Ornamental fish and invertebrates for home aquaria


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The trade in ornamental fish and invertebrates is a truly global industry, generating many millions of dollars, and touching the lives of a vast range of people. From artisanal fishermen in Indonesia, to importers and exporters in Singapore and Spain, farmers in the Czech Republic and Florida and ending with the home aquarist in any one of hundreds of countries worldwide, the appeal of ornamanetals is worldwide.

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Ornamental fish and invertebrates for home aquaria

  1. 1. May | June 2012 Feature title: Ornamental fish and invertebrates for home aquaria International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2012 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
  2. 2. FEATURE for home aquaria Ornamental fish and invertebrates by Dr Jack M James, Aquabiotegch Group, Malta T he trade in ornamental fish and rose from 28 to 146, and this number is Monitoring of invertebrates is a truly global expected to continue to rise. the global trade industry, generating many millions It is expected that most of these are The effective monitoring of the global of dollars, and touching the lives developing countries which see the export trade is essential in order to properly record of a vast range of people. From artisanal of ornamental fish as a means to increase and analyse the volumes of species traded, fishermen in Indonesia, to importers and employment and generate wealth. The world- in particular those perceived as vulnera- exporters in Singapore and Spain, farmers wide value of exports in 2004 was reported ble or under threat, to prevent irreversible in the Czech Republic and Florida and to be US$251m, a rise of US$230m in the damage. Through monitoring, a balance can ending with the home aquarist in any one of preceding 30 years at an average 14 percent be achieved and maintained between the hundreds of countries worldwide, the appeal per annum, with a retail value of approxi- demand for ornamental species, the need for of ornamanetals is worldwide. mately US$2.2bn. income and employment, and the ecological A further FAO report in 2008 valued requirements of habitats and populations. While freshwater ornamental fish are exports at US$278m in 2005 (Livengood and This balance can then provide for a sustain- largely farmed, thereby providing a sustainable Chapman, 2008). At these rates, it could be able industry into the future, reducing the risk and renewable supply, marine species are estimated that global exports now value over of catastrophic loss of habitat or ecological largely wild caught, leading to a potential for US$600m, although the effects of the global imbalance potentially leading to socioeco- species loss, ecological imbalance, and habitat economic slowdown are not yet known for nomic issues in less developed areas. degradation. As the ornamental industry pro- the sector. In 2000, in response to a need for bet- vides livelihoods in many places where there In terms of the division of these exports ter monitoring of marine ornamental trade, are very few opportunities for employment, it between regions and countries, 55 percent of the United Nations Environment Programme the 2004 exports World Conservation Monitoring Centre came from Asia, (UNEP-WCMC), the Marine AquariumThe worldwide value of ornamental fish while 25 percent Council (MAC) and members of various came from Europe, aquarium trade associations began, in collabo-exports in 2004 was reported to be US$251m, mainly the Czech ration, to address this need and created the Republic. Between Global Marine Aquarium Database (GMAD).a rise of US$230m in the preceding 30 years 1974 and 2004, Trade data has been obtained fromat an average 14 percent per annum, with a the number of wholesale exporters and importers of marine countries importing aquarium organisms and integrated into quan-retail value of approximately US$2.2bn. ornamental species titative, species-specific information which has rose from 32 to been made public. 120, with a slight Fifty-eight companies, approximately one- is important that the industry is encouraged to dip in the interim. The largest of the import- fifth of the wholesalers in business, and four grow, but it is essential that proper monitoring ers of ornamental fish was Europe with 51 government management authorities have is in place to ensure that this growth is sustain- percent (the UK alone imports 19 percent provided data to GMAD. In August 2003 the able, in terms of individual species, population of this figure), and North America with 26 dataset contained 102,928 trade records (7.7 ecology, and habitat preservation. percent of the market share (the USA making million imported and 9.4 million exported up 87 percent of this, making the largest single animals) covering a total of 2,393 species of Industry scale country importer with nearly 23 percent of fish, corals and invertebrates and spanning the Livengood and Chapman (2008) estimated the global market share). years 1988 to 2003. It was believed that this that some 1539 species of marine and fresh- Of the exporting countries, the fastest data permitted the most accurate quantitative water fish, 102 species of hard and soft growth was seen in Czech Republic and Spain, estimates available of the size of the global coral and 293 species of invertebrates were while drops were noted in exports from the trade in marine ornamental fish and corals, traded globally. According to FAO statistics USA, Germany and Hong Kong, presumably and the first ever estimates for invertebrates from 2004, as summarised by Ploeg (2004), linked to reducing imports into Japan, an other than corals. between 1974 and 2004, the number of important destination for ornamentals from A consultation on the monitoring the countries reporting ornamental fish exports these countries. industry conducted in 2008 carried out for 36 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2012
  3. 3. FEATURE FEATURE the European Commission by UNEP and the be comprehensive enough for WCMC stated that a properly monitored and monitoring trade for conserva- form of specific mRNAs, proteins, hormones The fry produced from par- sustainably biomolecules. At egg activation and tion purposes. elevated levels and other managed industry can present a ents fed with valuable opportunityfactors become available ofInformation generated have fertilization, these for income generation vitamin C tend to by cus- and support to livelihoods, while alsoaprovid- toms and FAO lacks the detail for embryogenesis, sometimes after process higher growth performance ing an alternative to environmentallyor protein inasthe information required for of activation involving translation destruc- compared with control tive activities. modification. conservation Thus, there is a groups. purposes. Not monitoring the trade vitamin C or need in is enhance at targeted It has been documented that could, on CITES effective ascorbic the otheracid deficiencyto larval fish exploi- monitoringthe individual species ascorbic hand, lead in an over has been acid in of broodfish. A tation of resources, damagingcollagen and of interest, vitamin C content associated with hyperplasia of the long diet with however the mon- term future potential of the internal hemor- etary cost of obtaining permits to cartilage, scoliosis, lordosis, industry. The adequate for normal growth consultation identified the and abnormal trade can bebe sufficient for rhages, resorbed opercules six mecha- may not prohibitive. "Based on 2011 data, approximately 335 monitoring the trade at fins with broodfish when the for exam- nisms for cartilage in gills, spine and species support Veterinary controls, goal is level as: deformities of the jaw and snout. ple in the EU, record species to transfer ascorbic acids to million pounds of catfish were processed, EXPERT T●PIC 1. the monitoring activities put in C needs level data which could be useful Based on recent research, vitamin place embryos. a reduction of over 50 percent compared in the viral devoid reproduction andare observedstages of fish changes, including acinar cell forbyof certification schemes life degenerative for conservation purposes; how- food. Petechiae early (e.g. Marine in some viscera. Sometimes, food residue areas, and zymogen granules freeing. Nuclearstrated that Aquarium the recommended pyknosis of different sizes are observed. and report, are in times Council - MAC) remains 10 the gut, the quantity is small and dose for rais- Reproduction ever, at the time ofInthe to the best production in 2003 2. GMAD adult fish. Theseportion. levels cannot this data performance confined to the far distal or rectal high ing young arval infiltration is not many cases, inflamatory cell was being not captured us in tissues Very often the body cavity may contain ascitic to broodfish that suffered the diseasediet has was 3. the statistics generated by Customs and fish and so valuable information a be met by dietary administration evident. In Broodfish up toing the virus fluid. The stomach and anterior intestine con- two years before the histology study, hyper-suggest that because milky cohesive mucus, among trophy Langerhans’ islets aggregatedfecundity FAO,to the nutrient is water soluble ofand not being with abundant in a stand- tains a clear major influence one consump- 4. CITES other findings. fibrosis were ardised and accessible manner. readily absorbed / utilized by other organsfound. egg quality. It has also been demonstrat- ferred to oocytes through uptake of extra- and during oocyte development. at Main lesions found 5. veterinary controls In cases of pancreatic lesions, nutritional statusEU broodfish can ed that the also acute of the of Finally, Annex D ovarian substances from the maternal blood. are regard- the histopathology study enteritis featured by necrosis and sloughing ofsels (Mytilus It has D demonstrated in several species Wildlife InTrade Regulations 6. Annexbeen of the focal coagulat- the epithelium areaffect offspring quality. The accumulation of Immersion enrichment of eggs is another include: EU Wildlife Trade observed. the intestinalstrea gigas), that nutrients in broodfish diet are transferred whitish exudate be the in eggs effec- Regulations. ive necrosis in pan- lumen, catarrhal proved tonutrients most is dependent on 1) approach to introduce compounds and nutri- essential is associated wild fish as toInoocytes throughmonitoring options, the disease. the tool bodies monitoring for conservation concern. However,Immersion aenrichment for analysing these uptake of extra-ovarian tive nutrient reserves in the female fish and 2) ents into eggs. there was willingness fol- creas, kidney and with they Inclusion for are not (Sprattus intestine. The observed in affected cells. In many cases, determined that certification schemes Also, purposes, providing preceding level data of EC veterinary controlswithbe investigated as a are has small focal degenerative species gonadogenesis. lowed by feeding fry to vitamin C enhanced substances from the maternal blood. tissue the dietary intake pancreatic tissue the renal desirable but provide onlyshowed loss of ascor- unrestricted is needed for no monetary repro- further mechanism found to be an trade. there was up to a 82.4 percent coverage, fish that were infected duringwith maturation, cost partial changes. In Vitamin C species, feed was also for monitoring the effective bic acid of the prepared been unsuccess-A to roundingandoflarval metamorphosis. Beneficial method. concerns were raised regarding the are expensive, some have commercial diet. abundant the importer, making it the only instrument early ages, duction up epithelial While ful, and8.3-fold is little evidence ofCconsumer that could, at found.increased fertility, fecundity fact Injecting vitamin C inwill only accurately 3.8 – there increase of vitamin cellsthe diet effects include time of the report, provide in with karyorhectic nuclei was the This that these controls to broodfish during finding suggest that they can be viral replica- awareness.results in 56 to 71.9 percent increase comprehensive has not generally tion sites in carrier fish; egg quality. and however, it species level data on the monitoring importsmaturation EU while global artificial- induced into the improved repro- GMAD, being voluntary, was found to not international trade in species of conservation trade may beprogeny performance. Efforts are Page 1 of total ascorbic acid in the eggs respectively. been confimed. Nutrients in broodfish diet are trans- duction and underestimated, the fact 07:53 _OffshoreMaric_Quarter_SplitAd_OMC_Quarter 20/02/2012 that ALLER AQUA - is not simply a fish feed. A must attend It is the care of your business with over 40 years of experience. It is worth to have a professional partner. Worldwide - ALLER AQUA OFFSHORE event for all CONFERENCE2012 toolsfish farmers!omesistius ers. IPNV MARICULTUREom moist Providing proficient to achieve cost-effectivesediments. 17-19 October With fish farming output expected to reach and sustainable aquaculture practices regarded close to 120 million tons by 2020, the ich can be HILTON HOTEL Offshore Mariculture Conference – es. IZMIR • TURKEY two day conference plus visit to an offshore SUPPORTED BY fish farm – will explore the progress and prospects for offshore aquaculture in early ages European and international waters. 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DK-6070 Christiansfeld aller-aqua@aller-aqua.com Tel. +45 7022 1910 rl Natuna trition Fax +45 3841 2059 www.aller-aqua.com u NOREL,S.A. • Jesús Aprendiz, 19, 1º A y B • 28007 Madrid (SPAIN)gs, spleen, Tel. +34 91 501 40 41 • Fax +34 91 501 46 44 • www.norel.es bnormallyost always http://www.aquafeed.co.uk/edicion-espanola May-June 2012 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 31 May-June 2012 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 379 May-June 2012 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | AN. REV. 90X132.indd 14/05/2012 18:08 1 02/08/11 13:13
  4. 4. FEATUREthere is a system in place which is effective on the species assemblageat monitor the ornamental trade is encourag- and the community as aing. It is therefore imperative that monitoring whole. Losses post capturesystems which can act on a global scale and can also be very high,based on those identified as being effective up to 80 percentare initiated in order to provide proper trace- for someability and sustainable development of the tropicalindustry going forward. marineSustainability of marineornamental supply Despite sometimes beingaccused of causing undue degra- enjoy-dation of populations and habitats,the marine ornamental trade is a lowvolume, high value industry. In 2000, 1kg ofaquarium fish from the Maldives was valuedat almost US$500, whereas 1kg of reef fish fish,harvested for food was worth only US$6. whileFurthermore, the live coral trade is estimated other spe-to be worth about US$7,000 per tonne, cies such aswhereas the use of harvested coral for the cardinal tetraproduction of limestone yields only about can have mor-US$60 per tonne (Wabnitz et al, 2003). tality as low asThere is therefore a clear financial incentive six percent, andto preserve the important marine habitats and so proper speciespopulations which provide to the ornamental selection to reduceindustry, such as coral reefs and mangroves. demand for livestock which do not It is clear from the information available travel well can have a beneficial impact.that the potential is there for a sustainable and Additionally, better guidelines for collection,profitable industry, but from the case study of transport, and storage can help to reducethe GMAD, there are clearly still large gaps mortality. Therefore the consumer can have a ment. It has the opportunity to becomein the knowledge on, in particular, marine marked impact on enhancing the sustainability a unique example of an ecologically andornamental harvesting. of the industry through being aware of and financially sustainable and renewable industry, This creates a need for a two pronged choosing the most sustainably sourced live- where wealth flows from some of the worldsapproach to developing a sustainable marine stock available, while ensuring they are properly richest economies to some of the very poor-ornamental industry – the first being improved educated on the requirements of their chosen est communities around the world.monitoring as discussed previously, and the livestock, so reducing mortality at home. However, in order to do this, improvedsecond being an effort to increase the number To highlight the role that responsible systems for monitoring the global tradeof species which are cultured for the industry. and properly informed aquarists can play, must be sought and implemented, andOnly one-10 percent of marine ornamental trade data, correlated with aquarium suitability aquarists must strive to be as well educatedfish and less than one percent of hard corals information, indicates that two species known as possible on the source and care of theirare cultured (Wabnitz et al, 2003), this is in not to acclimatise well to aquarium conditions livestock. In this way, the inhabitants of ourcontrast to over 90 percent of freshwater are nonetheless very commonly traded. They home aquaria can remain some of theornamental species. In order to increase the are the bluestreak cleaner wrasse (Labroides world’s most popular companion animals,proportion of marine species cultured, simple dimidiatus: 87,000 individuals traded between while remaining affordable and healthy, andand cost effective culture methods must be 1997 and 2002) and the mandarin fish above all without damaging their naturalsought which enable poor communities which (Synchiropus splendidus: 11,000 live individu- habitats and populations. ■rely on harvesting to switch their efforts to als exported to the EU in the same period).culture, thereby moving towards a more Data further indicates that species charac- Referencessustainable industry while not neglecting the terised as ‘truly unsuitable’, mainly due to their Livengood, E. J., & Chapman, F. A. (2008). Thebeneficial potential of the ornamental trade restricted dietary requirements, such as the four- Ornamental Fish Trade: An Introduction withfor these communities. eye butterflyfish (Chaetodon capistratus), the Perspectives for Responsible Aquarium Fish harlequin filefish (Oxymonacanthus longisrostris) Ownership. University of Florida IFAS Extension,The responsible aquarist and the Hawaiian cleaner wrasse (Labroides (FA124). Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. An appreciation by the home aquarist is the phtirophagus), are also commonly traded, albeit Ploeg, A. (2004). The Volume of the Ornamentalfirst step to self-regulation in terms of promot- in lower numbers (Wabnitz et al, 2003). Demand Fish Trade. Ornamental Fish International.ing sustainably sourced or farmed animals over for species such as these is presumably per- Ornamental Fish International.those known to come from unsustainable wild petuated by mortality in home aquaria due tofisheries. For example, in some wild fisheries the unsuitable conditions, and it is these kinds of Wabnitz, C., Taylor, M., Green, E. P & Razak, T. (2003). ., From Ocean to Aquarium: the global trade in marinecollectors may use highly toxic substances such practises which can be minimised or eradicated ornamental species. Cambridge: UNEP-WCMC.as sodium cyanide in marine environments and through responsible aquarium keeping.rotenone in freshwater systems to incapacitate The global ornamental trade is a strong UNEP-WCMC. (2008). Monitoring of Internationalthe fish prior to collection. and growing industry, and it benefits all walks Trade in Ornamental Fish - Consultation Paper. Such practices can have long term toxic effects of life through wealth generation and aesthetic Context. 38 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2012
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  6. 6. This digital re-print is part of the May | June 2012 edition of International LINKSAquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a fullonline magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features onthe docstoc website.Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. VO L U M E 1 5 I S S U E 3 2 0 1 2 • See the full issue • Visit the International Aquafeed website Transfering Vitamin C from fish to embryos Oxygenation technology – poised to transform aquaculture worldwide • Contact the International Aquafeed Team Ornamental fish and invertebrates for home aquaria Brewers’ yeast as a • Subscribe to International Aquafeed supplement in aquaculture THE INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINE FOR THE AQUACULTURE FEED INDUSTRYIAF12.03.indd 1 14/05/2012 18:05To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paperedition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the linkabove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE www.aquafeed.co.uk