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  1. 1. July | August 2013 EXPERT TOPIC - CATFISH The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd.All rights reserved.No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058 INCORPORATING f ish farming technolog y
  2. 2. OUR OUTPUT COMES IN ALL SHAPES AND SIZES Insta-Pro’s new medium shear extruder answers the market’s demand for a low cost extrusion solution that effectively produces pet and fish feeds of high quality, equal to that of higher cost extrusion systems. Don’t pay more than you have to, to get the quality & quantity you need. Contact us at +515-254-1260 or visit us at to learn more. +515-254-1260 | | 2.0 mm floating fish feed dog food 14mm • Ease of operation • Low cost of production • Ability to make pellets of different shapes and a variety of sizes, down to 2mm • Thru capacities up to 1.5 TPH
  3. 3. 38 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | July-August 2013 EXPERT T●PIC Welcome to Expert Topic. Each issue will take an in-depth look at a particular species and how its feed is managed. CATFISH EXPERT TOPIC CHANNEL
  4. 4. World view In 2009, the total channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) production was 449,753 tonnes with a value of more than US$658 million annually (FAO). Of this, the USA and China contributed 215, 887 tonnes and 223,233 tonnes respectively. Although the USA and China are the principal channel catfish producers, several other countries have channel catfish aquacul- ture industries. Brazil produced almost 3,000 tonnes in 2009 and Mexico has consistently produced in the region of 1,500 tonnes a year. Costa Rica’s channel catfish industry start- ed in the twenty-first century producing 100 tonnes a year. However, this tailed off and by 2009, production had fallen to just 10 tonnes. One country where the channel catfish industry has grown rapidly is Cuba where production rose from 105 tonnes in 2000 to 6,031 tonnes in 2009. In addition to the central and south American countries, there is some interest in the species in eastern Europe. In Russia, channel catfish production increased from 65 tonnes in 200 to 145 tonnes in 2009. Bulgaria has reported statistics to the FAO since 2005, although the amount produced is not consistent. A high of 166 tonnes in 2005 was followed by 60 tonnes a year later. 1 USA Since commercial farming of channel cat- fish began in the middle of the twentieth century, the species has been popular with US consumers. By 2010, channel catfish had cemented itself as a favourite on the nation's plates becoming the sixth most consumed fish or seafood in the USA, behind shrimp, tuna, salmon, tilapia and pollack. As input costs have risen, farmers have struggled to make catfish farming profitable and in recent years, the number of facilities has decreased. Acreage fell by 50 percent between 2001-2011. In 2012 there were 718 facilities, a drop of 191 from the previous year. This meant that the total acreage area also declined from almost 100,000 acres in 2011 to 89,400 acres in 2012 (National Ag Statistics Service 2012). Despite this fall in farms, total sales have been on the rise, amounting to US$341 million in 2012, a 20 percent increase from the previous year. Four states, Mississippi, Alabama, Arkansas and Texas, made up 95 percent of total United States sales (National Ag Statistics Service 2013). 2 China Channel catfish aquaculture in China began in 1984 with fish imported from the USA. The fish was successfully reproduced in 1987 and pond culture started a year later. Current annual processing of chan- nel catfish production in China is between 150,000 to 200,000 tons according to report by Cai Yanzhi (Hubei Province Aquatic Products Scientific Research Institute) and Xiao Youhong (National Fishery Technical Extension Station). From 2000, exports began to the USA. However, in 2007, the US food safety watchdog, the FDA, temporally halted catfish imports from China after traces of antibiotics banned in the USA were found in tested samples. Cai and Xiao argue that Chinese catfish is well poised to take advantage of falling US production, both to established catfish importers and the US itself. However, the report claims Chinese catfish exporters face huge challenges including a lack of standardisation on farms and processing facilities and strict food safety laws, particu- larly in the USA. July-August 2013 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | 39 EXPERT T●PIC 2 1 3
  5. 5. Early history of the U.S. farm- raised catfish industry - 1914-1973 by Jim Steeby, PhD, associate professor emeritus, Mississippi State University, USA A s early as 1914 a researcher by the name of A F Shira spawned adult channel catfish by placing them in a small pond at the U.S. Bureau Fisheries Station in Fairport, Iowa. The fish were provided with cheese and minnows as forage during the experiment. By 1916, Shira had placed nail kegs in the ponds with the brood fish to provide them with semi natural spawning cavities. Of course in the wild, most catfish species lay their egg mass in hollow logs or tunnels left by muskrats and beavers that are flooded. Catfish eggs and fry were found in the nail kegs confirming their use by the brooders. He also noted that catfish would readily consume a variety of feedstuffs. Several state and federal fish hatcheries worked with spawning and growing catfish over the next ten years. Catfish in Kansas By 1929 a biologist named Alvin Clapp at the Kansas State Hatchery at Pratt Kansas with his facility manager, Seth Way, completed the modern catfish hatchery system we know today. As demonstrated by Dose in 1925 at this same facility, they placed sexed adult catfish in ponds with nail kegs for spawning. They removed the egg masses from the kegs to an indoor hatchery with troughs and flowing water. The egg masses were placed in wire mesh baskets suspended in troughs for hatching and provided rotating paddles first powered by water and later by electric motors. By 1930, the propagation catfish was easily accomplished and crude feeds had been suc- cessfully used to provide them with nutrition. In 1946, the first commercial catfish farm of record was started in Kingman, Kansas by W E ‘Bus’ Hartley. It should be noted that Kingman is not far from the Kansas Fish Hatchery in Pratt were a great deal of the early work was completed. Indeed, Seth Way near the end of his career retired from the Pratt Hatchery and partnered with Hartley. The photo shows Hartley and Way standing near their ponds in Kingman, Kansas. Hartley saw the increas- ing demand for catfish to stock into private ponds as hobby fishing was on the rise. While Hartley grew minnows as well as bass and bluegill, by the early 1950s catfish was over half his annual production. Working with local 3 Billy McKinney 40 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | July-August 2013 EXPERT T●PIC
  6. 6. feed mills he created one of the early dry feed pellet diets for catfish. Some of the early work on catfish diets was carried out in Kansas by Dr Otto W Tiemeier at Kansas State University. In 1974 Hartley was selected as Catfish Farmer of the Year at the annual convention in Memphis, Tennessee. By this time he had been fish farming for 30 years and had over 100 ponds and 290 acres under water. He hatched, grew and processed his own fish. He served on the board of directors for the Catfish Farmers of America from its founding. Indeed, Kingman was noted as the ‘catfish capital’ of Kansas by those around the area. Central Kansas, from Pratt to Kingman, could be con- sidered the cradle of the farm-raised catfish industry. Developments in Arkansas The nursery of the farm-raised catfish industry was Arkansas. Here minnow farm- ing had been in large practice since the late 1930s and early 1940s. Growing baitfish and bass and bluegill gave these farmers a hand and it could be said a wadder-up on the transport, handling and husbandry of fish. Among those starting early and standing out was Eagar Farmer of Dumus, Arkansas. Buffalo fish (Ictiobus sp.) was an early meat fish grown by Arkansas fish farmers. It was hardy and had a ready market that continues until today. As catfish became more popular and prof- itable the switch from buffalo fish was rapid. In 1973, when he was selected as catfish farmer of the year at the annual Catfish Farmers of America Convention in New Orleans, LA, Eagar Farmer had over 1,000 acres of catfish Tom Reed, F B. Janous and Leroy Reed July-August 2013 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | 41 EXPERT T●PIC several millimeters to less than 0.001 micron. Fine filtration systems, such as microscreen drum filters which are already commonly used in aquaculture, typically require much larger filter screens and/or higher pressures to operate effectively than a screen with larger openings. Centrifuges and hydro clones Centrifuges and hydro clones are growing in popularity as they cross from domestic use into commercial use. Cylindrical in shape, the mechanism rotates the central chamber very rapidly, forcing waste particles that are denser than the water to the sides of the cylinder. A layer of water from the outer rim is then taken out, which removes most of the particles with it, leaving the clean water in the centre to be put back into the aquaculture system. Bruce Atkinson, aquaculture design and sales manager, Aquasonic, Australia, says cen- trifugal solutions such as Waterco’s new range of MultiCyclone filters can allow you to increase stocking rates. “The link between feed rates and MultiCyclones is fairly obvious for fish culture systems,” says Atkinson. “With the addition of the MultiCyclone, more efficient mechani- cal filtration takes place and hence greater volumes of feed can be introduced without system fouling caused by organic deposition and bacterial proliferation. “This means stocking rates can be increased, with subsequent improved pro- duction. MultiCyclones in fish culture systems are best deployed on the system return pump prior to, say, bag or cartridge polishing filters on the way back to the fish tank. ” Sand or bead filters Sand or bead filters can be either fixed bed and particle bed filters that con- sist of a box filled with sand or another particulate material. To achieve fine par- ticle filtration, the filter medium should be very fine grain and may also need to be pressurised. Water passes through the fixed bed either in a downward direction or and upward direction (down flow and up flow), and waste particles are removed by the sand/beads. The size of particles removed depends on the size of the filter medium, flow rate and waste characteris- tics. A sand/bead filter may need frequent backwashing if waste is very concentrated. Floatation or foam fractionation Floatation or foam fractionation is a form of chemical filtration; this type of filtration is able to retrieve very fine particles from an aquaculture sys- tem, and is consequently already Waterco’s commercial MultiCyclone July-August 2013 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | 19 FEATURE International Aquafeed has teamed up with to offer our readers a 15% discount The world’s finest brass-based fishing lures manufactured by hand in New Zealand Your order will be processed and dispatched from our production unit within 24 hours Even fi sh farmers like fi shing! A & AJ Gilbert Fishing Tackle, New Zealand REF: IAF303-PPL Place your order today at Die and roll re-working machines O&J Højtryk A/S Ørnevej 1, DK-6705 Esbjerg Ø CVR.: 73 66 86 11 Phone: +45 75 14 22 55 Fax: +45 82 28 91 41 mail:
  7. 7. production. He was also one of the founders of a catfish processing cooperative in Dumas and a long time board member for Catfish Farmers of America. Arkansas fish farmers relied heavily on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Fish Station at Stuttgart, Arkansas directed by Kermit Sneed, and the Marine Fisheries Service Gear Technology Station at Kelso, Arkansas direct- ed by Donald Greenland, for new information and technical advice. Early Stuttgart staff included a full range of experts: Mayo Martin (extension), Walt Hastings (nutrition), Dewey Tackett (chemist), and Fred Meyer (disease diagnostics). Alabama In the 1960s as Arkansas was switching to catfish, Alabama began to play a role in the early phases of university research and processing. At Auburn, Dr Homer Swingle had been constructing farm ponds and investigat- ing their use begin- ning in 1940. His early work with the science of rec- reational pond management left Auburn in place to train a growing number of students and easily move to catfish and many other species. He began nutrition work on catfish as early as 1950. The Federal hatchery in Marion, Alabama began under the direction of Jack Snow (an Auburn graduate) in 1950, and was a great source of help to fish farmers. Early commercial pioneers in Alabama beginning from around 1960 include Richard True, Check Stephens and Joe Glover. They used the information published by Kermit Sneed and Howard Clemens to artificially induce spawning of channel catfish using hormones on a commercial basis. They insti- tuted the first recorded use of a commercial skinning machine to remove the skin of catfish. Previously it was done by hand with gripping pliers. True and Glover moved to Mississippi in the early 1970s as the industry was rapidly shifting to the delta. They both worked many years in large scale commercial processing. They were also instrumental in starting the Catfish Marketing Association in 1972. This early promotion of the industry paid for by processors, appeared at food shows and national restaurant association meetings and was likely critical to the industry growth that would follow in the 1970s and 1980s. Those remaining in Alabama farming for many years were William Easterling, Dan Butterfield, David Pearce, and Thad Spree. The catfish industry comes of age in Mississippi The catfish industry grew up and came of age in Mississippi. With its warm climate and vast land acres of heavy clay soil and abundant ground water it was the fertile place where resources were nearly unlimited. Here large farms with land forming equipment could quickly construct ponds and have wells installed. Billy McKinney and his partner, Raymond Brown were the first farmers of record (1965) to construct a pond to produce a large crop of catfish, 10,000 pounds, that when har- vested had to be transported some 600 miles to central Kansas to be processed and sold. In the next year he would partner with other farmers, including Tom Reed, Leroy Reed, and B F Janous, John Peaster, T R Coleman, Melvin and W F Anderson among others to form a local processing plant in Morgan City, 42 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | July-August 2013 EXPERT T●PIC
  8. 8. MS. They opened a catfish restaurant nearby shortly after in 1967. In the mid 1960s Bobby Thompson and W F ‘Skinner’ Anderson teamed up to grow hatch and grow fingerlings for the rapid- ly expanding industry. By 1970 the catfish industry was well established in Mississippi, Arkansas and Alabama. In 1974, dissatisfied with the quality and price of commercial catfish feed several grow- ers, including Tom Reed III, organised a grow- er-owned feed mill near Belzoni, Mississippi. This producers’ feed mill would serve the industry as a major source of feed for the next 20 years. The expanding industry in Mississippi began to experience fish health and water quality problems on a large scale. With advice and input from county agent Tommy Taylor and growers, Mississippi State University initiated disease diagnostic, extension and research services to catfish farmers under Leader Dr Tom Wellborn from 1971-1987. Spreading throughout the USA Between 1960 and 1970, the U.S. farm- raised catfish industry went from 600 acres to 40,000 acres. In 1970 Catfish farms were found in Texas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Arkansas, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Georgia and Kansas. The stage was now set for growth and growing pains for the next 30 years to come. By 1999, the industry had expanded to over four times the water acres in 1970 with Mississippi alone having over 100,000 water acres of ponds. Thousands of people would be involved with feed manufacture, feeding, harvesting, processing, research and extension phases of the expanding industry. Expansion of the U.S. Farm-Raised Catfish industry for the next 30 years and the decline from 2002 to present day are two more stories for another time. Here we celebrate those early pioneers that worked with many unknowns and set the course for most of us that followed. It should be noted here that the State Fish Hatchery at Pratt, Kansas is still in operation and the Hartley Fish Hatchery at Kingman is still operated by ‘Bus’ Hartley’s sons, Bill and Jerry. The Pratt museum July-August 2013 | InternAtIonAl AquAFeed | 43 EXPERT T●PIC Providing proficient tools to achieve cost-effective and sustainable aquaculture practices Central Office and Orders Jesús Aprendiz, 19. 1º A-B 28007 Madrid T. +34 915 014 041 Aqua Range AQUANOX SPANISH LANGUAGE EDITION EDICION ESPANOLA within all treatments concerning, ients utilization parameters may differences in sexes, metabolism, esponses and sexual behaviours this stage of life. ss composition chemical analysis of the whole niloticus body at the start and at the is in ese ted ere ≤ ses EC the oup red ary of T4), ent sed ≤ T2 and ver, end in the EE not T1 with and as with , of these results ash content increased significantly in T3 and T4 compared with T2 and the control T1. Generally, proximate chemical analysis of the whole fish body at the start, revealed higher DM, EE and EC than in the end of the experiment, but CP and ash were lower at the start than at the end of the experiment. Female Adult female O. niloticus fed the 5 g Hydroyeast Aquaculture®/kg diet (T6) table 9: effects of Hydroyeast aquaculture® probiotic on carcass composition of adult female O. niloticus % on dry matter basis treat. DM CP ee ash eC at the start of the experiment 24.3 59.2 23.6 17.1 557.5 at the start of the experiment t5 20.9b 53.9c 26.8a 19.1a 557.7b t6 22.4a 60.2a 24.1b 15.7b 566.9a t7 17.1d 55.7b 25.7a 18.5a 557.6b t8 18.4c 55.6bc 25.7a 18.6a 559.9b ± Se 0.09 0.50 0.44 0.29 2.54 P- value 0.0001 0.0001 0.015 0.0001 0.070 Means in the same column having different small letters are significantly differ (P ≤ 0.05). DM: Dry matter (%); CP: Crude protein (%); EE: Ether extract (%); EC: Energy content (Kcal/100 g), calculated according to NRC (1993); SE: Standard Error C 5.1 0.4a 2.9b 1.8c .5bc 21 001 cantly Ether g to FOCUS | PROBIOTICS gets fish into shape Reduces deformities in larvae and fry LARVIVA ProStart™ is the first early weaning diet with a unique probiotic approved by the European Food Safety Authorities for its documented effect in reducing the occurrence of vertebral deformities in fish larvae and fry.
  9. 9. LINKS • See the full issue • Visit the International Aquafeed website • Contact the International Aquafeed Team • Subscribe to International Aquafeed Maintaining ingredient quality in extruded feeds Fine particle filtration in aquaculture Effect of probiotic, Hydroyeast Aquaculture – as growth promoter for adult Nile tilapia Volume 16 Issue 4 2013 - JulY | August INCORPORATING fIsh fARmING TeChNOlOGy EXPERT TOPIC – channel catfish This digital re-print is part of the July | August 2013 edition of International Aquafeed magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. Please click here to view our other publications on To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link above. INFORMATION FOR ADVERTISERS - CLICK HERE