Tilapia farming in China


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Tilapia is one kind of small and medium-sized tropical fish, originating from the inland of Africa and the Middle East Atlantic coastal brackish water area, Israel and Jordan of west Asia.

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Tilapia farming in China

  1. 1. July | August 2014 Tilapia farming in China The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2014 Perendale Publishers Ltd.All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058 INCORPORATING FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY
  2. 2. T ilapia is one kind of small and medium-sized tropical fish, originat- ing from the inland of Africa and the Middle East Atlantic coastal brackish water area, Israel and Jordan of west Asia. On taxonomy, tilapia belongs to Cichlidae, Percoidei, Perciformes, Osteichthyes, while Tilapia can be classified as Sarotherodon, Oreochromis and Tilapia according to their way of incubation. Species of both Sarotherodon and Oreochromis are mouth brooders, while the species of tilapia are not mouth brooders. In Oreochromis species only females practice mouth brooding, while in Sarotherodon species both male and female are mouth brooders. There are more than 100 species including subspecies. Tilapia is advantaged on stronger adapt- ability, wider food habits, less diseases, faster reproduction and growth, higher yield, tender meat and no intramuscular bones. It has become one of the key aquaculture species extended to the world especially by FAO. The yield of tilapia has exceeded three million tonnes with wide distribution in more than 100 countries or regions. Tilapia has been considered as a dominant aqua- culture species for exportation and foreign currency earning by many developing coun- tries. China is the largest country for tilapia farming in the world and the yield of tilapia has increased from 315,000 tonnes in 1995 to 1,552,700 tonnes in 2012, accounting for over 40 percent of that produced worldwide. Thanks to the suitable climate conditions, Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi and Fujian - located in South China - are the main prov- inces for tilapia aquaculture. In these provinces, the related industries such as broodstocks and seeds, feeds, aquatic products processing and trade have been driven and got rapid development. The com- plete tilapia industry chain has been formed in these areas, which possesses competitive advantages in the world. Four stage of development Tilapia aquaculture history in China can be divided into four stages. From 1957 to 1978, Oreochromis mossam- bicus was cultured as dominant species. From 1978 to 1985, O. niloticus, O. mossambicus and tilapia (O. mossambicus♀×O. niloticus♂) were cultured as dominant species. This stage was a interim stage in which O. niloticus has gradu- ally replaced O. mossambicus, and Tilapia (O. mossambicus♀×O. niloticus♂). From 1985 to 2000, O. niloticus farming has completely replaced the other two spe- cies and the hybrid O. niloticus♀×O. aureus♂ farming was initially started. Since 2000, a large number of new vari- eties were bred successfully through the introduction of selectively bred new varieties and high purified original and improved stocks with the application of modern breeding techniques. Aquaculture varieties In the 1960s, tilapia, the species of which were mainly O. mossambicus, O. niloti- cus, O. aureus, O. hornorum, O. amdersonii, Sarotherodon galilaeus, Tilapia zillii, Cichlasoma sp. and Red Tilapia (O. mossambicus×O. niloti- cus), tilapia (O. mossambicus♀×O. niloticus♂), were began to be introduced from southeast Asian countries, the United States and Egypt, etc. to China. In addition, among the introduced Nile tilapia, there are also the strains from Sudan, the Nile River downstream, the United States, GIFT and Egypt. At present, the farmed Tilapias in China mainly consists of hybrid O. niloticus♀×O. aureus♂, GIFT Strain Tilapia and Red Tilapia. In 1996, the hybrid tilapia (O. niloticus♀×O. aureus♂) was successfully bred by Freshwater Fisheries Research Center (FFRC) of Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences (CAFS), which was also called the all-male hybrid Tilapia with obvious heterosis and the male rate exceed- ing 90 percent. The all-male hybrid tilapia is characterised with good body shape and flesh texture, omnivore, fast growth, high fillet rate, delicious taste. The growth rate of this variety is 20 percent to 30 percent faster than others. For example, the body weight can reach to 500 grams after five-month farming period for the 5cm fingerlings, which shows the great economic benefits. This all-male hybrid tilapia is the most suit- Tilapia farming in China by GE Xianping, MIAO Linghong, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi, 214081, China Figure 1: The production in main provinces of China in 2012 (10,000 tonnes) 10 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | July-August 2014 FEATURE
  3. 3. able farming variety in China, covering more than 60 percent of the total farming area in China. The breakthrough has initiated the uni- sexual Tilapia aquaculture in China, solved the disadvantages of farming male and female Nile tilapias in the same pond and greatly promoted the rapid development of Tilapia industry. From then on, Tilapia aquaculture has stepped into the era of high-efficiency farming. Farming modes and technologies At present, Chinese tilapia farming has been developed rapidly, playing an important role in the freshwater aquaculture. In the past decade, the tilapia farming yield has consecutively ranked the first in the world with an average annual increment of 13.4 percent. Through decades of development, the Tilapia farming modes has been changed from extensive culture into the farming modes of pond monoculture and intensive culture oriented, coexistence with cage farming, run- ning water farming and polyculture. The available land resources have been made full use of through ponds reconstruc- tion (that is, deepening and expanding the ponds). Through application of polyculture technologies, the water resources have been fully utilised, the feed coefficient rate has been improved, the ecological efficiency could be exerted so as to regulate the water quality and the tilapia grows fast with few disease occurrence and reduced pollution to farm water. The problem of balancing the grow-out has been partly solved product appearance in the market through the large-scale cultivation of large-size fish combined with pond hierar- chical culture mode, and twice harvesting one year or three times harvesting in two years culture mode. Besides, industrial aquaculture has also been developed, such as pond recirculating aquaculture and running water aquaculture. The tilapia feed industry has developed with the feed industry in China, with the characteristics of a late beginning, short history and rapid development. In the 1980s, there was no feed specially produced for tilapia, so common fish feeds were used. However, the tilapia fomulated feeds had been developed since the end of the 20th Century. These feed enterprises were mainly distributed in Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi and Fujian. The feed output of Guangdong province was largest, then was Hainan, Guangxi and Fujian. The tilapia farming area for feeding with complete formulated feeds accounts for about 85 percent in China. The special feeds for tilapias mainly consists of floating, expanded feeds and pellet feeds. Currently, the feed coefficient ratio is In future, China will put more priorities to enhancing the industry quality, strengthening the scientific research input, developing and promoting standardization production technology, producing non-pollution, green or organic tilapia products with high quality, and maintaining the healthy and sustainable development of the tilapia industry July-August 2014 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | 11 FEATURE
  4. 4. about 1.5 and 1.2 for pellet feeds and floating feeds, respectively. The floating feed industry has developed greatly in recent years with the higher level of feed efficiency. Tilapia processing industry and exportation Tilapia processing industry in China began from the end of 1990s. At present, there are more than 200 process- ing enterprises with more than 170 exportation- oriented enterprises, and the annual processing capacity exceeds two million tonnes. The tilapia processing capacity has increased to 600,000 tonnes in 2012 from 40,000 tonnes in 2002, which increased by 15 times in a decade with the average annual growth rate of 136 percent. Since the year when China got access to the WTO in 2002, the exportation of tilapia processing products has rapidly developed. The export volume was increased by 8.97 times, from 36,300 tons in 2002 to 362,000 tons in 2012, with the average annual growth rate of 81.57 percent. The export value was increased by 22 times, from US$500 million in 2002 to US$1.163 billion in 2012, with the average annual growth rate of 201.8 percent. The main forms of tilapia processing prod- ucts for exportation are frozen tilapia fillets, frozen tilapia, live tilapias, fresh cold tila- pias, salted tilapias, prepared tilapia fillet with breads and other products. Prospects After over 20 years development, tilapia aquaculture technologies have become more and more advanced, which has already formed the complete industry including improved spe- cies breeding, quality fry production, grow-out farming (monoculture and polyculture), feed formulating and application, products processing. We can say that China is the country with most advanced technologies for tilapia aqua- culture in the world. Due to the further expansion of the inter- national market and rapid development of tila- pia industry, there is great market demand and development potential for tilapia aquaculture. China, as the major tilapia producer in the world, is still possessing great development chance for the tilapia industry due to the advantages of farming conditions. In the future, China will put more priorities to enhancing the industry quality, strengthen- ing the scientific research input, developing and promoting standardization production technology, producing non-pollution, green or organic tilapia products with high quality, and maintaining the healthy and sustainable development of the tilapia industry, so as to make contributions to the resource-saving and environment-friendly tilapia aquaculture development. Figure 4: Tilapia fillet processing workshop and the products Figure 2: Tilapia species farmed in China Figure 3: The breeding process of all-male hybrid Tilapia 12 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | July-August 2014 FEATURE
  5. 5. Innovations for a better world. Aquafeed – complete solutions from a single source. Turn to Bühler for one of the most comprehensive lines of aquafeed process technology available anywhere: from raw material handling, cooking and shaping through extrusion to drying and coating of finished products. With an extensive know-how and a passion for quality we ensure not only product uniformity and production efficiency, but also maximum sanitation and safety. Bühler – gentle processing at its best. www.buhlergroup.com/aquafeed
  6. 6. www.aquafeed.co.uk LINKS • See the full issue • Visit the International Aquafeed website • Contact the International Aquafeed Team • Subscribe to International Aquafeed Tilapia farming in China Ukrainian Fish Farming: – Opportunities for growth Volume 17 Issue 4 2014 - JulY | AuGusT INCORPORATING FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY El Niño – plan ahead and manage the risk Fish Farming Technology supplement - Stock protection - Biomass control - Technology round up Microalgae: – A sea of opportunities for the aquaculture industry This digital re-print is part of the July | August 2014 edition of International Aquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link above. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE