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Options and challenges of alternative protein and energy resources for aquafeed


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Feed for fish and shrimp raised in aquaculture needs high levels of protein and energy. Traditionally feed for carnivorous or omnivorous fish and for shrimp provides these mainly as fishmeal and fish oil, which also contributes to the health promoting aspects of fish and shrimp in the human diet.

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Options and challenges of alternative protein and energy resources for aquafeed

  1. 1. September | October 2012Options and challenges of alternative protein and energy resources for aquafeed International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2012 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
  2. 2. FEATURE Options and challenges of alternative protein and energy resources for aquafeed by Dr Alex Obach, Managing Director, Skretting Aquaculture Research Centre, NorwayF eed for fish and shrimp raised in Rising demand welfare and produce fish that are good aquaculture needs high levels of Analyses of global demographics, widely to eat, both in terms of eating experience protein and energy. Traditionally publicised by the Food and Agriculture and nutrition. It has been a main focus at feed for carnivorous or omnivo- Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Skretting Aquaculture Research Centre for rous fish and for shrimp provides these indicate a continuing expansion of the popu- the past decade, for example determining mainly as fishmeal and fish oil, which lation passing nine billion by 2050. In parallel, the nutritional value of more than 400 also contributes to the health promoting economic development is providing a greater raw materials. These investigations led aspects of fish and shrimp in the human proportion with an income that permits to AminoBalance™, where balancing of diet. them to be more selective about their diet. amino acids increases the contribution The main trend is to switch from vegetable such proteins make to muscle growth. Aquaculture of fed species today takes staples to animal and fish protein. A third, 60–80 percent of the fishmeal and 80 per- but lesser, factor is the growing awareness Figure 1: Raw material options for fishcent of the fish oil produced, mainly from of the health benefits of fish in the diet, feed (Source Skretting)the industrial pelagic fisheries or, in a grow- providing long chain omega-3 polyun- Protein raw Starch Fatsing trend, from the trimmings produced saturated fatty acids (LC PUFAs) EPA materials sourcesduring processing for human consumption. and DHA, fish proteins and important Trimmings are defined as by-products when vitamins and minerals such as iodine and Fish meal Fish oil Wheatfish are processed for human consump- selenium. Krill meal Krill oil Barleytion or if whole fish is rejected because At the same time, a growing propor-the quality at the time of landing does not tion of the pelagic catch, which includes algal meal algal oil Sorghummeet requirements for human consump- the industrial fisheries, is going to the Soya products rapeseed oil tapiocation. The International Fishmeal and Fish more lucrative markets of processing for Sunflower meal Soybean oil Potato starchOil Organisation estimates trimmings are human consumption, as processing tech- rapeseed meal Sunflower oil Peasnow used for around 25 percent of fishmeal nology improves and as new consumers Corn gluten Corn oil Faba beansproduction. with different tastes enter the market. Wheat gluten linseed oil oats The industry is, therefore, heavily Simultaneously, the omega-3 supplements dependent on marine resources but pro- industry is competing for the best qual- Faba beans Palm oilduction from these resources cannot be ity fish oils and readily outbids the feed lupins Camelina oilincreased sustainably, either for human con- producers. Pea meal Poultry fatsumption or the industrial fisheries. At best, According to the FAO report rice products lardsustainably managed fisheries will continue ‘The State of World Fisheries and Poultry mealto yield around the current harvest of five Aquaculture 2012’, aquaculture is “set million tonnes of fishmeal and one million to remain one of the fastest grow- Feather mealtonnes of fish oil. ing feed sectors”. Having doubled in Blood meal  Marine origin Feed producers such as Skretting require the past decade to almost 60 million Meat and Bone  Vegetable raw their marine raw material suppliers to tonnes globally, it is expected to grow meal materialsdocument that the fishmeal and fish oil are by up to 50 percent in the next. This Microbial  Animal derived from responsibly managed and sus- makes identifying alternative, sustainable protein by-productstainable fisheries and do not include endan- sources of protein and energy a major Insect mealgered species. Therefore, to meet a growing priority. Researchers are looking for  Other raw Worm mealdemand for fish, aquaculture must identify alternatives that will provide low feed materialsalternatives to these marine ingredients. conversion ratios, maintain high fish DDGS 22 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012
  3. 3. FEATURERecent advance fish feed was approved by a qualified major- Atlantic salmon provided were divided and Research progress to date means fishmeal ity of EU member states, meaning that non- fed on one of three feeds: levels in feeds for species such as Atlantic ruminant PAPs will be authorised for fish feed Conventional grower feed (pre salmon have been reduced. Until recently 25 from June 1, 2013. MicroBalance): 25 percent fishmeal and 13 percent appeared to be the limit below which percent fish oil with EPA + DHA comprising performance suffered, in terms of growth rate Trial results about 10 percent of total fatty acids.and feed conversion ratio. A 22-month trial with Atlantic salmon in OptiLine from Skretting Norway (using In 2010 researchers at Skretting ARC final- a commercial scale farm in Norway dem- MicroBalance): 15 percent fishmeal and 13 ised a new concept known as MicroBalance™. onstrated the MicroBalance™ technology is based on the practicality of identification of several essential micro-nutri- MicroBalance. It ents in fishmeal that were shown to be the followed a com-limiting factors, not the amount of fishmeal. plete genera-Supplementing the diet with the right bal- tion of salmon ance of essential micro-nutrients and other from smolt to functional micro-ingredients helped reduce harvest. The fishmeal content in fish feed. trial was jointly Applying the concept enabled Skretting organised by companies to produce commercially success- Marine Harvest ful feeds with as little as 15 percent fishmeal and Skretting without detracting from feed performance, and conducted fish welfare or end product quality. A key at the Centre advantage of MicroBalance is the flexibil- for Aquaculture ity to adapt the raw material combination in Competence response to prices, lessening for farmers the (CAC) in impacts of price volatility. Norway from Today Skretting can formulate fish feed May 2009 to with levels of fishmeal as low as 5–10 February 2011 percent. Fishmeal can be replaced solely by inclusive. CAC vegetable raw materials or by a combination is a commercial-of vegetable raw materials and non-ruminant scale R&D farm processed animal proteins (PAPs). It should managed by be noted that PAPs are widely used in coun- Marine Harvest tries outside the EU and provide extremely and is equipped good quality, safe nutrition to supplement to measure all fishmeal. operational Typical examples include blood meal also parameters just known as haemoglobin meal, poultry meal, as precisely as and feather meal. PAPs were banned from in a small-scale animal feed and fish feed in the EU follow- research sta-ing the BSE crisis in the 1990s. Recently a tion. A total proposal for the reintroduction of PAPs in of 780,000 September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 23
  4. 4. FEATURE example, following the introduction of the MicroBalance concept, the fish oil will certainly be the determining factor for the FFDR. The dependency on wild forage fish resources should be calculated for both FM and FO using the following formulae. FFDRm = (% fishmeal in feed from forage fisheries) x (eFCR) / 22.2 FFDRo = (% fish oil in feed from forage fisheries) x (eFCR) / 5.0 Where: eFCR is the Economic Feed Conversion Ratio; the quantity of feed used to produce the quantity of fish harvested. Only fishmeal and fish oil that is derived Figure 2: Supply and use of fish oil (Source IFFO and Skretting) directly from a pelagic fishery (e.g. anchoveta) is to be included in the calculation of FFDR.percent fish oil with EPA + DHA comprising and DHA, both for the fish and for the health The amount of fishmeal in the diet is calcu-about 10 percent of total fatty acids. benefits of fish as food. lated back to live fish weight by using a yield Experimental OptiLine (using Secondly the EU AquaMax project, coordi- of 22.2%. This is an assumed average yield. If MicroBalance): 15 percent fishmeal and nine nated by NIFES in Norway with 32 international the yield is known to be different that figure percent fish oil with EPA + DHA comprising partners around the world including Skretting should be used.about eight percent of total fatty acids. ARC, addressed this issue directly, developing The amount of fish oil in the diet is calcu- The parameters monitored were diets with low levels of both fishmeal and lated back to live fish weight by using a yield of growth, FCR, quality, health, sustainability fish oil and thus reducing the fish-in fish-out five percent This is an assumed average yield. and food safety. The total harvest weight ratios. This com-was 3,517 tonnes. After the harvest the plements work table 1: total production of fed species in 2000, 2005, 2010, with totaltaste, smell and texture of the fillets were at Skretting ARC feed used, total fishmeal and total fish oil (x 1,000 tonnes).tested by a panel of professional tasters. to develop the Year total production total of feeds total fishmeal total fish oilThe results showed that both low fishmeal LipoBalance™ of fed species used used usedfeeds gave the same growth and FCR as concept, which the control diet. There were no observed allows combina- 1995 4,028 7,612 1,870 463differences in fish health, or in the quality tions of oils to parameters. be prepared that 2000 7,684 14,150 2,823 608 The salmon fed with the lowest propor- will provide the 2010 21,201 35,371 3,670 764tion of marine products (15% fishmeal, 9% fish correct balance Source: Tacon et al. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Paper 564oil) only needed 1.07 kg of fish in their feed of energy and to produce 1 kg at harvest. Calculating protein nutrients, including EPA and DHA, at lowest If the yield is known to be different that figure alone showed a positive ratio, with fish out cost. should be used.exceeding fish in. Using these formulae it can be seen that MicroBalance is now applied in the diets Performance ratios the FFDRs for Atlantic salmon, for example, of several other commercial species, including Feed conversion ratios (FCRs) have were halved between 2004 and 2011. The sea bass, sea bream, rainbow trout, turbot advanced significantly over the past three FFDRm was reduced from 1.24 to 0.56 and and yellowtail. decades. In Atlantic salmon, for example, the the FFDRo from 4.28 to 2.05. This doubles FCR has decreased from 1.30 in the 1980s the quantity of salmon produced from a given Fish oil to slightly above 1.00 today, mainly due to quantity of fishmeal and fish oil. Research to date has enabled produc- the development of high-nutrient-dense diets ers of fish feed to supplement fish oil with and to improvements in feed management Health benefitsvegetable oils in the diets of carnivorous spe- (reducing feed waste). This represents more As mentioned, maintaining health benefits cies by as much as 50 percent. Lower levels efficient use of feed raw materials; especially is a key objective when reducing dependency have been tested in experimental diets with as fishmeal and fish oil contents were reduced on marine raw materials. It is being addressed no negative effects. Much of the progress in the same period (Table 1). in several ways. The first is to determine the results from the EU RAFOA project. RAFOA Another contributor here is the emer- minimum levels of EPA and DHA that the fish stands for Researching Alternatives to Fish gence of functional diets that maintain or even require. The feeds with high levels of marine Oil in Aquaculture and the project focused improve performance in adverse conditions ingredients produced fish with high levels of on four species; Atlantic salmon, rainbow such as high or low water temperatures and long chain (LC) poly-unsaturated fatty acids trout, sea bass and sea bream. Led by the outbreaks of disease. Better growth, reduced (PUFAs); more than needed by the fish so Institute of Aquaculture at the University of FCR and higher survival will all contribute to that a proportion was metabolised for energy. Stirling, partners include NIFES (the National improve the utilisation of feed resources. At lower inclusion levels the use of these lim-Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research) Feed Fish Dependency Ratio (FFDR) is ited nutrients can be optimised, since a higher and Skretting ARC, in Norway, the INRA the quantity of wild fish used per quantity of proportion will be retained in the muscle. At (National Institute for Agronomic Research) cultured fish produced. This measure can be even lower levels (close to nutritional require-in France and the University of Las Palmas, weighted for fishmeal or fish oil, whichever ment) the fish can maximise its capacity to in the Canary Islands (Spain). The main chal- component creates a larger burden of wild elongate and desaturate, and could become a lenge is to maintain adequate levels of EPA fish in feed. In the case of Atlantic salmon for net producer of LC PUFAs. 24 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2012
  5. 5. FEATURE On average 100 g of salmon fillet has Limited progress has been with EPA. DHA is around 16 g of fat of which at least four to a greater challenge.five percent is omega-3 EPA and DHA (DHA Some micro-algae species are natural syn-being the main fatty acid in the phospholipid thesisers of the longer chain fatty acids. The fraction). Thus a 130 g portion would provide challenge here is economic; to grow them around 930 mg of EPA and DHA. That is in bulk, either by sea farming or in vats on equivalent to several supplement capsules. land, in sufficient volumes to make them Two portions a week adequately provide the competitive as a feed ingredient. There are recommended dietary levels of LC PUFAs and also reports of extracting LC PUFAs from important vitamins and minerals in an easily yeast cultures and these would face the same assimilated form. economic challenge. A second approach is to explore ways of formulating feed so that the LC PUFAs are Conclusion About the authorretained in the fillet flesh. Further research at Aqua feed producers must find alterna- Alex Obach has held the position Skretting ARC into the functions of micro- tives to the marine ingredients fishmeal and of Managing Director at Skretting ingredients recently led to a new salmon feed fish oil while maintaining fish welfare and Aquaculture Research Centre since that significantly improves the feed conversion aquaculture performance as a highly effi- May 1, 2007. Originally from Barcelona, ratio and fillet yield. Fillet analysis revealed the cient means of producing nutritious protein. Spain, he is a veterinarian with a Master in Aquaculture from the University micro-nutrients also raised the proportion of Eating quality and health benefits are equally of Girona (Spain) and a PhD in fish EPA and DHA in the muscle. important. pathology and immunology from the The third approach is to identify alternative However, although the supply of marine University of West Brittany (France). He resources. There are two major contenders: ingredients from the wild catch is limited, started working at Skretting Aquaculture genetic modifications to crop plants and with appropriate controls they will continue Research Centre in 1993 as a research-micro-algae. Progress is being monitored by to be available. A key task for the industry er, initially within fish health then as feed producers keen to reduce their depend- is to ensure they are used in a manner that a nutritionist. He He previously was ence on marine ingredients. Some plants spreads the benefits through a combination Manager of ARC’s Fish Health depart-produce PUFAs, for example rape (canola) or of supplementation, feed formulation and ment. Between 1993-1995, he was also soya, but the carbon chains are too short. The feed management on farm. This way the engaged as lecturer at the University of EPA carbon chain has 20 carbon atoms and growing demand for fish can be met and the Barcelona, and worked for two years as Manager of the Marine Harvest DHA 22. The ambition is to introduce genes benefits shared sustainably for generations Technical extend 18-carbon chains already present. to come. September-October 2012 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 25
  6. 6. This digital re-print is part of the September | October 2012 edition of International LINKSAquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a fullonline magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features onthe docstoc website.Please click here to view our other publications on Vo l u m e 1 5 I s s u e 5 2 0 1 2 • See the full issue The use of algae in fish feeds as alternatives to fishmeal Gustor Aqua and Ecobiol Aqua: • Visit the International Aquafeed website – enhancing digestion in a different manner Fishmeal & fish oil – and its role in sustainable aquaculture • Contact the International Aquafeed Team Options and challenges of alternative protein and energy • Subscribe to International Aquafeed resources for aquafeed EXPERT TOPIC – Shrimpthe international magazine for the aquaculture feed industryTo purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paperedition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the linkabove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE