commercially farming aquatic OxyStream have the additional benefit of burden on farmers to produce fish more organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs helping to reduce the concentration of dis- efficiently and cost effectively. and aquatic plants.. Aquaculture involves cul- solved inert gases such as nitrogen or argon. The limitation with a conventional on-land tivating freshwater and saltwater populations In particular, oversaturation of nitrogen, even tank is the amount of oxygen available to the under controlled conditions – in contrast to in relatively small quantities, can endanger fish. Water can only provide a certain amount commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of the wellbeing of fish stock, slowing growth of oxygen, which is quickly respired, so there wild marine fish. and increasing the possibility of disease, and is a need to provide an additional source of The Linde technology has been developed ultimately, even mortality. With the installation oxygen. in response to a progressive trend that is see- of SOLVOX® OxyStream, external degassing SOLVOX ® OxyStream is able to effi- 12 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2012
  3. 3. FEATUREciently oxygenate sea water and can addi-tionally be used during the fresh water "Interest is burgeoning in aphase of salmon. This allows fish farmers unique new low-pressureto operate a single oxygenation system in oxygenation system thatlarge tanks which can run on both fresh is poised to transform thewater and sea water. This significantly world of aquaculture.reduces costs compared with running sep- The uniqueness of thearate saline and fresh water oxygenation technology is based onsystems. its ability to perform This capability was recently demonstrated three critical functions induring trials conducted at Marine Harvest in one system— dissolvingNorway, the world’s largest salmon producer. oxygen in the water,Results showed that SOLVOX® OxyStream was the only oxygenation source suitable for producing the correctrearing young salmon hatched in tanks running hydrodynamics andon fresh water, before gradually transitioning stripping out potentiallythem to sea water. This creates an optimum harmful inert gases likeenvironment in which to rear salmon, ensur- nitrogen — via a verying the correct oxygen levels throughout the low energy requirement"entire production period and keeping fish stress levels to an absolute minimum. By precisely predicting flow velocity Parallel development of fish in this natural environment has the SOLVOX® OxyStream is able to adjust this Typically, aquaculture farmers have grown potential to foster diseases. So it makes velocity in the circular on-land tanks. The salmon from eggs to about 100g in weight in sense to govern the entire lifecycle on fish, depending on their age and size, need small to mid-sized tanks. Once the fish are land, where the health of the fish and the a certain water velocity for optimum growth acclimatised to sea water conditions, they are environment can be managed with more conditions, so if the velocity is incorrect, the usually transferred to sea cages. control.fish won’t exercise, so it’s important to apply This method has been constrained by Although the method was mooted as far the correct water velocity in each application some major challenges as there is always back as ten years ago, at that time the costs to keep them ‘working out’ against a robust the potential for break-outs, allowing valu- were prohibitive owing to the high energy current. able stock to escape, while the high density required to pump water through the dis- Feed for fish and shrimp is a major cost… how to use it in the most efficient way? AQUAGEST® species-specific digestibility enhancers to convert nutrients more efficiently into gain AQUAGEST® S for shrimp Enhancing hepatopancreas function, reducing cholesterol requirements AQUAGEST® OMF for tilapia and catfish Improving growth, feed conversion and filleting yield AQUAGEST® CAF for marine fish and salmonids Digestive aid to support fish meal replacement www.nutriad.com May-June 2012 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 13
  4. 4. FEATURE "The industry has responded to the introduction of this system with immense interest and the Linde team currently has about 20 units piloting at customer sites, with many more proposals out there. It has fielded enquiries from North America, the UK, Norway, France and even from Saudi Arabia"solvers operated at higher pressure into land Environment the end of the story. Although it is the tanks and dissolve oxygen in the water. Today With the ocean’s reserves of fish steadily most advanced equipment available to this SOLVOX® OxyStream, with its unprecedent- depleting and the demand for fish products industry at this time, Linde is convinced ed low energy demand, makes this possible. on the increase, adding more sea cages along that it can improve the technology even Furthermore, new legislation imminent in the world’s coastlines is not an adequate further and research and development will Norway will allow farmers to develop fish solution. be ongoing to maintain their position as a to a size of 1000g on land, meaning a whole In this scenario not all the fish feed leader in the field.new market has opened for us. Research is deployed to the sea cages is converted to already underway to investigate the on-land fish meat — there is a lot of wastage. At the The futuredevelopment of fish up to 4 to 5kg, harnessing same time, a large amount of fish excrement Envisaging a bright future for SOLVOX® our technology. released in a specific area tends to over- OxyStream, Linde believes the vigorous inter- The largest tank equipped so far with fertilise the ecosystem. est being shown by aquaculture farmers is just SOLVOX® OxyStream is 15m in diam- By comparison, the producing from the tip of the iceberg. eter, but aquaculture farmers are looking to infancy to maturity in on-land tanks has sig- Norway’s fish farming industry, which increase the size of tanks – up to around 20 nificant environmental benefits. The water is the most industrialised in the world, to 25m in diameter. flowing through fish tanks can be recycled but by no means the biggest, produces to a high extent with excrement and feed about one million tons of salmon a year, Immense interest residues filtered out effectively. As such, but global tonnage – including all fish spe- The industry has responded to the intro- pollution to the marine environment and cies, molluscs, croustades, and others, is duction of this system with immense interest the possible spread of disease to wild fish as high as 50m tons per year. The largest and the Linde team currently has about 20 is prevented. aquaculture industry is in China, which units piloting at customer sites, with many Diseases can be properly handled in land produces about 70 percent of the world’s more proposals out there. It has fielded based tanks. Fish farmers using sea cages may farmed fish. enquiries from North America, the UK, need to chemically treat the fish to get rid However, the industry in China tends Norway, France and even from Saudi Arabia. of sea-lice and this is prejudicial both to the to comprise many small, family owned With interest levels so high, Linde has had environment and to the fish themselves. Sea- companies, using a low level of technology. to accelerate its activities to meet customer lice are not an issue in recirculation tanks, as Therefore, from a cost perspective alone, demand. As a customised solution, it is not these parasites cannot get into the system in sooner or later China will begin to industri-a simple matter of ‘plug and play’. Each cus- the first place. alise its aquaculture industry. ■tomer application needs to be approached There are other advantages. Fish bred in from a unique perspective, needing profes- aquaculture are, in many cases, genetically More inforMation:sional, tailored input. different to wild fish, so when there is a break- For further information from BOC, please To showcase its technology in action, out and fish escape into the ocean, this could contact Keith Nicholson, on +44 1844Linde is constructing a brand new test centre have an impact on the genetics of natural fish 253195 or email Keith.Nicholson@boc.comin Norway where customers will be able to population. see SOLVOX® OxyStream in action as it A technology like SOLVOX® OxyStream operates in windowed tanks. Training and was unquestionably needed to ensure the equipment testing will also be carried out future success of the growing land-based using the new centre as a base. aquaculture industry. However, it’s not 48 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2012 14
  5. 5. This digital re-print is part of the May | June 2012 edition of International LINKSAquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a fullonline magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features onthe docstoc website.Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. VO L U M E 1 5 I S S U E 3 2 0 1 2 • See the full issue • Visit the International Aquafeed website Transfering Vitamin C from fish to embryos Oxygenation technology – poised to transform aquaculture worldwide • Contact the International Aquafeed Team Ornamental fish and invertebrates for home aquaria Brewers’ yeast as a • Subscribe to International Aquafeed supplement in aquaculture THE INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINE FOR THE AQUACULTURE FEED INDUSTRYIAF12.03.indd 1 14/05/2012 18:05To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paperedition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the linkabove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE www.aquafeed.co.uk