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May | June 2010
Feature title: Innovative approaches to reduce feed cost in aquaculture:
              Optimizing nutrient...
F: Feed cost                                                                                                              ...
F: Feed cost                                                                                                              ...
F: Feed cost
This	digital	re-print	is	part	of	the	May	|	June	2010	edition	of	International	Aquafeed	magazine.		
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Innovative approaches to reduce feed cost in aquaculture: Optimizing nutrient utilization and gut health


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The strong fluctuations of feed ingredient prices in combination with low market prices for aquaculture products challenge the profitability of many aquaculture operations around the globe. This has accelerated a search for alternative formulations to improve the cost efficiency of feeding under various scenarios of ingredient cost and availability. The present paper illustrates a number of new strategies in feed formulation to reduce the cost of feeding fish and shrimp.

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Innovative approaches to reduce feed cost in aquaculture: Optimizing nutrient utilization and gut health

  1. 1. May | June 2010 Feature title: Innovative approaches to reduce feed cost in aquaculture: Optimizing nutrient utilization and gut health International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2009 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058 The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
  2. 2. F: Feed cost F: Feed cost Innovative approaches to reduce Figure 1: Compounds with potential for improving digestibility and feed utilization in feed cost in aquaculture fish (IN=intestine • PA=pancreas • LI=liver • BB=bile bladder •ST=stomach • E=esophagus • PC=pyloric caeca) Optimizing nutrient utilization and gut health in aquaculture of nutritional and/or func- percent reduction of feed cost per kg of 10-15 percent fish oil. Animal by-products, tional feed additives developed for livestock whole fish produced and 16.4 percent including specific qualities of poultry by- by Peter Coutteau, Sam Ceulemans and Alexander van Halteren, NutriAd International, Belgium is often not trivial. The present article shortening of the production cycle) as products and blood meals, offer interesting illustrates the potential to reducing cost of well as for the fish processor (up to 9.25 alternatives in terms of nutritional profile feeding in aquaculture by either improving percent improvement in fillet yield) (van and digestibility but are not always an The strong fluctuations of feed ingredient prices in combination with low market prices for aquaculture the efficiency of nutrient utilization or by Halteren et al., 2009). alternative to fish meal due to market products challenge the profitability of many aquaculture operations around the globe. This has accel- optimizing gut health. Traditional feed formulations for marine conditions (eg high demand by the pet- erated a search for alternative formulations to improve the cost efficiency of feeding under various fish are high in marine ingredients, contain- feed industry) and/or legal and consumer scenarios of ingredient cost and availability. The present paper illustrates a number of new strategies in Digestibility enhancement ing 40-50 percent good quality fish meal and concerns. Increased replacement of fish feed formulation to reduce the cost of feeding fish and shrimp. and improving nutrient utilization A A wide variety of concepts and prod- quaculture is world’s over the past years. Despite the increased system of fish and shrimp. As ingredient ucts are being investigated for improving fastest-growing sector in efforts to reduce the use of ingredients of prices are rising, nutritionists may find digestion and feed utilization in pigs and -7% food production reaching marine origin, fishmeal remains a major or new options for cost reduction in the poultry. Potential products for application +7.6% +6.5% an average growth rate at least significant cost in many aquafeed formulation by maximizing the efficiency in fish include botanical extracts and phy- since 1970 of almost 9 percent (versus formulations. As a result, the recent fluctua- of digestive and metabolic processes which tobotanical compounds, short and medium 2.8 percent for land-based animal pro- tions of fishmeal prices are troublesome for are at the basis of converting nutrients chain fatty acids, organic acids, enzymes, and duction). Global feed production for feed manufacturers and farmers, which are into growth. In agriculture, various types of natural emulsifiers (Figure 1). Digestibility farming fish and shrimp has followed already under economic pressure due to feed additives are being applied to enhance enhancing additives have the potential to this expansion and is expected to the low price of the end product. the digestibility and/or utilization efficiency improve nutrient utilization from cheap reach 32 million tonnes by 2012 Optimizing formulation cost for fish of nutrients, including exogenous enzymes ingredients and stimulate the conversion (Tacon and Metian, 2008). and shrimp requires completing the gaps and various types of digestibility enhanc- of nutrients into meat gain and less into fat in the current knowledge of nutritional ers allowing to extract more nutrients accumulation in muscle and viscera. Effects Figure 2: Data from an 84-days culture trial with European seabass using The fast growth of production volumes requirements (e.g. nutrient availability and out of ingredients, flavours and palatability on growth, feed conversion and protein triplicate tanks of 600l per diet. Fish were grown at 20-22°C in a seawater has resulted for many aquaculture species interactions, the role of natural feed sup- enhancers to stimulate appetite, and a wide efficiency were illustrated for Tilapia in an recirculation unit from 224g to ± 318g. The control diet consisted of a practical coated-extruded grow out (crude protein 45 percent; crude fat in a continuous erosion of the sales price plements in semi-intensive farming sys- range of products (pre/probiotics, botani- earlier contribution (Coutteau et al. 2009 20 percent), containing 19.6 percent Peruvian fishmeal (67 percent CP); at the farm gate and the profitability of the tems, nutritional requirements in function cal extracts, yeast derived compounds) to in International Aquafeed, nov-dec 2009). 17 percent fish oil, 5.9 percent wheat gluten, 6 percent corn gluten, 5 farm operations. In addition, all major aqua- of growth stages and culture conditions). maintain a healthy gut. The feeding biology, Furthermore, the potential impact on farm percent pea protein concentrate, 32 percent defatted soybean meal, 8.5 feed ingredients -including fishmeal, fish oil, So far, apart from optimizing nutritional digestive physiology and nutritional require- economics of improved nutrient utilization percent wheat flour, 4 percent extracted rapeseed meal, 1.15 percent vegetable proteins and fats, wheat flour, feed inputs and ingredient selection, aquaculture ments of warm-blooded land animals dif- was documented in the field for Pangasius monocalcium phosphate, methionine 0.1 percent, lysine 0.2 percent, premix 0.55 percent (vitamins, minerals, antioxidant, antimould) phosphates, additives, vitamins and miner- nutritionists have spent little attention to fer significantly from those of aquaculture in Vietnam where economic gains were (Ceulemans et al., 2010) als- have shown significant price fluctuations the optimal functioning of the digestive organisms. Therefore, the direct application observed both for the farmer (up to 2.4 32 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2010 May-June 2010 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 33
  3. 3. F: Feed cost F: Feed cost ing fish meal by vegetable proteins is the Growth system.This increases the risk for the prolif- depressing action of vegetable ingredients promotion eration of an unfavourable gut microflora or on lipid digestion, absorption and depo- based on frequent destabilization of the microflora, sition. Therefore, digestibility enhancers optimized which can affect the optimal functioning with emphasis on improving lipid digestion gut health of the digestive system. Furthermore, the have a great potential to support growth and digestive system of fish and shrimp is the of carnivorous fish fed feeds contain- Rising feed Escalating intestinal Environmental for Low Shrimpviral Opportunistic main entry port bacterial and ing reduced levels of fishmeal and higher cost microflora infections, which remain a major risk for fish meal price diseases impact & fish prices levels of vegetable ingredients. European The ban on the profitability of aquaculture production. seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a marine the use of anti- Sustainable approaches to modulate the carnivorous fish, fed a diet containing 19.6% Rising feed Escalating Opportunistic growthEnvironmentalin farmedLow Shrimp the gut microflora animals include biotic Peruvian fishmeal, showed improved growth cost fish meal price diseases promoters in use of selected bacteria fish prices the impact & to inoculate (with 6.5%), feed conversion ratio (with poultry and pigs, gut (probiotics), specific nutrients promot- Tired of hearing only bad news ? and the subse- ing the development of selected bacte- quent search rial strains (prebiotics), and specific natural Figure 3: Percentage improvement for alternatives, compounds (mostly derived from yeast Tired of hearing only bad news ? of growth and feed conversion ratio Feed is the main cost in most aquaculture operations … extracts, so called “phytobiot- has revealed the and herbal (FCR) for different aquaculture species importance of ics”) capable of modulating the microflora due to supplementing a phytobiotic and the most difficult one to reduce when ingredient prices are rising … meal/fish oil by vegetable protein sources Figure 4: Production results with white shrimp gut health and the towards a favorable composition, favoring growth promoter based on microflora (Litopenaeus vannamei) in a semi-intensive farm derived from soybean, wheat, rice and corn modulation (SANACORE® GM). Data development of a the development of beneficial bacteria and Feed is the main cost in most aquaculture operations … in Panama for control ponds and treatment ponds offers possibilities to stabilize formulation show relative effect on growth (for fish: receiving phytobiotic supplement difficult one to reduce when ingredient prices are rising … pathogenic micro- stable, favorable inhibiting potentially cost in marine fish feeds. However, many SGR, %/day; for shrimp g/week) and feed and the most (Sanacore® GM) (see gut microflora, organisms. The latter strategies have the Table 1; Vaca et al. 2010). nutritionists are hesitant to use high levels conversion ratio (FCR) relative on feed efficiency, advantage of being easily applicable at the to the performance of the of vegetable protein in marine fish feed due overall perform- feedmill on large volumes of feed and non-supplemented control to the fear for slower growth and poorer group in a feeding trial with rently Performance require Preservation and productivity. Fish & shrimp are Feed & Food adaptations of the produc- underutilized and functional ance Health and avoiding major Sensory feed conversion compared to traditional healthy animals. Feeding trials additives to maximize their utilization by Enhancement highly exposed to exchanges of microflora & Stabilisation Well-being tion protocols at the farm. A synergistic Safety Improvement feeds containing high levels of fish meal. were run in triplicate tanks the fish’s digestive and metabolic processes. between the environment and the digestive blend of phytobiotics was selected for Carnivorous fish – like any other animal – for Gilthead seabream Sparus aurata (trial duration 56 days; Performance Preservation Health & Feed & Food Sensory require a balanced diet which is satisfying starting from 70g); Nile tilapia Enhancement & Stabilisation Well-being Safety Improvement Nutriad has developed innovative feed additives nutritional requirements and of acceptable Oreochromus niloticus (70 palatability/digestibility to promote inges- days; starting from 17g); and specifically to reduce the feed cost in fish and tion/digestion. Formulating marine fish feed white shrimp Litopenaeus with less marine ingredients requires good vannamei (56 days starting knowledge of nutritional requirements and from 1g) (Ceulemans et al., 2010). Nutriad has developed innovative feed additives shrimp production functional/nutritional additives which are capable of solving some of the typical prob- specifically to reduce the feed cost in fish and lems encountered in carnivorous fish fed high levels of plant protein, such as reduced maximize protein sparing effects. It has now been documented for a number of 7%) and protein efficiency ratio (PER, with 7.6%) due to the supplementation of a AQUAGEST shrimp production Opportunistic ® Rising feed Escalating Environmental Low Shrimp palatability and digestibility, anti-nutritional carnivorous fish species (including salmon, digestibility enhancer (Fig. 2). This clearly Maximizes digestibility and feed utilization efficiency cost fish meal price diseases impact & fish prices factors and amino acid misbalances. Kroghdal et al. 2003; trout, Romarhein et demonstrates that the nutrients present in Dietary fat is an important source of al., 2008; Gilthead seabream, Gomez et al., feeds containing low levels of fish meal and AQUAGEST AQUABITE® ® energy for marine fish and is crucial to 2004), that one of the challenges for replac- high levels of vegetable proteins are cur- Maximizes digestibility and feed utilization efficiency Enhances palatability and appetite Table 1: Production results with white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in a semi-intensive farm in Panama for control ponds and treatment AQUABITE®® GM SANACORE Tired of hearing only bad news ? ponds receiving phytobiotic supplement (Sanacore® GM) (average and standard deviation of 8 replicate ponds of 3ha each per treatment, initial stocking density at 8/m2, 141 days of culture; Vaca et al., 2010). Enhances palatability and appetite Improves growth and productivity by promoting a healthy gut microflora Average Treatment Survival (%) Shrimp Crop Yield Feed FCR Weekly Growth coefficient of variation for SANACORE® Feed is the main cost in most aquaculture operations … GM size (g) (kg/pond 3ha) Improves and the mostproductivity to reduce whenaingredient prices are rising … growth and difficult one by promoting healthy gut microflora (kg/ha) (g/wk) parameters listed (CV%) applying nature for a healthy and sustainable future Sanacore® 4,170 ± 338 1.91 ± 0.23 55.5 ± 7.1 a 16.6 ± 1.5 a 735 ± 78 a 0.825 ± 0.075 a 10% GM a a applying nature for a healthy and sustainable future 3,464 ± 396 2.17 ± 0.39 Control 44.6 ± 10.6 b 15.7± 2.9 a 543 ± 90 b b a 0.776 ± 0.137 a 18% Performance Preservation Health & Feed & Food Sensory % change Stabilisation Enhancement & Well-being Safety Improvement Sanacore +24.4% +5.8% +35.2% +20.4% -12.1% +6.3% -41% vs Control P Value 0.0304 0.4395 0.0004 0.0018 0.7130 0.3876 --- 34 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2010 Nutriad has developed innovative feed additives May-June 2010 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 35 specifically to reduce the feed cost in fish and
  4. 4. F: Feed cost SUMMIT2010 Good ponds for the six production parameters: Have You Experienced Agricultural Practice This In Your Elevator? control 18 percent versus SANACORE group 10 percent; Table 2). 7th - 8th October I The 10th GLOBALG.A.P Conference I London, UK The drastic effects of the phytobiotic product on survival may be related to the fact that this study was performed during the worst farming cycle of the year in Panama, when shrimp ponds are exposed to severe For over 35 years, and in more than transitional changes in weather at the end of the wet season and the beginning of the 50 countries, Tapco has been solving the dry season. Natural White Spot Disease out- problem of bent & torn steel buckets. breaks were observed during shrimp farming in both treatments under similar frequency and severity; WSSV virus was confirmed by immuno-chromatography and nested-PCR tests. The presence of a synergistic blend of phytobiotics with antimicrobial activity possi- bly protected the shrimp from co-infections Farming for with opportunistic bacteria, often the major cause of mortality in WSSV-infected shrimp. Higher crop yield per hectare due to bet- ter survival often results in slower growth Consumers due to reduced availability of natural food. ® Despite significantly higher survival and crop yield, a positive effect was observed of phytobiotics on growth rate and food con- STYLE CC-HD (HEAVY DUTY) version. This confirmed that the continuous dosing of natural anti-microbial activity in the Polyethylene Elevator Bucket feed results in beneficial physiological effects from stabilizing the microflora present in the Everything have Nylonneed to in Urethane • youability to absorb impact digestive system. Tknowtoaboutorshape andto bypassworking for you. the elevator leg and “give” Good Agricultural apco nonmetallic buckets the “yield” an obstruction. Conclusion Current aquafeed formulations are Practice certification in one They then return their original keep on Tapco buckets weigh less than their pressed steel counterparts, lack their bacteriostatic and bactericidal prop- erties against pathogenic and potentially differed with regard to the supplementation or not of a phytobiotic growth promoter mainly focused on nutritional specifica- tions and ingredient selection, whereas the optimal utilization of the nutrients place sharp edges and therefore are far safer and easier to handle when fitting an elevator. pathogenic bacteria in vitro using the disk (Sanacore® GM, Nutriad, Belgium) to the and the health status of the digestive tract With 900,000 buckets in 64 sizes stocked throughout the diffusion method. This blend was capable standard feed used at the farm. are two areas which are rarely taken into world, Tapco has what you want, when you need it! Tapco of promoting growth significantly in feeding The supplementation of the phytobi- account. This is in strong contrast with the also maintains over 14 million elevator bolts in imperial trials with healthy specimens of different otic feed additive resulted in improved vast progress made in the agrifeed sector, species of fish and shrimp growing under values for all production parameters where nutrient digestibility and gut health Come and metric threads in the styles. Tapco fanged elevator and join us for five best net- HOT TOPICS controlled lab conditions (Fig. 3). analysed in this study (Table 1; Fig. are regarded as two focus areas for further working, discussionspecifically designed to work with bolts have been and debates at the FANGED HEAD 4). Survival and processed crop yield optimization of feed cost-efficiency. The Elevator Bolt nonmetallic buckets. world‘s favourite conference event for  Learn about the New Version of the Effect of optimizing gut (kg/ha) presented highly significant current paper illustrated with lab and field Good Agricultural Practice! today. Contact Tapco or visit GLOBALG.A.P Standard health and intestinal improvements (P<0.03), amounting to studies the potential benefits in terms of Top International speakers from the private and  Responsible Management of Resources microflora on productivity a relative increase with 24 percent and productivity and farm economics of specific Residue Monitoring and economics of semi- public sector will provide key insights into Good  intensive shrimp farming 35 percent compared to the control group, respectively. Although the other feed additives developed to enhance the functioning of the digestive tract of fish and Replace your steel buckets with Tapco – the buckets Agricultural Practice developments around the Smallholder Programmes The efficacy of phytobiotics was tested parameters did not show significant dif- shrimp, either by improving the nutrient with the memory.retailer and supplier members as globe. Join our  Certification Integrity under the field conditions for shrimp pro- ferences, important improvements were utilization or by stimulating the develop- they share with you how they are implementing  Social Practices in Primary Production duction in Panama during the dry season observed for the treatment receiving ment of a healthy gut microflora. GLOBALG.A.P into their global supply chains.  Aquaculture and Livestock Trends (September 2009- February 2010) by Vaca the phytobiotic, including 5.8 percent  Linkages to Consumer Labels References available from the author. et al. (2010). The dry season in Panama larger average shrimp size at harvest is characterized by unstable climatological and 12 percent better feed conver- 7th - 8th October 2010 conditions, resulting in strong temperatures sion compared to the control group. More inforMation: HILTON London Metropole Hotel fluctuations which in turn affect shrimp The addition of the phytobiotic reduced Peter Coutteau London, UK ELEVATOR BUCKETS - ELEVATOR BOLTS growth and increase the impact of outbreaks drastically the variability of production NutriAd International Kloosterstraat 1, 2460 Kasterlee, Belgium 225 Rock Industrial Park Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63044 U.S.A. of white spot virus (WSSV). During the trial, results among ponds fed the same feed Email: You want to know more about our event? two treatments were compared which only (average coefficient of variation between Tel.: +1 314 739 9191 • Fax: +1 314 739 5880 • Email: • Then please visit The color blue, when used in connection with elevator buckets, is a U.S. registered trademark owned by Tapco Inc. © 2010 Tapco Inc.® All rights reserved. 36 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2010
  5. 5. This digital re-print is part of the May | June 2010 edition of International Aquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. LINKS Please click here to view our other publications on VO L U M E 1 3 I S S U E 3 2 0 1 0 • See the full issue Alternative Lipid Sources • Visit the International Aquafeed website in Aquafeeds Phytobiotics and Prebiotics: - a new alternative for sustainable • Contact the International Aquafeed Team aquaculture • Subscribe to International Aquafeed Innovative approaches to reduce feed cost in aquaculture: - Optimizing nutrient utilization and gut health THE INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINE FOR THE AQUACULTURE FEED INDUSTRY Member of the World Aquaculture Society, European Aquaculture Society, American Feed Industry Association and the International Aquafeed Association IAF10-03.indd 1 30/04/2010 16:17 To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link above. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE