May | June 2012   Feature title: EXPERT TOPIC - TROUT International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale P...
EXPERT T●PICTROUT                                                                                         EXPERT TOPIC    ...
EXPERT T●PIC                                                                                 4                          3...
EXPERT T●PIC                                         Poland                                                               ...
EXPERT T●PICUnited Kingdom                                                                                               ...
EXPERT T●PIC                                                                                                              ...
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EXPERT T●PIC                                                                                                              ...
EXPERT T●PICReady for peak season?Peak season is approaching – are youable to produce enough shrimp feed tomeet customer d...
7 EXPERT T●PIC                                                    (IBD) of chickens and X virus of Drosophila        tally...
EXPERT T●PICturbot larvae, could be involved in the viral        devoid of food. Petechiae are observed              degen...
EXPERT T●PIC                                                      fish, reduces the risk of infection. However,        inac...
8                                                                                                                    IDL-I...
EXPERT T●PIC                                     One company in Peru accounts for the             and overemphasis on the ...
TROUT                                                                                                                     ...
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Welcome to Expert Topic, a new feature for International Aquafeed. Each issue will take an in-depth look at a particular species and how its feed is managed. To kick off the first Expert Topic, trout takes centre stage. Over the next pages you'll find, amongst other things, a feature on the trout value chain in Peru, a glimpse behind the scenes at Bibury Trout Farm in the UK and an overview trout culture and feed in Turkey. First of all, industry experts from around the world give the inside track feed and management in their country. Enjoy.

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  1. 1. May | June 2012 Feature title: EXPERT TOPIC - TROUT International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2012 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
  2. 2. EXPERT T●PICTROUT EXPERT TOPIC Welcome to Expert Topic, a new feature for International Aquafeed. Each issue will take an in-depth look at a particular species and how its feed is managed. To kick off the first Expert Topic, trout takes centre stage. Over the next pages youll find, amongst other things, a feature on the trout value chain in Peru, a glimpse behind the scenes at Bibury Trout Farm in the UK and an overview trout culture and feed in Turkey. First of all, industry experts from around the world give the inside track feed and management in their country. Enjoy. 22 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2012
  3. 3. EXPERT T●PIC  4 3 +   + Perspectives on trout farming and aspects relating to fish feedPeru  According to an article published by, the company uses the same technologies applied in fish farming by the major by Anna Pyc, Peruvian Aquaculture Company, Peru producers of salmon and trout, like Norway, Chile and the UnitedT Kingdom. he highest industrial aquaculture center in the world is However, this technology has been adapted to its unique environ- located in Perus central Huancavelica department, 4,600 ment and an individual model has been developed for the high Andes. meters above sea level. Peruvian Aquaculture Company The natural environment and the purity of the water in this mountain (PACSAC) was founded in 2007 for the development of range is the greatest asset of the company, which allows making aqua-industrial aquaculture, an activity that is emerging worldwide as the culture a sustainable activity.main protein source for the near future. All procedures used by the company are environmentally friendly, and as a result, the Peruvian Aquaculture Company implements norms To meet this goal, PACSAC integrates social and environment care ISO 14001: 2004. PACSAC also develops regular environmental waterwith the use of modern technologies that make possible to provide quality monitoring to asses quality and sediment.The fish are fed exclusivelyproducts to international markets. At this stage, PACSAC is raising rainbow with extruded fishmeal specially formulated for trout. After reachingtrout. As well as beign the higest trout farm in Peru, the companys facilities the required market size the trout are harvested and transported toare also the largest industrial aquaculture site in the country. the processing plant. totally in Turkey. Foreign feed mills have built fish feed plants in Turkey  Turkey because of increasing demand by farms. Trout farms choose feed mills according to their prices and payment ease. Rainbow trout have differences between them because of geographic by Prof Dr Belgin Hossu, Faculty of Fisheries, Ege University, Turkey conditions of the country. Depending on these changing conditions, A FCR is between 0.84- 0.97. The main protein source of feed is fishmeal. ccording to the latest parametres from the Turkish Fishmeal sources are foreign countries and sardine and anchovy from Statistics Office, rainbow trout production is around Black Sea according to the fishing seasons. Protein rate of feed is around 85.244 tonnes in Turkey and is increasing each day. 44 percent at growing ages. In addition to fishmeal, vegetable protein Farms are mostly on land and damed lakes with a small sources have been used to decrease the cost of the feed. These are soy- amount in sea cages. bean meal, corn meal and wheat meals. Adding of caroteneids generally happens at salmon breeding or matured fish of trout. Rainbow trout production in Turkey can be divided in to two The feed manufacturing system is extruder. To decrease waste, parts. The reason for this is the continously changing cost of feed floating feed is prefered. due to fishmeal and fish oil prices. Unstable prices of fishmeal and Generally, the colour of the meat isn’t important because trout fish oil has forced the farms to produce their feed themselves. As is consumed both fresh and frozen. On the other hand, yellow col- a result, the feed sector has to be seen as commercial feed mills oured meat isnt preferable because it indictaes high levels of corn and self-feed producers. Feed production for rainbow trout is done and soybean meal. May-June 2012 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 23
  4. 4. EXPERT T●PIC Poland 3 the approximate FCR reaches values of starter feeds at 0.72 and, in fingerlings production 0.88. In recent years there has also been invest- ment in automatic feeding systems to improve feeding effectiveness. by Anna Py, Aller Aqua, Poland T Very strict regulations in Polish law regarding the environmental impact rout farming in Poland is situated mainly in the northern of salmonids production also require that feeds that meet certain standards. part of the country with its main species – rainbow trout. According to individual farm water conditions the feed is chosen in respect It is relatively young part of the Polish aquaculture reaching of its caloric value and other properties. Many of the farms have their own 14 thousand tons of annual production in 2010 with a hatcheries, where starter feeds are used. These feeds are especially important value of approximately €40m. The farms are modern, many using for having high survival rate and fish in good condition as a basis for fast growth. partially recirculated systems and technology reducing environmental Fish feed is the largest cost component of trout farms, amounting impact. Over 200 trout farms employ approximately 1000 people. on average to about 34 percent, however it used to reach over 40 The location of farms in rural areas makes them important for local percent in previous years. Cost of labour, live raw material and other employment levels. operational costs amount to 19 percent , 16 percent and 14 percent respectively. Other components costs are relatively small. Trout farms in Poland use high quality feeds purchased from leading Polish trout production faces new challenges in terms of market feed producers in Europe. 41.5 percent of the market share belongs demands as well as increasing pressure on reducing environmental to Aller Aqua (2010), in the second place is Biomar (34.6 percent) impact. The Polish Trout Breeders Association faces these challenges and third is Skretting (12.3 percent). Aller Aqua is the only fish feed and among other activities introduced a four year promotional cam- company with a production plant in Poland, which makes the company paign of trout in Poland. The campaign focuses mainly on promoting competitive regarding delivery conditions. trout as a source of healthy nutrition, as well as spreading knowledge Trout farms in Poland are in most cases well managed and therefore about the species. Denmark 4 by Brian Thomsen, DirectorPhoto courtesy of ©Dave Bassett, Chief Danish Aquaculture Organisation DExecutive, British Trout Association anish trout farmers almost exclusively use fish feed manufactured in Denmark. The mains reasons are that they view it as being superior and that it is in compliance with national legislation. Danish national legislation also regulates digestibility but most types of feed exceeds the legal requirements. Key decision parameters when choosing a feed include: low FQR, high growth rates, national regulation, environ- mental impact – in general price/performance. The national average FQR is approximately 0.94, thus we use on average approximately 940g of feed to make 1kg of trout. The protein content is gradually declining but it is typically around 42 percent. The main protein source is fishmeal. The legislation for freshwater farming was changed this February. One of the key changes is that farms may now choose to be regulated on output (discharge quotas) and not on input (feed quotas). This will probably puts even more emphasis on the price/performance ratio. The fish farmers are well aware of the fact that we are what we eat. Therefore quality is of the highest importance. We mainly farm white fish but caratenoids are used in fish feeds that are used to make pink trout. The cost of feed is always a key factor but the cost is judged against performance. The key question is therefore not the price per kg per se but the price/performance ratio. We produce approximately 10,000 tons of trout in marine farming and 25,000 tons in freshwater farming. The gross output (2010) was approximately φ45m for marine farming and φ80m for freshwater farming. The industry employs approximately 1000 people (including production and feed and processing). 24 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2012
  5. 5. EXPERT T●PICUnited Kingdom  by David Bassett, British Trout Association U K trout farming differs to some other countries in that the UK employs a number of different production methods. Trout are farmed in freshwater open net pens, earth ponds and concrete raceways and are also farmed in open net pens in marine water off the west coast of Scotland. UK trout farmers also employ recirculation technology – most commonly as partial Photo courtesy of ©Dave Bassett, Chief recirculation in hatchery facilities rather David Bassett Executive, British Trout Association than the entirely closed recirculation sites as may be seen elsewhere. The UK primarily produces rainbow trout, although brown troutare farmed too. Both species may be farmed to organic standards, andconsequently use organic feeds, although this market remains small,producing only in the hundreds of tonnes. Both brown and rainbowtrout are farmed for the restocking market (i.e. sale of live fish forstocking to fisheries) although the majority of fish that are farmed arefor the table market. Production tonnages vary annually, but current official statisticssuggest that circa 11,000 tonnes of table trout are farmed each year,with a further circa 3,500 tonnes for restocking. Large trout production, as wide a basket of ingredients as possible, to optimise variations in thethose fish farmed in marine water, is increasing, with 2011 production commodity market.being estimated at 2,000 tonnes, up from circa 1,600 tonnes in 2010. With the exception of fish farmed to organic standards, the UK Fish feed accounts for approximately 50 percent of production market prefers fish that is “pink” fleshed. As such, astaxanthin on can-costs, and so is of paramount importance to UK producers. Through thaxanthin are included in the formulation of diets.both European Union and UK domestic legislation, fish feeds, their Most UK feeds for the table market avoid using land animal protein.composition and their use, are tightly regulated. The vast majority of Although permitted to do so by law, retail buyers seem reluctant totrout farms source feed from the major commercial suppliers. Skretting purchase fish fed using such diets. However, research undertakenhas the largest market share, although other suppliers include EWOS, by industry and other third parties suggests that there is little to noBiomar, Le Gouessant and Aller Aqua. However, whilst costs are high, opposition to the inclusion of such protein sources on the part of thetrout farmers seek value for money and a return in terms of perform- consumer / general public, who remain generally unconcerned aboutance and as such would prefer to pay for a top quality feed in that this the diets fed to farmed a better investment in the long term resulting in a better yield and In common with other sectors, sustainability is a term that is usedhealthier fish. increasingly often with regard to fish farming and fish feeds. Whilst a Feed compositions vary between manufactures and specific formu- definition of sustainability is always hard to achieve, it would be fair tolations / diets. The major source of protein continues to be fish meal. suggest that much greater emphasis is now being placed upon suchIncreasingly, producers seek to be able to vary the inclusion rates in issues as Fish In Fish Out (FIFO). As a trade association representing thediets of such ingredients as fish and vegetable oils. With the global UK farming industry, the British Trout Association is increasingly liaisingcommodity index affecting the price of key ingredients, trout farm- with feed companies and NGO organisations over issues relating to the ers support feed manufactures in their attempts to operate using inclusion percentages of fish meal and fish oil in diets, and the origin of the fish meal and fish oil that is used. It is predicted that greater emphasis will be placed upon such issues in the future, with certain certification schemes placing greater emphasis on the sustainability imprint of all aspects of production. How much importance consumers attach to this has yet to be demonstrated. Photo courtesy of ©Dave Bassett, Chief UK fish farming is strictly regulated in relation to discharges into the aquatic environment. As such, farmers pay close attention to feed Executive, British Trout Association conversions ratios and associated nutrient discharge and suspended solids. Whilst feed conversion ratios vary across the UK, given the wide range in production systems, water temperatures and other variables, feed conversion and feeding protocols have continued to improve in sophistication and understanding with reported ratios varying from under 1:1 (typically 0.95) to 1.2 :1. UK trout farmers enjoy a close and mutually beneficial working rela- tionship with commercial fish feed manufacturers and as an industry we continue to work together to be at the forefront of trout production. May-June 2012 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 25
  6. 6. EXPERT T●PIC Farm Focus Buxton Trout and Salmon Farm, Australia by Mitch MacRae, Secretary of the Australian Trout & Salmon Farmers Association A t Buxton Trout & Salmon Farm we have a general feed conver- sion rate of 1.1 – 1.2. Protein content of the feed we use is 45 per cent and the percentage of fish meal is not known. There are only 2 feed suppliers in Australia, we chose Skretting as their feed performs better (better FCR) without compromising environmental targets on discharge and is more economical because of freight costs. The taste of the trout is not affected by the feed, however the colour is depending on how much colour is added to the feed. Costs of feed and FCR are important factors as margins are tight, and fish feed is one of our biggest costs. On average to produce "The taste of the trout is not 1kg of trout we will need 1.1 – 1.2kg of feed. affected by the feed, however the In Australia approximately 1500-2000 tonnes of trout are produced each year, colour is depending on how much with approximately 85 per cent of Australia’s trout being grown in the Murrindindi region colour is added to the feed" in Victoria. Australia’s trout production has an approximate value of 10-15 million dollars per year and employs approximately 200 people. Above & Below Mitch MacRae on the grounds of Buxton Trout FarmPhotos courtesy of ©Mitch MacRae Farm Focus 26 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2012
  7. 7. 6 EXPERT T●PIC white trout. In the Black Sea, fish are the market competition is getting more stress- reared in cages up to 0.5–1.5 kg and ful for producers. As a consequence of sold as Black Sea salmon. competition between farmers, feed producers Steadily increasing production are always introduced the best available feeds has accompanied a large volume in order to reach desired size as quickly as of fish feed needs. Trout feeds are possible. So the growth rate is almost primary produced in state-of-the-art facilities factor feed driven. The intrabrand competi- using leading-edge quality assurance tion occurs also among feed producers. techniques. There are currently 10 feed The environmental pressures and impacts mills with the total capacity of over 300,000 caused by the typical production of rainbow tonnes per year. Almost all feed mills produce trout in Turkey have been taken into consid- trout, sea bass and sea bream feeds using eration particularly in the last decade. After extruding technology made after 2000. Since the adoption of new regulations on aquac- the regulatory standards are high, all fish mills ulture in Environment Law, all aquacultureTrout culture track raw materials acquisition, handling and facilities are under a monitoring programme. storage, production processes and packaging Through implementation of a control pro- and delivery. gramme the farmers are directly or indirectlyand feed in The main protein source is always declared forced to use better quality feeds particularly as fish meal. But reliable data on this is hard in low phosporus content. Since the overall to obtain. Although Turkey has different production is increasing steadily, this pressureTurkey zones all around country having various water is expected to increase in near future. characteristic features, the feeds are produced regardless ecological differences as imple- mented in some countries by chosen differentby Dr Atilla Ozdemir, Central FisheriesResearch Institute, Turkey Table 1: High quality feeds from hatching toA harvest are produced in different size range lthough Aquaculture has a relatively Starter feeds 300-1500micron short history in Turkey, it began with rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus Pregrowers 2 – 3mm mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinuscarpio) in the late 1960s and developed further Grower feeds 4 – 10mmwith gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and Broodstock 10 – 12mmEuropean seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)culture in the mid-1980s. Production reached protein/lipid/energy ratios.167,000 tonnes a year in 2010 of rainbow trout, There is high variation in FCR dependingseabass, seabream, mussel, common carp and on feed management in farms and location Photo courtesy of ©Dave Bassett, Chiefother species, produced on nearly 2100 farms. of farms. The lowest rate obtained in cages Executive, British Trout Association in Black sea as 0,9 and highest as 1,2 in inland The rainbow trout has been cultured farms. The effect of type of feed on taste andsince the early 1970s and Turkey has become colour of the fish is has not been consideredone of the top trout producing countries in very much so far.Europe with an annual production of over The initial on-farm experience and follow-85,000 tonnes, or almost 50 percent of the ing demands/complaints from processing unitscountrys total aquaculture production. With may lead producers to select the best avail-the surprising appropriate ecological supply able feed. No carotenoids are incorporatedfor trout culture in the marine environment into most trout diets produced in Turkeythanks to low salinity the Black Sea has an but in some cases producers in Black Seaenormous potential. Today there are more demanded pigmented feeds.than 20 sea-based farms which are situated The cost and quality are almost equal fac-in the Black Sea. This tends to increase in tors in choosing feed. As production increases,number of fish farms and production. Apart from marine and some freshwater Table 2: The protein/lipid content of feedscage farms in lakes and reservoirs, the major- may vary among producers but can beity of the trout farms employ small concrete summarized in following tableraceways mainly using stream waters. In the Crude protein Crude lipid Sizepast ten years, trout cage culture in dams has (%) (%)reached a very important level of production.Over 50 percent of the farms have their 300-1500 50-56 12-18own hatcheries with eggs being produced micronduring the natural breeding season (between 2 – 3 mm 45-50 18-20December and February). Ongrowing in race- 4 – 10 mm 43-45 18-23ways lasts between 12 and 24 months. The 10 – 12 mm 47-50 14-20majority of fish are sold locally as portion size May-June 2012 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 27
  8. 8. EXPERT T●PIC Farm Focus Behind the scenes at Bibury Trout Farm A working trout farm that is attracting new business from tourism by Kate Marriott, General Manager, Bibury Trout Farm, United Kingdom B ibury Trout Farm is one of Britain’s oldest, and country, approxi- certainly most attractive, trout farms. Founded in 1902 mately 80 tons. A by the famous naturalist Arthur Severn, the farm was small proportion (20 set up to stock the local rivers and streams with the tons) are sold to native brown trout. Today, it covers 15 acres in one of the most other trout farms to beautiful valleys in the Cotswolds, the Coln Valley. The Farm has supply the table mar- diversified over the years, and the leisure side of the business now ket and are sold to plays a very important part. local hotels, wholesal- ers and to the public Situated in through both the the heart of farm shop and farm- the beautiful vil- ers markets as fresh lage of Bibury, gutted trout, fillets the farm ben- or smoked trout, all efits from the smoked and pack- large number aged on the premises. "The Farm has diversified of tourists who On the farm visi- over the years, and visit the region. tors can learn about The crystal clear the rainbow and the leisure side of the waters of the brown trout while Bibury Spring they wander in the business now plays a provide the beautiful surround- very important part" essential pure ings. There is a chance to see grading in progress when the fish water required are selected for size and quality before being transported to new to run the homes in oxygenated water in specially made fibre glass tanks. hatchery which Information boards give a insight to what goes on in the hatch- spawns up to ery and fryary areas and staff are on hand to answer any questions. six million trout Feeding is done daily by staff and the water comes to life as the ova every year. fish vie for the last morsel. Up to a For the more adventurous, or the budding fisherman, Biburys third of the ova Catch Your Own Fishery is an ideal opportunity to catch your are sold to out- supper or get hooked on a new hobby. Open at weekends during lets throughout March - October, and during the local school holidays, we provide Britain and all the equipment and help if required. occasionally In addition to the farm, our recently refurbished fish shop Farm Focus abroad. The which now houses a wonderful range of wines, deli products, and remainder are preserves as well as quality breads, eggs, and milk. grown on and The Trout Farm is situated in the centre of the village of Bibury, sold to supply next to Arlington Mill. Bibury is between Cirencester and Burford angling waters in the United Kingdom throughout the Website: 28 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2012
  9. 9. EXPERT T●PICReady for peak season?Peak season is approaching – are youable to produce enough shrimp feed tomeet customer demand?PellTech® is a combined pellet binder and lubricatingaid that will increase your production rate and pelletdurability simultaneously, resulting in more pelletsand more quality!PellTech® enables higher shrimp feed throughput – itean increase of up to 30-40% is not uncommon. ur webs g Visit o pelltech.or . www For more information about PellTech, visit our website or contact: Sotero: +63 928 507 3217 Ramesh: +65 8428 6100 Improvement by nature Natural (hydrolyzed) proteins for aqua feed Whether you’re looking for a natural EU and USDA approved pellet binder for your production of stable pellets or nature’s best alternatives for fish meal, you can contact Sonac. Sonac produces valuable and essential ingredients for the production of aqua feed. • Pro-Bind Plus a nutritional, gelatin based pellet binder, especially for pelleted (shrimp) feed. • Gelko an ideal combination of hydrolyzed proteins and fat (68% protein, 18% fat). • MucoPro high content of hydrolyzed proteins, amino acids and peptides (>70% protein). • Hemoglobin Powder high protein content and good digestibility, for better feed conversion. May-June 2012 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 29
  10. 10. 7 EXPERT T●PIC (IBD) of chickens and X virus of Drosophila tally inoculated and re-isolated from zebra melanogaster. This birnavirus is single-shelled fish eggs (Brachydanio rerio).Some IPNV icosahedrons with characteristic isometric hex- cases have been reported in American and agonal profi les and has a diameter of about European eels (Anguilla anguilla). However, 60nm. The genome consists of two segment the infection in Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) of double-stranded RNA. Genome segment A has a greater economic impact. encoding two structural proteins (VP2 y VP3) In summary, the IPNV has been identified and a nonstructural protease, while segment B in a number of teleosts family fish: Anguillidae, encoding for a RNA polymerase. VP2 protein Atherinidae, Carangidae, Channidae, induces the production of specific-type neu- Cichlidae, Clupeidae, Cobitidae, Cyprinidae, tralizing monoclonal antibodies. It is thought Gadidae, Esocidae, Percichthyidae, Percidae, that VP2 contains all the epitopes recognized Pleuronectidae, Poeciliidae, Salmonidae, and by these antibodies. Sciaenidae. The serological classification scheme of Hill and Way recognizes nine different IPNV Transmission, carriers and vectors serovars into the serogroup A. Seven of Infected fish can transmit the virus by bothEmerging these serotypes have been identified in IPNV rainbow trout isolates. Serogroup B includes horizontal and vertical transmis- sion. These fish shed thedisease in a single serotype represented by the TV-1 archetype isolated from brown trout (Salmo virus by urine and faeces, con-Mexican trout trutta) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio). trib- Each serotype includes a number of strains that differ in virulence. This variation complicates the disease which isby Celene Salgado Miranda, Mexico State little understood.University, MexicoI nfectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is a disease caused by a birnavirus affecting several wild and commercial aquatic organisms. Salmonid species are themost affected, having an importantimpact in the salmon and troutculture due to a high rate mortalityof fry and fingerling. IPN diseaseis listed in the fish diseases ofthe International Health Code,World Organization for AnimalHealth (OIE). For this reason, anyIPN outbreak has to be reported. uting toThe epizootiological knowledge the horizontal trans-of the IPN is relevant for estab- mission. In breeding fish, itlishing preventive and control has been demonstrated that the IPNV isstrategies against both disease and vertically transmitted by viral adsorption tocausative agent. the surface of spermatozoids, or it can be Epizootiology present in the follicular fluid, but not in the Natural and experimental hosts Salmonids nonfertilized eggs.Distribution are the most susceptible species under natu- Bebak et al. experimentally determined the The IPN and the causative agent (IPNV) ral conditions. The brook trout (Salvelinus IPNV excretion patterns in rainbow trout fry.has been reported in several countries: fontinalis) is the most susceptible one to The time between challenge and excreting,Australia, Canada, Chile, Denmark, Scotland, lethal effects of IPNV, followed by rainbow and challenge and signs onset were evaluated.Spain, Finland, France, England, Italy, Japan, trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic The authors also estimated the rate ofNorway and Switzerland, among others. Based salmon (Salmo salar). Also, IPNV has been iso- susceptible-excreting fish into a populationon these reports, IPN is regarded as a world- lated from artic char (Salvelinus alpinus),brown from inoculated IPNV fry. It was demonstratedwide distributed disease. In Mexico, IPNV was trout (Salmo trutta) and lake trout (Salvelinus that IPNV-infected rainbow trout fry shed theidentified in 2001 from US-imported rainbow namaycush). virus two days post-inoculation, and the shed-trout fry. In a recent study, the IPNV was iso- The IPNV has been isolated from impor- ding is increased, and approximately decreasedlated from three rainbow trout breeding farms tant non-salmonid species in marine aqua- after 12 days post-inoculation. More than 75located at Mexico State, Mexico, regarded as culture: turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), percent of the rainbow trout population wasthe main producer of this fish species. sole (Solea senegalensis) and Atlantic hali- infected in less than a week from the beginning but (Hippoglossus hippoglossus).Also has of the viral shedding.Etiology been isolated from some fishs as pike (Esox In rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) it has been The causative agent of IPN is a virus belong- lucius), goldfish (Carasius auratus), discus fish observed birnavirus lesions associated withing to the Birnaviridae family. Other members (Symphysodon discus) and bream (Abramis an IPNV-like virus. It is likely that invertebrateof this family include infectious bursal disease brama), among others. IPNV was experimen- animals used as living-food for seabream and 30 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2012
  11. 11. EXPERT T●PICturbot larvae, could be involved in the viral devoid of food. Petechiae are observed degenerative changes, including acinar celltransmission. in some viscera. Sometimes, food residue areas, and zymogen granules freeing. Nuclear Similarly, it has been demonstrated that remains in the gut, the quantity is small and pyknosis of different sizes are observed. Inthe freshwater crayfish confined to the far distal or rectal portion. many cases, inflamatory cell infiltration is not (Astacus astacus) retains the virus in tissues Very often the body cavity may contain ascitic evident. In fish that suffered the disease up toand hemolymph, constantly shedding the virus fluid. The stomach and anterior intestine con- two years before the histology study, hyper-to the water. Halder and Ahne suggest that tains a clear to milky cohesive mucus, among trophy of Langerhans’ islets with abundantthese organisms are infected by the consump- other findings. fibrosis were found.tion of IPNV-infected trouts. Main lesions found at In cases of pancreatic lesions, also acute The following shellfish species are regard- the histopathology study enteritis featured by necrosis and sloughing ofed as reservoirs of the IPNV: mussels (Mytilus include: focal coagulat- the epithelium are observed. In the intestinalgalloprovincialis), oysters (Crassostrea gigas), ive necrosis in pan- lumen, catarrhal whitish exudate is associatedperiwinkles (Littorina littorea), and wild fish as creas, kidney and with the disease. Inclusion bodies are notsand eels (Ammodytes sp), sprat (Sprattus intestine. The observed in affected cells. In many cases,sprattus) and blue pancreatic tissue the renal tissue has small focal degenerative showed changes. In fish that were infected during early ages, abundant rounding up of epithelial cells with karyorhectic nuclei was found. This finding suggest that they can be viral replica- tion sites in carrier fish; however, it has not been confimed. ALLER AQUA - is not simply a fish feed. It is the care of your business with over 40 years of experience. It is worth to have a professional partner. Worldwide - ALLER AQUA whiting (Micromesistius poutasou), among others. IPNV has been also isolated from moist fish pellets and marine sediments. Wild piscivorous birds are regarded as vectors of the IPNV, which can be isolated from faeces samples. Signs The IPN is a typical disease in early agesof salmonids, causing up to 100 percent ofmortalit y in fi ngerlings and fi rst-feedingfry. An experimental study reported a meancumulative mortality ranging from 84 per-cent to 92 percent in challenged Atlanticsalmon fry. The fish mortality started sevendays post-challenge and peaked at 10-12days. Generally affected fish showed anorexiaand rotate about their long axis in a whirlingmotion with lapses of ataxia. In these fishdarkening occurs (hyperpigmentation). Mildto moderate exophthalmia and abdominaldistention are common. Also, gills are typi-cally pale and hemorrhages are sometimespresent in ventral areas, including the ventral Aller Aqua A/Sfins. Many emaciated fish trail long, thin, Allervej 130, Allerwhitish, cast-like excretions from the vent. DK-6070 Christiansfeld Tel. +45 7022 1910Macroscopic and Fax +45 3841 2059microscopic findings According to necropsy findings, spleen,heart, liver and kidneys of fry are abnormallypale and the digestive tract is almost always May-June 2012 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 31
  12. 12. EXPERT T●PIC fish, reduces the risk of infection. However, inactivated vaccines do not exist. TreatmentDiagnosis in Mexican trout farms, this condition is with formalin or ß-propiolactone for use in The procedure for IPN diagnosis, recom- not always possible. As mentioned above, vaccines, completely inactivated IPNV, butmended by the OIE, is based on the isolation Salgado-Miranda carried out the IPNV isola- caused a slight reduction in antigenicity upof IPNV in susceptible cell lines (Figure 1), and tion from three rainbow trout breeding farms to 50 percent . An active vaccine containingfurther identification by serological techniques located at Mexico State. an IPNV non-pathogenic strain, normal troutby immunofluorescent test, neutralization test Obtained results indicated a possible serum-sensitive, did not confer protection inand ELISA. horizontal transmission throughout the water experimental challenged fish. Diagnosis of clinical outbreaks is based supply from a farm where a previous IPN In Norway, both inactivated and recom-on histology and immunological ev idence outbreak in fry was recorded. In these cases, binant vaccines are widely used. The recom-of the IPNV in infected tissues. These cases treatment of supplied water could decrease binant vaccine, the first one licensed forare confirmed by the IPNV isolation and the risk of an IPN outbreak and other infec- using in fish, express the VP2 sequence inimmunological identification of the virus. Due tious agents. Liltved et al. experimentally Escherichia coli and induce specific IPNVto insufficient knowledge of the serological exposed live cultures of Aeromonas salmo- antibodies.responses of fish to IPNV infection, the detec- nicida subsp. salmonicida, Vibrio anguillarum, As it happens in other viral diseases, theretion of fish antibodies to IPNV has not been V. salmonicida, Yersinia ruckeri and IPNV to is no treatment for the IPN. Several antiviralaccepted by the OIE (2003) as routine tests. ozone or ultraviolet (UV) irradiation at nine°- compounds inhibits the in vitro replication in Detection of IPNV in cell lines is consist- 12°C. The four bacteria tested were inacti- cell culture; for example, ribavirin, pyrazofurinent and simple, particularly in cell lines from vated by 99.99 percent (fourlog reductions in and 5-ethynyl-1-ß-D-ribofuranosylimidazole-homologous species. It is due to: 1) the virus viable count) within 180 seconds at residual 4-carboxamide (EICAR),among other com-is present in high level titers in the tissues; 2) ozone concentrations of 0.15-0.20 mg/L. pounds. Research on EICAR as an antiviralviral isolation could be positive from non-dis- The IPNV was inactivated within 60 sec- compound showed good results in experi- onds at residual ozone concentrations of 0.10 mentally IPNV-infected rainbow trout. a 0.20 mg/L. The effect of the administration of lys- Similarly, the four bacteria tested were ozyme (KLP-602) in the feed of IPNV experi- inactivated by 99.9 percent (five log reduc- mentally infected rainbow trout, has been also tions in viable count) at a UV dose of 2.7 evaluated. Cumulative mortality was lower in m Ws/cm2 at room temperature. IPNV was fish fed on dietary treatment containing lys- much more resistant to UV irradiation than ozyme (30%), compared with untreated fish the bacteria. An average UV dose of 122 m (65%). Based on the significant increase of all Ws/cm2 was required for 99.9 percent (three the immunological parameters, these authors log) reduction in virus titer. However, it has to refer that the lyzozyme modulated the cel- be considered that ozone low residual levels lular and humoral defense mechanisms after (0.010 a 0.20 mg/L) have also caused mortali- suppression induced by IPNV. Also, a selected ties in trout recirculating systems. trout strain resistant to natural infection by A concentration of 40ppm available chlo- this virus has been reported. rine was required to experimentally inactivate As Håstein et al. pointed out, futureeased fish 3) viral isolation could be positive 10 TCID50 of IPN V/ml in 30 minutes. national and international aquaculture regula-from any viral phase; 4) two to three weeks Similarly, a concentration of 35ppm of active tions for the establishment of preventiveare required for isolation and identification iodine was required to completely inactivate and control strategies of infectious diseasesof the agent, which is not a critical issue for 10 TCID50 of IPNV/ml in the same time. include: adoption of standardized controlpresentation of a epizootic outbreak, and 5) Other studies, where several disinfectants methods, suitable infrastructures develop-high sensitivity and easy observable cytopathic were tested, 25ppm of iodine was required ment, and a deeper comprehension of theeffect. Cell lines used for the IPNV isola- to inactivate IPNV, infectious haematopoyetic epizootiology of aquatic organism diseases.tion include: RTG-2 (rainbow trout gonad), necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagicCHSE-214 (chinook salmon embryo) and septicemia (VHS). ConclusionBF-2 (bluegill fry). It is important to highlight that IHNV and IPNV is a birnavirus affecting mainly sal- Currently, some methods have been VHS are exotic infectious agents in Mexico. monid species, being the rainbow trout thedeveloped for detecting IPNV by reverse For controlling IPN in breeding farms, infected most susceptible species. In Mexico, isolationtranscriptase-polymerase chain reaction fish and its offspring (eggs, fingerling and fry) and identification of this infectious agent(RT-PCR) technique. However, sensitivity of have to be sacrificed. IPNV transmission by from rainbow trout was recently reported.this technique has not been greater than the fertilized eggs can occur in spite of iodine Neither a treatment nor totally effectivecell culture. Hence, viral isolation and sero- treatment. Propagation of IPNV-free stocks vaccines against this disease are available,logical confirmation of the virus are regarded monitored by viral isolation during several being the preventive and control measuresas the choice procedures for the IPNV years, has been a good strategy for the control of great importance. Introduction into farmsidentification. of IPN in breeding farms. of eggs, fish and water supply free of IPNV In areas where IPN is enzootic, it is recom- are the main preventive strategy. These alsoPrevention and control mended, during an outbreak, to decrease the constitute the most important risk factors in Current preventive methods are based on density of the affected population, reducing spreading of this disease.the onset of control and hygiene practices the impact on the total mortality. A studyduring rearing of salmonids, avoiding introduc- showed that interaction between fish density Acknowledgmentstion or importation of fertilized eggs or fish and number of infected fi sh, affected signifi The collaboration in structure design andfrom IPNV-infected breeding trouts. Also, cantly the mortality parameter. However, critical review of the manuscript by Dr. Edgardothe use of fish-free freshwater (for exam- there are some disagreements about it. Soriano Vargas, CIESA-FMVZ-UAEM, is greatlyple, spring water), particularly IPNV-carrier Up to date, highly effective IPNV- acknowledged. 32 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2012
  13. 13. 8 IDL-IAF.pdf 1 5/8/12 9:58 AM EXPERT T●PIC THE 7TH INDONESIA’S NO.1 LIVESTOCK, FEED, DAIRY AND FISHERIES INDUSTRY SHOW "Food Education Campaign" Hosted by Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture, Republic of Indonesia CStruggling extensively, by populating lakes and water sources. M Y Official Regional Publication Official Local PublicationDownstream? By the 1980s, there was a new effort to propel this activity through the construction CM MY of fish farms in various mountainous prov- Supporting PublicationsThe trout value chain in Peru inces of the country. However, raising trout CY did not take off as an economic activity and CMYby Jodie Keane with Alberto Lemma, the infrastructure that was constructed was Kbased on studies by Juana Kuramoto at left underused.GRADE, a member of the Consorcio deInvestigación Económica y Social (CIES), "The United States AgencyPeru. International Aid project for PovertyI n Peru, the United States Agency Reduction and Alleviation (PRA) International Aid (USAID) project for has been one of the pioneers of Poverty Reduction and Alleviation (PRA) has been one of the pioneers value chain interventions. The chainof value chain interventions. Under the for trout is one of the successful"PRA, value chains of distinct products havebeen fostered, ranging from agro-industrial In the 2000s, the Peruvian enterpriseproducts to artisanal goods and small manu- Piscifactoría Los Andes made important effortsfacturing, which have then gained placement to begin trout export to foreign international markets. These efforts complemented the PRA project, with the development of trout value chains The chain for trout is one of the successful initiated in Junín, Huancavelica and Puno.chains achieved by the PRA. Not only has itcombined the natural advantages of raising Linking producers to exporters www.sdticampaign.comthis fish in Peruvian territory, but also it has Although the initial investments requiredmanaged to consolidate access to foreign for trout production may be low, export Organised bymarkets through a national producer and of trout to international markets requirestrader, Piscifactoría Los Andes. a series of sanitary certifications, imposing Raising trout has a long history in a high cost on producers and traders. The PT. NAPINDO MEDIA ASHATAMA Jl. Kelapa Sawit XIV Blok M1 No.10, Billy & Moon,Peru. The species was introduced in the value chain for trout is divided into three Pondok Kelapa Jakarta 13450, Indonesia Tel: (62-21) 8644756/85 | Fax: (62-21) 8650963country in the 1930s, with the import of well-determined links: fry production, trout E-mail: info@indolivestock.comeggs and fry brought from the US. The production and marketing. These links definedevelopment of trout farming occurred the principal actors in the value chain. May-June 2012 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 33
  14. 14. EXPERT T●PIC One company in Peru accounts for the and overemphasis on the provision of basic majority of trout exports (90 percent as of training to the neglect of other activities. The 2006) and is the largest and oldest within low prices that are prevalent in the region, the industry in Peru. Piscifactoría Los Andes lack of credit, high levels of informality, lack recognised that it would need to increase of coordination of the actions of state organs production in order to begin exporting trout. and scant knowledge of marketing aspects of In 2000, the company decided to participate trout are the main obstacles to the develop- in the PRA project and initiated negotiations ment of this activity in Puno. with producer organization, SAIS. The com- pany would provide the necessary capital as Conclusions well as purchasing the fry and balanced food. This study showed that value chain inter- SAIS agreed to hand over its production to ventions should be utilized for programs the company once the trout had reached the whose main objective is to increase the optimal size and weight. The PRA financed the dynamism of economic activity in a specific contracting of several experts, who provided territory, as such programs are not necessarily technical assistance to SAIS. effective in alleviating poverty. Despite initial incompliance on the part of In general, value chain interventions are SAIS, the interaction allowed for Piscifactoría targeting foreign markets, which are subject "There are several Los Andes to increase production and sell to to quality certification and sanitary norms the export market. The agreement between that can present bottlenecks for small local lessons to be learnt SAIS and Los Andes was broken, but the producers. Moreover, coordinating the chain from this experience. coordination model must have appealed to the requires significant technical and financial company because it continued to participate capacity. In the examples discussed, such with the PRA in other regions. In fact, the assistance has been forthcoming from the company has signed an agreement with private PRA, but project objectives have not always First, coordination company California’s Garden de Oxapampa been achieved. agreements need to be within the framework of a PRA project. It is important not only to provide technical assistance, but also to offer access to finance and put in place to facilitate The experience of Acoria to facilitate institutional development. Sensitisation In this case, the coordination was between programs are recommended in order to promote investments in public the formalization of producers and membership the Municipality of Acoria and the Losinfrastructure; management Andes company. The agreement continues in associations, and to engender confidence and to present day. In 2003, initial production respect in the agreements. could be realised by a reached 12 metric tones of trout per year Poverty alleviation programs should be and production is expected to reach 72 designed mainly to elevate basic poverty municipal company or metric tones in 2008. In 2007, the municipal indicators, and not to coordinate with sophis- by a company under a enterprise attained financial self-sufficiency ticated markets. Poor producers generally and managed to generate employment for its manage a range of resources and activities franchise agreement. community members (including single moth- in order to support themselves, and often ers and widows). The Municipality of Acoria is consider focusing on a single economic activity contemplating initiating trout farming in other to be a high risk. Second, it is feasible to locations in its jurisdiction. In parallel with the promotion of value There are several lessons to be learnt from chains that coordinate with foreign markets, it replicate coordination this experience. First, coordination agreements is necessary to work on the formation of value need to be put in place to facilitate invest- chains that coordinate with regional markets models on a small scale, ments in public infrastructure; management and the domestic market, in order to prevent but it is still necessary could be realised by a municipal company or prices falling from excess supply. To this end, by a company under a franchise agreement. it is necessary to work on the formation of to include components Second, it is feasible to replicate coordination regional markets and the provision of public models on a small scale, but it is still necessary goods in the form of physical infrastructure of technical assistance to include components of technical assistance and market information systems. and financing. and financing. Third, expanding the level of The focus on demand promoted by the production of trout requires significant capital. PRA project should be supported by the The financial solvency of large producers and important activity of market intelligence. Only coordinators is vital. in this way will we be able to construct stable Third, expanding the level demand for local producers and ensure that of production of trout The experience of Puno market prices are adequate in order to gener- In Puno, there are different institutions ate sufficient utility to cover the risk that theyrequires significant capital. linked to trout farming, such as strong produc- face for their specialization. er associations like the Association of Trout The financial solvency Producers (APT), which are relatively active in More inforMation: of large producers and promoting technical assistance projects for the benefit of their associates. However, initiatives The full study is available in Spanish on the coordinators is vital" have not managed to coordinate the value COPLA website: chain strongly, owing to budget limitations 34 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | May-June 2012
  15. 15. TROUT EXPERT T●PIC INFO Australian Trout & Salmon Farmers Association Peruvian Aquaculture Company Mitch MacRae - Email: British Trout Association Turkey Central Fisheries Research Institute David Bassett - Email: Polish Trout Breeders Association Marcin Mikolajczak - Danish Aquaculture Association Brian Thomsen - Email: ... TILAPIA BE ILL WPhoto courtesy of ©Dave Bassett, Chief PIC pic Expert ToExecutive, British Trout Association will be thet 2012 issue of T EXPERT TO Talapia /Augus for the July al Aquafeed. Internation epting rrently acc We are cus for future articles suggestion s - so if would likethe and feature te please contact NEX u to contrib Editor, Alice Neal, Assoc iate .uk alicen@pe R OU May-June 2012 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 35
  16. 16. This digital re-print is part of the May | June 2012 edition of International LINKSAquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a fullonline magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features onthe docstoc website.Please click here to view our other publications on VO L U M E 1 5 I S S U E 3 2 0 1 2 • See the full issue • Visit the International Aquafeed website Transfering Vitamin C from fish to embryos Oxygenation technology – poised to transform aquaculture worldwide • Contact the International Aquafeed Team Ornamental fish and invertebrates for home aquaria Brewers’ yeast as a • Subscribe to International Aquafeed supplement in aquaculture THE INTERNATIONAL MAGAZINE FOR THE AQUACULTURE FEED INDUSTRYIAF12.03.indd 1 14/05/2012 18:05To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paperedition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the linkabove. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE