El Niño - plan ahead and manage the risk


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The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a climate event, where the adverse warming of sea surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean leads to extreme weather conditions affecting weather systems and countries globally.

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El Niño - plan ahead and manage the risk

  1. 1. July | August 2014 El Niño - plan ahead and manage the risk The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2014 Perendale Publishers Ltd.All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058 INCORPORATING FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
  2. 2. Innovations for a better world. Aquafeed – complete solutions from a single source. Turn to Bühler for one of the most comprehensive lines of aquafeed process technology available anywhere: from raw material handling, cooking and shaping through extrusion to drying and coating of finished products. With an extensive know-how and a passion for quality we ensure not only product uniformity and production efficiency, but also maximum sanitation and safety. Bühler – gentle processing at its best. www.buhlergroup.com/aquafeed
  3. 3. T he El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a climate event, where the adverse warming of sea surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean leads to extreme weather conditions affect- ing weather systems and countries globally. Climatic impact varies from extreme rain- fall and flooding in some areas, to extreme droughts and high temperature in others. From a food and feed perspective these changes can have devastating effects on industry, with farmers, fishermen and local industry and finance having to contend with extreme weather events leading to crop failure, rapid soil erosion, damage to industry and suboptimal conditions leading to out- breaks of disease. In the last severe El Niño in 1998, rainfall in Peru reached 40 times the average. El Niño events occur roughly once every five to seven years and although they are relatively short in duration they can have far reaching and long lasting impacts on industries involved in animal and crop production. The chances of an El Niño event occurring this summer (2014) are currently estimated at 70 percent. What affect does this have on industry? Fisheries A clear impact of El Niño events can be seen in Peru and the impact on the Peruvian anchovy fisheries sector, producing the bulk of the world’s fishmeal. El Niño reduces anchovy spawning and leads to a change in migration patterns, typi- cally causing huge disruption in the fisheries sector. In each year where El Niño occurred (1972, 1982 and 1997) huge reductions in anchovy catches resulted, and near collapse of the industry was experienced. As well as water temperatures affecting the migration and spawning of the Peruvian anchovy population, many Peruvian fisher- men are at the mercy of the weather. These conditions often cause huge disruption to the fishing effort, increasing the costs of fishing and the ultimately the ability of the fishermen to repay loans. With the increased costs of catching, cou- pled with reduced catches, the result is huge increases in fishmeal prices. Terrestrial farmers With the development of more and more plant based feeds for aquaculture, the effects of El Niño put pressure on some of the key grain and soy producing regions of the world. With ever increasing competition for land to supply feed for humans, biofuels and fod- der crops any disruption to supply can have marked effects on raw material pricing. The 1997-98 El Niño severely affected the Southeast Asia and Oceania regions, leading to wide scale crops failures and huge increases in food prices which, in turn, resulted in sus- tained hardship for many across the region. Grain production in eastern Australia and the Philippines reduced dramatically, and the same is anticipated during the next El Niño event. Feed manufacturers Modern aquaculture feeds are increasingly dependent on ingredients coming from a number of suppliers, usually globally sourced, and typically using both terrestrial (grains or soybean) and marine (fishmeal) suppliers. Consequently, aquaculture feed producers are affected by most of the major effects of El Niño events. Increased raw material prices might be offset by passing these costs on to feed buyers, but by how much and for how long? Fish farmers Fish farmers, as the end user in terms of aquaculture feeds, bear the brunt of increase in raw material price rises. Unless they have managed to secure long term contracts with feed suppliers, or avoided fixed price sup- ply deals with fish markets, they are heavily exposed to feed price fluctuations. Feed prices make up a significant portion of the costs of fish production, and will erode profit margins unless prices are passed on to the consumer. This can sometimes be difficult to do when competing against wild fish supplies or substi- tute proteins. If alternative feeds are available, then these might be a short term option, however, this tactic may result in sub-optimal nutrition leading to reduced growth rates and ultimately an inferior product. What measures can be taken to mitigate against the effects of El Niño? Identify risks In all cases, irrespective of position within the supply chain, companies should take a pro- active approach to risk management. Risks should be identified, assessed and monitored. Once the impact of these risks is analysed, strategies for reducing or managing these risks can be developed. Management steps can be as simple as substituting feed, to hedging the effects of El Niño events by purchasing specialist insurance. What is crucial in all cases is to plan ahead. Many of the effects of El Niño will be felt throughout the market and will be affect- ing many stakeholders at the same time, so impacts will be significant throughout supply chains. Unless companies plan ahead they will have no option but to react as events unfold, plan ahead and manage the risk by Daniel Fairweather, Willis – Email: dan.fairweather@willis.com WILLIS’ DIVISION HUGHES-GIBB IS THE CENTRE OF EXCELLENCE FOR BLOODSTOCK, LIVESTOCK, AQUACULTURE, CROP AND FORESTRY INSURANCE. THE DIVISION WAS FOUNDED IN 1959 AS THE FIRST BROKER IN LONDON EXCLUSIVELY DEDICATED TO BLOODSTOCK RISKS. IN RECENT YEARS IT HAS EXPANDED TO OFFER A FULL SERVICE ACROSS OTHER SECTORS, INCLUDING LIVESTOCK, AQUACULTURE, CROP AND FORESTRY INSURANCE. “WE ARE THE ONLY TRULY GLOBAL INSURANCE BROKING DIVISION TO ENCOMPASS ALL OF THE ABOVE AREAS OF SPECIALISATION. “THROUGH WILLIS OFFICES AROUND THE WORLD, WE CAN PROVIDE QUOTES AND COVERAGE FOR THE WHOLE SPECTRUM OF INSURANCE PRODUCTS IN THE BLOODSTOCK, LIVESTOCK,AQUACULTURE, CROP AND FORESTRY SECTORS NO MATTER WHERE OR THE RISK IS LOCATED,” SAYS THE COMPANY. El Niño 16 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | July-August 2014 FEATURE
  4. 4. in what will be a very dynamic environment. Decisions will have to be made under stress, and may result in less than optimal outcomes. Some risks are completely out of the con- trol of companies, but many are not, and those that can be controlled can either be managed through good business practice, or potentially transferred to the capital or insurance markets. Meteorological modelling Advances in meteorological modelling and climatic monitoring have enabled the devel- opment of risk models to predict complex climatic events with ever greater accuracy. As these models have evolved, so have the options for dealing with the extreme events they signal. By using financial hedging and insurance products, the effects of climate shocks can be alleviated (from a financial perspective). How can El Niño insurance help? This product is highly innovative in a number of ways: • It provides protection against the fore- seeable increased cost of dealing with one of World’s most intractable natural hazards • Uniquely, it enables buyers to obtain protection and receive payouts prior to the El Niño event occurring. This allows opportunities for risk manage- ment and loss prevention ahead of the event • The basis of its operation is entirely formulaic and objective, supported by a reliable and recognized third party thereby reducing moral hazard and the potential for adverse selection • Claims payments are swift, avoid- ing lengthy, often contentious loss adjustment How does it work? Sea Surface Temperature (SST) is measured (daily) at specified ocean locations in the equatorial Pacific and recorded by the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The primary indicator of an impending El Niño event in Peru, for example, is the SST as measured in the specified ocean location referred to as ‘ENSO 1.2’ during November and December. This index based insurance solution responds if the average SST during November and December as measured at ENSO 1.2 exceeds an agreed temperature threshold. If the trigger is breached, the agreed payout will be made. The insured does not have to prove that there has been any individual loss or damage; the breaching of the threshold is sufficient to trigger the payment. Benefits of El Niño insurance There are a number of specific benefits to particular industries, but broadly speaking the main advantages for all policyholders are the following: • Transparency - What you see, is what you get – this inspires trust in the buyer – so long as they understand the basis risk • No on-site adjustments - Payments are only made according to the index, which avoids costly loss adjustment requiring considerable expertise. • Lack of adverse selection / moral hazard - It doesn’t matter who buys the protection; the pay-out will be unaffected. If the business manages their risk badly they will not get paid more (or less) than the Index determines • Addresses correlated risks - Severe events, such as drought, can be well addressed by index-based products but they can be a challenge for conventional insurance • Low operational and transaction costs - As no individual underwriting is required, the cost of policy distribution, administration and claims handling can be minimised • Rapid payout - No further adjustment is required once the final level of the Index has been determined July-August 2014 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | 17 FEATURE
  5. 5. www.aquafeed.co.uk LINKS • See the full issue • Visit the International Aquafeed website • Contact the International Aquafeed Team • Subscribe to International Aquafeed Tilapia farming in China Ukrainian Fish Farming: – Opportunities for growth Volume 17 Issue 4 2014 - JulY | AuGusT INCORPORATING FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY El Niño – plan ahead and manage the risk Fish Farming Technology supplement - Stock protection - Biomass control - Technology round up Microalgae: – A sea of opportunities for the aquaculture industry This digital re-print is part of the July | August 2014 edition of International Aquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link above. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE