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Feeding lined seahorse juveniles with enriched Artemia nauplii

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Seahorses are a high-value fish species in both medicinal and aquarium trades. In China, seahorses are called ‘animal ginseng’. Since 2004, all 33 recognised seahorse species (Hippocampus) in the world have been listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES 2004) due to overexploitation.

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Feeding lined seahorse juveniles with enriched Artemia nauplii

  1. 1. September | October 2013 Feeding lined seahorse juveniles with enriched Artemia nauplii The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd.All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058 INCORPORATING f ish farming technolog y
  2. 2. Innovations for a better world. Bühler AG, Feed & Biomass, CH-9240 Uzwil, Switzerland, T +41 71 955 11 11, F +41 71 955 28 96 fu.buz@buhlergroup.com, www.buhlergroup.com Fatten up your bottom line. Bühler high-performance animal and aqua feed production systems are used by leading companies around the world. These producers know they can rely not just on the technology itself, but also on the support that accompanies it. A service combining local presence with global expertise both lowers feed mill operating costs and increases capacity utilization. To find out more, visit www.buhlergroup.com
  3. 3. S eahorses are a high-value fish species in both medicinal and aquarium trades. In China, seahors- es are called ‘animal ginseng’. Since 2004, all 33 recognised seahorse species (Hippocampus) in the world have been listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES 2004) due to overexploitation. There arises an urgent need for breeding seahorses to meet human demand. To meet this demand, considerable progress in breed- ing seahorses has been made in the past ten years. To date, more than 10 seahorse species have been reared successfully in captivity. However, low survival, particularly in the early juvenile stage, is still one of the bottlenecks affecting the economic return in commercial seahorse culture. Juvenile nutrition is recognised as a major factor that can influence juvenile survival and growth. Furthermore, broodstock nutrition is recognised as a major factor that can influence fish reproduction and subsequent larval quality of many fish species. Hence, optimising both juvenile feeds to enhance growth and survival of seahorse and to reduce production cost is crucial for successful commercial culture. Although copepods are the best food for juvenile seahorses, mass culture of copepods is still a challenge. Alternatively, newly hatched Artemia nauplii have been widely used as live food for seahorses. However, newly hatched Artemia nauplii are deficient in DHA and EPA, i.e. they do not provide adequate nutrition to improve the growth and survival of seahorse juveniles. Therefore, Artemia nauplii are usually enriched with n-3 HUFAs prior to feeding seahorse juveniles. However, excess HUFAs fortification may cause adverse effects prob- ably due to oxidative stress. Characteristics of Artemia nauplii Artemia nauplii have to be enriched with highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) prior to feeding seahorse juveniles. However, infor- mation about optimized encrich- ment for seahorse juveniles is very limited. The enzymatic activity is a good indicator revealing the diges- tive and absorptive capacity of the animal and is useful in evaluat- ing effect of feed on survival and growth performance. Dietary HUFAs are able to modify some enzymatic activities, and moderate dietary HUFAs sup- plementation significantly promotes lipid metabolism and reduces lipid peroxidation products by enhanc- ing antioxidant defence in the juve- niles. However, excess HUFAs may result in adverse effects on the Feeding lined seahorse juveniles with enriched Artemia nauplii by Dong Zhang PhD and Fei Yin PhD, East China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, China Figure: 1 26 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2013 FEATURE
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  5. 5. enzymatic activities in the juveniles, which might be related to oxidative stress. In practice, the concentra- tion of 27.0 μl/l HUFAs is rec- ommended for enriching Artemia nauplii for lined seahorse juveniles. The lined seahorse, Hippocampus erectus (Perry), has been reared successfully for years, and is recognised as a good can- didate for commercial aquaculture. There is currently very limited information about how HUFAs affect the survival and growth of the seahorse juveniles, the activities of lipid metabolism related and anti-oxidative stress enzymes. Since HUFAs are able to affect activities and gene expressions of lipid metabolism-related enzymes, the enzymatic activity is a good indicator revealing the digestive and absorptive capacity of seahorses. Studying enzymatic activity is useful in evaluating the effect of feed on survival and growth performance. Experimental protocols Newly hatched nauplii of Artemia sinica at approximately 200 nauplii/mL were cultured in 15 litre tanks, which were enriched with four concentrations 0.0 μl/l, 13.5 μl/l, 27.0 μl/l, and 54.0 μl/l, of HUFAs (2/3 DHA, 1/3 EPA), respectively for 12 h with aeration at temperature of 28.0±1.0 C. Each tank (50×30×30 cm) was stocked with twenty 20 day-old juveniles. Plastic plants were used as the substrate and holdfasts for the juveniles. The juveniles were fed the Artemia nauplii enriched with four concentra- tions of HUFAs. Each diet was fed to three tanks of the biochemical parametres and enzy- matic activities (Lipase (LPS), Lipoproteinlipase (LPL), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), alkaline Figure: 2 September-October 2013 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | 27 FEATURE www.evonik.com/feed-additives|feed-additives@evonik.com AMINOCarp® – Improve your feed formulation.
  6. 6. phosphatase (AKP), pyruvic acid (PA), lac- tate (LD)], antioxidant defence enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and oxidative breakdown product, malonaldehyde (MDA)) were monitored over 30 days. The juveniles were fed twice at 0800 h and 1500 h each day at approximately 10 nauplii/mL. Before each feeding, the bot- tom of the tanks was siphoned to remove feces and uneaten food. Impact of different HUFAs concentrations The different concentra- tions of HUFAs significantly affected the activities of lipase (LPS), lipoproteinlipase (LPL) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) of the lined seahorse juveniles, but alkaline phos- phatase (AKP) (Figure 1). The LPS activity of the juveniles in the concentration of 27.0 μl/l HUFAs was sig- nificantly higher than that in other three concentrations (Figure 1). LPL activity in the higher concentrations (i.e. 27.0 and 54.0 μl/l HUFAs) were significantly higher than that in the lower concentrations (i.e. 0.0 and 13.5 μl/l HUFAs) (Figure 1). MDH activity decreased with increasing concentration of HUFAs (Figure 1). The different concentrations of HUFAs significantly affected the contents of lactate (LD) and malonaldehyde (MDA) of the seahorse juveniles (Figure 2). The lowest LD content of the juveniles occurred in the concentration of 54.0 μl/l HUFAs (Figure. 2). MDA content decreased significantly from the concentrations of 0.0 to 27.0 μl/l HUFAs (Figure 2). Pyruvic acid (PA) content was not significantly different among the four concen- trations (Figure 2). The different concentrations of HUFAs significantly affected activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) of the sea- horse juveniles (Figure 3). The SOD activity in the lower con- centrations (i.e. 0.0 and 13.5 μl/l HUFAs) was significantly higher than in the higher concentration (i.e. 27.0 and 54.0 μl/l HUFAs) (Fig. 3). CAT activity increased significantly from the concentra- tions of 0.0 μl/l HUFAs to 27.0 μl/l (Figure 3). GPX activity increased significantly with increasing con- centration of HUFAs (Figure 3). Conclusions Dietary HUFAs may be used to modify some enzyme activities and biochemical contents, and moderate dietary HUFAs supple- mentation significantly promotes lipid metabolism and reduces lipid peroxidation products by enhancing antioxidant defence in H. erectus juveniles. However, excess HUFAs may result in adverse effects on the enzymatic activities in the juve- niles, which might be related to oxidative stress. In practice, the concentration of 27.0 μl/l HUFAs is recom- mended for enriching Artemia nauplii for H. erectus juveniles, which is consistent with the results of growth and survival. More InforMatIon: Dong Zhang Email: zd_fit@hotmail.com Figure: 3 28 | InternatIOnal AquAFeed | September-October 2013 FEATURE 8 – 10 April 2014 . Bangkok International Trade & Exhibition Centre (BITEC), Bangkok, Thailand New for 2014 Now including the first ASEAN Rice Summit Specialist conference The exhibition will be supported by its own specialist conference: The GRAPAS Conference 2014 Supported by The Thailand Convention and Exhibition Bureau Co-located with VICTAM Asia 2014 www.victam.com Contact details For visitor, exhibition stand space and conference information please visit: www.grapas.eu Asia’s premier rice & flour milling and grain processing exhibition and conference GRAPAS Asia 2014 is the only dedicated trade show and conference organised specifically for rice & flour milling, grain storage, preservation & processing, noodle, breakfast cereal and extruded snack production within the dynamic and growing regions of South & South East Asia. GRAPASisland:Layout 1 30/8/13 14:29 Page 1
  7. 7. www.aquafeed.co.uk LINKS • See the full issue • Visit the International Aquafeed website • Contact the International Aquafeed Team • Subscribe to International Aquafeed The potential of microalgae meals – in compound feeds for aquaculture Understanding ammonia in aquaculture ponds Volume 16 Issue 5 2013 - sePTemBeR | oCToBeR INCORPORATING fIsh fARmING TeChNOlOGy EXPERT TOPIC – Salmon AquaNor event review Thisdigitalre-printispartoftheSeptember|October2013editionofInternational Aquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link above. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE

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