BioMarine Conference Report


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The venue for this special event was Fishmongers Hall, London Bridge, London – a historical site in terms of what was to be discussed and highlighted, where the industries involved had come from to where they were headed to, all connected through BioMarine. The Hall, sitting alongside the River Thames, dates back to Neolithic times with the British Museum having a decorated bowl (3300–2700 BC), found in the river.

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BioMarine Conference Report

  1. 1. I N C O R P O R AT I N G f i s h far m ing t e c h no l og y January | February 2013 BioMarine Conference Report International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry
  2. 2. Conference Report 24 -25 October 2012 Fishmongers Hall, London including reviews of United Kingdom Think Tanks from the event www.biomarine.orgB ioMarine is an international platform dedicated to for international trade. The river has been recorded with the safe, environmentally-friendly development of more than 100 fish species in the estuary over the past 30 products from marine bioresources including all years, many of these are within the stretch of water through those to do with aquaculture. London. Fishmongers’ Hall sits at 1 London Bridge, where the river Because of its importance in the development of a more stretches to a width of 265 meters, it is the home of The professionally-run and consumer-aware aquaculture indus- Worshipful Company of Fishmongers, one of the 108 Livery try, International Aquafeed co-hosted the 2012 BioMarine Companies of the City of London. Being a guild of the sellers Business Convention, held in London from October 24-25 of fish and seafood in the city, the company ranks fourth in last year. It attracted some 150 delegates and participants and the order of precedence of Livery Companies, making it one was supported by the following companies: Novus, Olmix, of the Great 12 City Livery Companies. Pronova Biopharma, Sofiproteol and Marine Genomics 4 Originally built in 1310, the Hall has had a checkered past. Users. A new hall, on the present site, was bequeathed to the IAF is proud to carry a full report from the event’s unique company in 1434. Together with 43 other company halls, this Think Tanks that dealt with issues confronting the various sec- one was destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666 and tors under the BioMarine umbrella in this issue. They covered a replacement hall designed by the architect Edward Jerman six in total including: Algae in Aquafeeds; Marine Biotech for opened in 1671. Jermans Hall was taken down when the Health; Nutraceuticals; Aquaculture; Marine Biotech for the new London Bridge was constructed in 1827. Environment and Marine Micro-algae and Nutrition. Each The next hall, opened in 1834, was designed by Henry forum gave participants, mostly senior personnel and industry Roberts although his assistant Gilbert Scott made the leaders, the opportunity to express their opinions and sug- drawings for the new building and built by William Cubitt gestions on how the biomarine sector might identify and & Company. After severe bomb damage during the Blitz, overcome obstacles that that confronted its development in Fishmongers Hall was restored by Austen Hall and reopened a sustainable and environmentally-friendly manner. in 1951. More from this event will be published as we go through The Hall contains many treasures, including: the dagger the year in the form of interviews, news reports and follow- with which Lord Mayor Walworth killed Wat Tyler in 1381; up action. Many of the issues raised will be picked up by the Pietro Annigonis first portrait of Her Majesty The Queen; a 4th BioMarine Business Convention – which is expected collection of 17th- and 18th-century silver; an embroidered to attract over 800 participants – when it is held in North 15th-century funeral pall; two portraits by George Romney America from September 9-12, 2013 (at the Halifax World and river scenes by Samuel Scott. Trade and Convention Centre in Halifax, Nova Scotia, A memorable and appropriate venue from which to host Canada). such a forward thinking meeting, representing a number of key industries from a wide variety of sectors, all which have an The Venue interest in safeguarding the future of our biomarine resources. Professor Simon Davies, Editor of the International Aquafeed magazine, secured the venue for the BioMarine 2012 event at Fishmongers’ Hall in the heart of London – a historical site in terms of what was discussed and highlighted – from which many of the industries attending had first evolved. The Hall, sitting alongside the River Thames, dates back to Neolithic times with the British Museum having a decorated bowl (3300–2700 BC), found in the river. The river has supported human activity from its source to its mouth for thousands of years providing habitation, waterpower, food and drink and acted as a major highway
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  4. 4. FEATUREThink Tank 1 on: Algae and aquafeedmacro algae valorization– from the sea to aquaculture marketsThink Tank 1 on algae and aquafeed set about establishing four critical action points that will assist in the ongoing exploitation of algae products for use in aquaculture diets. The report covers all the key points raised in the discussion.Moderators SponsorRoy Palmer, Seafood Experience Australia Ltd (SEA), Olmix, FranceAustraliaProfessor Simon Davies, IAF and Plymouth University, Note TakingUK Dan Leeming, PhD student, Plymouth University, UKT he incorporation of algae into the proportion of these can even be affected functional feed additive? The solutions to aquafeed has come in and out of by the growing conditions. this depends on: fashion over the past few decades Algae (both macro and micro) are excel- • Large-scale production; required if used so the aim of the session was lent sources of Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Folic for both lipid and proteinto discuss all aspects of this growing and Acid, Antioxidants and Carotenoids. • Nutritional space in the diet; low protein/not well-understood industry and to agree Extracts from seaweed, in a similar lipid content may result in insufficient on four critical areas which will enhance fashion to terrestrial plant extracts, have space in the feed formulationimprovement into the future. been shown to have a wide range of • Cost; if its more expensive that other biological activities. The two major classes feed additives it needs to differentiate It became clear during the discussions of of molecules in seaweeds that have the itself from other productsthe vast differences on this subject between most potential as functional food ingredi- Comments made by participants in the EU/West where majority is wild harvest and ents are polysaccharides and polypheno- various breakout groups included:used as hydrocolloids whereas in Asia the lics. Polyphenolics have proven antioxidant • In the EU “the biggest market for macro majority is farmed and used for food/feed. activity, and have been successfully incorpo- algae is hydrocolloids“. Whilst that The need to concentrate in this Think- rated into drinks and other food consuma- industry produces many co-products Tank on macro as against micro was also bles. Seaweed polysaccharides are unique, that have the potential for aquafeed established however there was a complete abundant, and cost effectively isolated but inclusion it does not do that. Whereas understanding that both were immensely need to be partially hydrolyzed for inclu- “in Asia algae is not a new product, important and commonalities can be found sion in various foods due to their gelling they are ahead of the West in utilising properties. Seaweed algae”. Algae is used, and advertised polysaccharides have widely, in everything from foods and been shown to have beverages to body lotions and face heparin-like anticoagu- packs lation activity, antiviral, • Currently production seems untargeted. immune-enhancing More information on digestible protein and anti-cancer activi- levels and lipid/Omega-3 data needs to ties, cholesterol lower- be promoted ing activity, lipid lower- • It was suggested to select optimal strains ing effects, and blood and then refine processes for them pressure-lowering benefits amongst many Questions of functionality were raised: other things. • Adding flavour; a lot of work needs doing to make sure the end product is the right flavour Objectives and • Functionality will be different for each discussion points fish species; therefore, which are the The big question main species to target?between the two. Compared to other types asked was “Can macro algae replace • Many products could provide functional-of aquaculture, the production of seaweed fishmeal and fish oil in aqua-feeds?” ity in the diet of salmonids. There is (macro algae) is only surpassed by freshwater Other issues were centered on global still space in the market for functional fishes and represents over 30 per cent of the issues of regulations, space availability, indus- ingredients in tropical speciesworld wide industry. try activities, sharing of knowledge, wastage, • “We need industry to lead and tell Unicellular algae is a heterogeneous prod- etc. academics what they need from the uct; a mix of proteins, carbohydrates and lip- Where do we position algae in the products” and this should include the ids. In unicellular algae there is much variation feed industry? Is it a fishmeal replace- price of the product and how it relates in composition between species/strains and ment? Is it a fish oil replacement? Is it a to the price of other commodities" 30 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013
  5. 5. FEATURE Aqua News Other comments knowledge and “promote the sea, which is the • Lack of global algae federation or regu- • How will the development and possible greatest field on the planet.” (Olmix) lating body future acceptance of GMO terrestrial prod- 1. Currently an un-holistic approach in • Protect technology – patents/IP ucts affect need for macro algal products? western processing • New products need to be proposed as Offshore mariculture industry • It was agreed that a big issue was to work out how to process the base 2. Driver for the future 3. Asian approach 100 percent food with ‘sea vegetable extracts’ or the legislation involved in developing a new food looks to high seas opportunities product to be left with something usable production almost all farmed source would be a major hindrance. • We need to use low molecular weight 4. Outside Asia 90 percent for hydrocol- • Environmental legislation issues with molecules. If too high molecular weight mol- loids with production centered on wild open water culturing and harvesting. ecules are used the product is unpalatable harvest creating 35-50 percent waste T • Nutrition is the best market for encourage these develop- ulture and offshore energy projects advances in net pens and service he offshore aquaculture to 5. Plan for integrated processing cycle antioxidants y has requested ments.” industr such as wind farms, and the prospects vessels for exposed Norwegian • The issue with production was raised: conference heard strategy and need for macroalgae culture in salmon farm sites were presented that United Nations’ FAO The 3. Marketing keynote Companies attending the conduct exception of of the presentations from Alessandro offshore locations. with the an assessment Ascophyllum Assembling market knowledge and infor- Think Tank included: of AquaCulture by Finn Willumsen mation on a global website On the second day of the con- Engineering AS, and Mats Heide of access and can be harvested) Lovatelli, FAO Aquaculture Officer; to promote and spp. (which operational frame- only ADM - Alltech - Algae Link - Algopack - the gathering of ‘wash ups’ is allowed. Holthus of World Ocean ference, a number of presen- SINTEF Fisheries and Aquaculture, works for open ocean maricul- Paul assist the industry internationally to foster best A-Spark Good Ventures - BioMar - Cargill The in the High of land-based tank and Harald Rosenthal who tations highlighted engineering respectively. ture possibility Seas, and make Council; practices and build capabilities in this area. - CyberColloids - European Aquaculture production was raised, but only viable Chaired the Bremerhaven improvements to offshore net pen recommendations as to how to had Training and education actions needed to On the final day, conference Society - EWOS Innovation - Fermentalg better encourage work towards Conference. Each spoke of the systems, including dramatic video attendees were give a first-hand look for certain species. Offshore produc- improve internal and external knowledge and - Financonsult - FMC BioPolymer - INVE mariculture in waters beyond any opportunity and the imperative for footage of sharks trying in vain to at the booming Turkish aquaculture tion requires overcoming engineering understanding and development. aquaculture - Invivo-NSA - Marelife - challenges. In EEZs. A statement been • Understand the product and define, Novozymes A/S - Novus International - one nation’s Norway there has aquaculture’s rights and responsibil- break through Dyneema’s Pred-X, industry, as they were hosted on a to this effect was drafted at The ities document and validate all claims be they Olmix Group -Plymouth Marine Laboratory work carried out for the past 60 years to be better defined in ABNJ. and AKVA’s Econet / Kikkonet, tour of fish processing facilities; a boat Offshore Mariculture Conference, Mr in science, how many along with data - Plymouth University - Polytechnic Institute in collaboration with the authorities Holthus described private research, regulations, demonstrating trip out to exposed farm sites for of Leiria - Prince Edward Island BioAlliance certification (standards the antifouling properties of brass seabass, seabream and tuna; and a held in Izmir, Turkey, over three international conventions and agree- - food safety, that allows harvesting of other species - Scripps Institution of Oceanography • A goal of the EU dossier 2012 ments regarding ABNJ are either alloy meshes days from October 17-19, technology environmental, sustainable, welfare, etc) walk-through of marine fish hatchery UCSD - Setubio - Seventure Partners - innovation Turkish government already established, or are under dis- and define cli- included reviews of facilities in the Izmir area. and the platform, was to investigate • Understand the market The day also Shannon Applied Biotechnology Centre multi-trophic aquaculture, i.e. planting without any real consider- new developments in single-point offered to formally convey the cussion, ents, market and competition The dates and venue for the 2014 - Skretting ARC - Sofiproteol - SPF-Diana algal beds around seafarm sites. Issues of the potential for aquacul- mooring systems for self-submerging Offshore Mariculture Conference request to FAO. ation • Survey, explain WIFM and other benefits Aquativ - Tanergy Ltd. - Technopole raised with this were that the dispersion and with minimal consultation surface pens and for shrimp culture will be released shortly. The statement adopted at the ture, and get feedback Maritime du Québec - Thalocea - Varicon conclusion of the conference drew with industry. of nutrients in the water column was in Aquapods, tension leg cages and • Marketing plan should include brand, Aqua Solutions and Xanthella very rapid (within a few metres) and from a number of preceding decla- The conference was officially testing of more robust surface pens More InforMatIon: logo, product statements, communica- Dr Durali Kocak, the and unanchored ‘drifter cages’. New that it is also very site specific, not opened by tion/PR strategy and team organisation rations – including the 2010 Global all Conference on Aquaculture, the Director-General of Fisheries sites would be suitable • Define and Phuket Consensus of 2010, and the and Aquaculture at the Turkish educate your mar-Outcomes and recommendations Colombo Declaration of 2011, all of Ministry of keting Agriculture Food, team and which have emphasised the critical and Livestock, who described beyond1. Functional feed in feeding the how the Turkish government role for aquaculture properties • Continuous world, stimulating economic devel- pos- prioritised aquaculture Construct a benefit:cost analysis (and had improvement sibly opment, providing employment development. The industry in environmental analysis) that highlights process of review the benefits of macro algae and compare is expanding at a phe- and reducing existing negative Turkey essentialwith impacts on the marine environment. nomenal rate, as it indeed must, competitive ingredients to promote the importance of the industry. Build a template on 4. Legislation/ Most recently, the Bremerhaven to meet the growing demand, Declaration of 2012 spoke spe- but Regulationthe uses and benefits of macro algae to ensure care is being taken to it is seen and understood. Bring the industry that such growth is cifically of the need for increased ensure Structure the VIV Russia 2013 research, development, investment within the sea’s ecological limits, closer together to ensure they share and build industry around an May 21-23, 2013 | Moscow, Russiacooperation. Areas of concern included: he said. international organi- and policy frameworks for open ocean aquaculture. • Revised definition O t h esation that could fos- r p r e s e n t a t i o n s – Bioactive characteristics/supra-nutritional explored a range emergence ter the of planning Deeper, and further offshore and management tools that are • Protein hydrolyzates of best practices, • Essential fatty acids “There is growing interest from being set up around the world improve internation- the private sector in exploring the to better regulatory aspect, • High value molecules al integrate aquacul- potential for aquaculture in waters ture into coastal planning initi- – Antioxidants help IP protection – Pigments increasingly deeper, and atives. New species develop- that are and work globally further offshore” says conference ment, provision of seed (fish • Prebiotics on environmental REGISTER NOW chairman, Neil Anthony Sims, of fingerlings or bivalve spat) • Trace elements conflicts to assist for FREE entrance at • End product quality “Given that and feed developments and Kampachi Farms, LLC. development for many nations – such as those in offshore mariculture were also possible certification. 2. Capacity the Mediterranean – still only reviewed. This organisation will exert case studies that highlight benefits Michael Ebeling, of the Create national authority as far as of also foster innova- Special themes Opening the gates to the 12 miles offshore, then there is Wegner Institute in Germany, holistic approach to build capacity and minimise tive approaches and Russian Feed to Meat trade.wastage in industry, which about what and Dr Amir the funding, a looming question will show the way help Neori of the forward in terms of best practice. Promote new Oceanographic Institute happens in the ‘Areas Beyond Israeli prioritising research, National Jurisdiction’ (ABNJ). We (together with Gamze Turan of technologies in processing and connect harvesters communication and with end users to ensure maximisation of chain. University) spoke on new need to start to address this in Ege nurturing of the Build anticipation of, and in order potential to co-locate aquac- education platforms based on increased techniques. January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 31 7 January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed |
  6. 6. FEATUREThink Tank 2 Marine biotechnology and healthThink Tank 2 focused on Marine biotechnology and health. It was led by Meredith Lloyd-Evans, an independent bioscience innova-tion consultant who is currently manager of the CSA MarineBiotech, an EU-funded project preparing the way for an ERA-NET in Marine Biotechnology and a partner for communication and IP matters in PharmaSea, an EU FP7 project focused on streamlining delivery of new marine natural products to end-user companies. The co-moderator was Dr Johanna Wesnigk of EMPA. Moderator Note taker:Meredith Lloyd-Evans, Managing Director Biobridge Ltd, UK Mark Rawling, PhD student at Plymouth University, UKSponsorMarine Genomics 4 UsersB io-discovery from marine microbes, invertebrates, microalgae and Three attendees offered their experiences and views on what were bottlenecks and macroalgae is not a simple matter. challenges for the future on biotechnology for health: The BioMarine ‘Think Tank for health’ emphasised the importance of joining Russell Kerrup the value chain, by creating clusters Russell Kerr , Nautilus Biosciences Canada,focuses on cosmeceutical and nutraceutical and public-private partnerships, improving uses of marine bioproducts because these are easier to get to market. When the company and streamlining knowledge and technology has sufficient resources, attention may turn to pharmaceuticals. transfer and integrating smaller players much He pointed out that even though maybe 20,000 new MNPs had been discovered over better into the commercial and investment the past 40 years, only four had made it into clinical use as pharmaceuticals. He challenged communities they are targeting. attendees to explain why success rates were so low and what, if anything, could be done. One factor impeding progress is that each company in this area had its own culture col- The global market for products from lection and its own screens. The implication is that collaboration might help move the whole marine biotechnology is forecast to reach sector forward, though IP issues can pose problems. However, one benefit has been that the over US$4 billion by 2015. But a successful high cost of initial screening has stimulated development of better-targeted receptor screens.pharmaceutical product can cost US$5 billion for discovery, development and market(taking Patricia Caladointo account the cost of all the failed leads. Patricia Calado, BioAlvo Portugal works on products from marine microorganisms from Marine bio-resources have a lot to offer to Portugal’s continental shelf, including extremophiles. health and wellbeing, but they feed into many Key issues for the company include the legal aspects of access and benefit-sharing, IP other sectors, making marine bio-business issues, how to ensure sustainable supply, scale-up and better integration of infrastructures quite complex. for collection, screening and validation and increasing the basic knowledge of microbial In addition to heavy investment in USA physiology and taxonomy. Integrated Government policies are also needed.on algal biofuels, the OECD has a new initiative in marine biotechnology and the Tage SkotvoldEU’s new Horizon 2020 strategy and support Tage Skotvold , ScandiDerma Norway represents a newer company, established in programme specifically mentions blue biotech 2010. The challenges are access to soft funding - not just risk capital, using marine by-and marine biomass as contributors to the products as well as marine life, building in-house research capability, establishing appropri-economy of the future. ate processing techniques that are scaleable, managing regulations and determining how to Investors also need more information and get productive interactions with established industry for example, through clusters, which education about marine bio-resources and are very useful. how they feed into commercial opportunities. Acceptance by the consumer is very important for by-product use as well.This is not new, but the challenges of marine biotechnology come from the origins of the • How to link basic and applied research Workgroups therefore addressed three opportunities and the costs and resources more effectively topics:needed to exploit them. This immediately • How to take care of the product regula- • Clusters, networks, public-private part-indicates the importance of public funding, for tory needs from the earliest point in the nerships (joining up the chain)example, through public-private partnerships, value chain • Science, technology and infrastructuresto make biotech for health a reality in the • How to join up the supply chain efficiently • The commercial context and invest-future. • Business models and how to manage the ment, regulation & IP In the discussion, key topics emerged cost explosion in pharma development Outcomes and recommendationsincluded: • If a company begins with one type of Joining up the value chain: • Lack of thinking at the research stage product eg cosmetic ingredients, how • There is a need for better analysis about downstream issues for exploitation to manage business conversion to eg of each sector’s value-chains and the • How to validate the many molecules pharmaceuticals prospects within the sectors, to identify for the downstream intended uses and • Communication of messages about the real low-hanging opportunities therapeutic opportunities marine biotechnology prospects to • Case studies show that clusters work • How to build pipelines so companies are investors and the public, specifically • For more complex topics with longer not ‘single-product’ sustainability, ‘naturalness’ value chains, Public-Private Partnerships 32 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013
  7. 7. FEATURE could be effective ways of providing the • Discourage the use of non-sustainable • Nevertheless, the existence of small ‘research arm’ for partnering with ‘large sources of MBt libraries companies willing to take part in pharma’ Commercial context – investment, regu- biodiscovery de-risks this activity • Technology Centers for marine lation, IP for big companies and justifies the biotechnology, with specialised infra- • The need for long-term stability means perceived need for entrepreneurial structure might provide ‘one-stop that VC and short-term investment companies to supply into bigger shops’ for chain connection strategies are not appropriate either pharma (and equivalent ‘big’ compa-Science, technology and infrastructures: at set-up or for longer survival of nies – food/nutraceutical, cosmetics/ • Marine biotech is not being well- new businesses; encouraging business cosmeceutical) served by lack of knowledge amongst angel groups and raising awareness • Better and more efficient recogni- technology-transfer offices and knowledge-levels amongst these tion, development and transfer of • More fora for meeting of scientists would be fruitful academic IP in this area is needed and industrial players would generate • Smaller players in innovation should • The attributes and benefits of MBt better understanding and sharing of consider more collaborations between could be better communicated. In needs and possibilities them, and selling skills and knowledge, terms of giving MBt a different image, • A global source of ‘soft’ funding rather than pushing molecules at the higher hit rate could be a starting would promote the transition from big pharma or trying to go too far point proof of concept to demonstration down the value-chain; it is usually too Some of the points raised above were and commercial-scale for innovations difficult for small companies to handle discussed further in Think Tank 5 in the • Specific incubator programmes could the cost and stresses of regulatory context of Marine Biotechnology and the be recommended processes Environment. Companies attending this Think Tank: Aqua Bio Technology ASA - A-Spark Good Ventures - Algal Bioenergy Special Interest Group - Bioalvo - BioNova - BioTech North - Bretagne Developpement Innovation - CCMar - EMPA - European Marine Biological Resource Centre (EMBRC) - Government of Portugal - Grette Law - innoVactiv - Innovation Norway - JPI Oceans - The Research Council of Norway - Kiel Center for marine natural products - Marealis - Marine Biotechnology Programme of Ireland - Max Planck Institute - National Research Council of Canada - Nautilus Biosciences Canada - Novagraaf Technologies - Novus International - Soliance - Marine Bio-Technologies Center of Innovation - National University of Ireland, Galway - OceanGate, Inc. - Oceanomics project, Roscoff - Polaris - Polytechnic Institute of Leiria - PwC - Roscoff Marine Biological Station - Saint Malo Agglomeration - ScandiDerma AS - Univeristy College Cork - University of Aveiro AquaStar ® Fast growth in improved environment! Probiotic strains support gut health. Biodegrading strains and enzymes stabilize water quality and pond bottom. • Im pr an oved gu d pe • Im rform t health prov ance • Co ed w n ater qual ba trol of pa ity cteri thog a enic Naturally ahead January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 33
  8. 8. FEATUREThink Tank 3 Nutraceuticals –‘Omega-3s efficacy and purity’The objective of Think Tank 3 was aimed to provide answers and guidelines for the determination of good quality oils from poorer oils and ways to ensure the efficacy and purity of Omega-3 products globally.Moderator Note taker:Dr Maria Hayes, Natural Products Chemist, Teagasc Food Benedict Standen, PhD student at Plymouth University, UKResearch Centre,Ashton, IrelandSponsorPronova PharmaT o address key challenges facing production of Omega-3s in South America. specifically medical doctors and pharmacists international marine ingredients The negative media attention for this activity with information concerning the positive companies, this session aimed at resulted in a 30 percent decrease in Omega-3 health effects and preventative healthcare examining bioactive, functional and product sales in Norway. role that Omega-3s can play in the diet of nutritional ingredients for use in food, sup- In terms of Omega-3 product purity there the consumer. The group recommended that plements and as nutraceutical ingredients. is a perception that “natural” (non- proc- Governments should be enticed to financially essed) products are better for the consumer support “drives” to educate consumers and Marketing of ingredients was also discussed than chemically processed Omega-3 products. the medical profession in particular. This, it along with steps required to ensure the purity This is often not the case. In fact, processing is was felt by the group, could play a major role and efficacy of the product. often required to ensure the safety and purity concerning consumer uptake of Omega-3 The Think Tank agreed that there are of Omega-3 products. The group concluded supplement products, in particular.concerns and unanswered questions regarding that there is a need to educate the consumer adverse effects associated with consumption regarding processing technologies used for the Efficacyof n-3 LCPUFA in terms of safe intake levels, purification of Omega-3 products. In terms of the efficacy of Omega-3s and which, may be related to regulation regarding With respect to this, several members scientific studies, the group felt that there is the presence of pollutants. of the group mentioned GOED (Global a need to define the user group in scientific Furthermore, there is a need to inform Association of EPA and DHA) effort around studies concerning the impact of Omega-3 and educate consumers about differences in information and education on Omega 3. They products on consumers. Mainly it is depend-the quality of marine oils that are produced aim to educate consumers about the health ent on professionally designed trials with and safe technologies that successfully remove benefits of EPA and DHA by working with relevant patient or user groups. EFSAs efforts pollutants from these products. Positive growth Details regarding the numerous good studies that exist proving the efficacy of Omega-3s were discussed. There is a positive growth for Omega 3 products globally due mainly to consumer willingness to purchase Omega-3 products. Furthermore, there is an expand-ing public awareness of Omega-3s and their health benefits. government groups, the healthcare com- to control the claims that are made and their A limiting factor in the continued success munity and the industry, while setting high scientific foundation is therefore a very good of Omega-3 products is the media perception standards for the Omega-3 business sector. initiative. At the moment it is has some start which is sometimes oriented to sensationalise The latter is done by having a volun- up difficulties and undesired effects, but for neutral studies regarding the efficacy and tary monograph with very strict limits for the future stringent control of and high sci-purity of Omega-3 products. pollutants far surpassing the requirements entific standards to claims being made on any These meta analysis are often done on in European and US official monographas. supplements both protects the consumer as poor scientific grounds, comparing incompa- GOED is committed to personal integrity, well as disciplines the industry. rable groups, and that the neutral outcome ethical corporate behavior, sustainability of Genetics can play a role in the effect of is due to this and not lack of efficacy of the the raw materials, public safety and quality Omega-3 on individuals. Omega-3. assurance. GOED support a petition to estab- However, the group felt going down the Despite this the media attention can often lish clear intake recommendations in North route of personalised nutrition for Omega-3s be perceived by consumers and can impact America and advance recognition of the role was way out of scope, while the use of genet-on market sales significantly. these important nutrients play in nutrition. ics is more relevant in clinical applications, In Norway there was a case involving a The group also concluded that there is where personalised medicine is a growing two-part documentary that looked at the a need to educate the medical community, segment. 34 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013
  9. 9. FEATURE Members of the group felt that a good entire group concluded that a similar standard least, to have information available to the way to ensure that consumers got their daily should be implemented in Europe and RoW consumer. recommended dose of Omega-3s was to to be sure that the purity and quality of Fair trade was discussed briefly and again educate medical doctors regarding the pre- Omega 3 products is ensured. This would also MSC labelling for sustainable resource man-ventative healthcare function Omega-3s could go a long way toward negative media public- agement should be in place and will go play (as mentioned earlier) and to implement ity. The audience members stated that GOED towards ensuring fair trade. an Omega-3 index as a diagnostic tool could Omega 3 was moving towards implementing Outcomes and recommendationsbe very useful, this tool is now available, see a purity standardised label globally. GOED • Education of consumers, medical doc-footnote. was viewed by the attendants at the think tors and pharmacists regarding the This would provide a patient and a poten- tank as a transparency tool that would enable preventative healthcare potential of tial consumer of Omega-3s would be aware consumers to determine if an Omega-3 prod- Omega-3 productsif they were high/low in Omega-3s and they uct was good or bad. Purity is a big issue for • Standard similar to Proposition 65 would hear this from somebody they trust GOED but the attendants at this think tank worldwide, declaration of pollutants if i.e., a medical doctor. Consumers and doctors felt that GOED should include label claims. over recommended levelshould also be educated regarding the efficacy The participants felt also that the • Implementation of GOED certification of Omega-3s (what levels are active and what whole area of stability regarding Omega on Omega-3 productsdose is required) and this would ensure the 3 products and in particular EPA/DHA in • Financial input by companies and gov-consumer obtained the correct information to supplement products was a future area ernments regarding research that deals ensure a positive health effect. of research that needs financial input. with the stabilisation and generation The Proposition 65 case in California high- Stability effects taste and sensory aspects of consumer friendly Omega-3 (EPA/lighted the need for standardised, effective of the final product so improved, con- DHA) formulas/productslabelling regarding the level of contaminants, sumer friendly formulations are required. • Documentation of scientific claims so in particular, heavy metals, Doxines, and It is also necessary to educate the con- that consumers trust in products are PCBs present in Omega-3 products. The sumer regarding oxidized products or at strengthened (EFSA) Companies attending this Think Tank: Ascenta Health - Biosciences KTN - B. Braun Melsungen - Chitin Marine Products Ltd - Concordia Capital LLC - Delhi Nutraceuticals - DSM Nutritional Products - Eurofins - Grette Law - Innovation PEI - Maastricht University - Matahari Technology Consulting - National Research Council of Canada - Norwegian Seafood Research Fund - Polytechnic Institute of Leiria - Pronova BioPharma - Roquette Group - SPF-Diana Aquativ - University of Aveiro - Varicon Aqua Solutions January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 35
  10. 10. FEATUREThink Tank 4 Aquaculture – 2030 TheAquaculture platform - facilitatingsignificant growth in global aquacultureThink Tank 4 says aquaculture is an important source of income and livelihood for millions of people worldwide as well as a crucial production sector for high-protein food. Indeed, aquaculture continues to be the fastest growing food production sector with an average annual growth rate of 6.6 percent between 1970 and 2008.Moderator SponsorRoy Palmer, CEO, Sea Food Experience (SEA), Australia Pronova PharmaYves Harache, 2010-2012 Past -President European Note taker:Aquaculture Society Benedict Standen, PhD student at Plymouth University, UKA lthough aquaculture growth is slowing at times can be helpful, have their own agendas group) seek to increase the availability of certified in some areas of the world, the and funding to support. This is the case in USA, responsible seafood by providing a credible con- activity is going to play a pivotal role in Australia and Europe where aquaculture is still seen sumer logo which assures compliance and industry facilitating global consumer require- as ‘not normal’ and that the oceans should be kept responsibility. In some groups this label comes at ments of biosecurity and sustainable seafood. ‘natural’ and not ‘tamed’. Yet in countries where a cost. Does the cost and proliferation of labels seafood consumption is high, it was felt that such enhance or confuse the consumer? By far the greatest world growth of aquaculture activities were accepted as normal. A ‘two-a-week’ campaign which could monop-is currently dependent on freshwater species, such This could be solved through effective and olise on the success of the ‘five-a-day’ fruit and as carp and tilapia. Marine aquaculture is more efficient communication between all levels of soci- vegetable scheme was suggested as an idea. This recent and still in its early development. Both ety: from policy makers to the general public. This could be endorsed and supported by celebrity activities should not be opposed under ‘simplistic’ communication should be proactive as opposed to chefs, etc. increasing awareness and promoting the debates, such as the opposition of herbivorous reactive, educational and informative providing the industry and incorporated in a worldwide video. and carnivorous species, but appreciated globally public with reliable and accurate facts /data which A positive conclusion was reached that is as positive activities. focus on the positive attributes of the aquaculture possible to turn public opinion through pressure, Space to grow and utilisation of water resourc- industry. These messages should be targeted at education, lobbying and the correct marketing if es are crucial issues which need to be planned with all generations, but particularly younger children the industry worked globally and in unison. There some certainty. who are arguably more mouldable and who may was general agreement that public acceptance is grow up with a better understanding of the activity. the driver of all themes.Maximising potential There should be a pro-active agenda to promote This Think Tank was designed to come up positive aspects and tell the good stories on a Financial Capitalwith practical recommendations that could be regular basis. One of the groups opened up this discussion implemented within a three-year plan. Currently the consumer is receiving mixed by looking at the UK. There is a future aquaculture Francisco Gomes, Executive Manager, Novus information from a range of sources so the industry plan for England but currently there is a lack of Aquaculture Business Unit, USA, introduced the should be better organized to provide a clear investment with few initiatives available. It appears debate by talking of aquaculture as a dynamic simple message without conflicting messages which that England is not alone, for example North industry and outlining the main issues which the result in confusion and negative thinking. To imple- American investment companies see aquaculture discussions should be based around: addressing ment this there is a clear need for an international as a ‘hot topic’, however when it comes to the and improving public acceptance: financial capital: group to provide these clear messages and give the crunch little is done. human resources and regulations and legislation. industry a ‘brand’. But who is that group? • Investment is becoming more widely avail-Francisco’s introduction ended with a simple ques- A popular choice amongst the majority of able but banks/investors must go through tion, “How do we achieve this?” attendees was the Global Aquaculture Alliance a learning phase. Some argued that the risk The attendees then broke out into four groups (GAA). However, it was noted that currently was different for a potential investor due to discuss these issues. this body is predominantly centred on its goals of to money, disease, survival, etc.; however After each group had their discussions they aquaculture certification so may not be the vehicle others disputed this stating that to investors were specifically asked to address one of these required as could be a perceived conflict of interest. this made no difference since there is risk in issues and present it back to the floor Perhaps this is BioMarine? most investments. The important action is The average time a consumer looks at a transparency which creates confidencePublic acceptance product is less than four seconds. Consumers are • There are three types of capital; invest- It was accepted early on that current the public likely then to greatly benefit from a hallmark which ment, financial and insurance. The question perceptions of aquaculture activities are generally is instantly identifiable as a reliable and sustainable proposed is how do we increase all three? negative yet as consumable products generally well source. The Aquaculture Stewardship Council Generally banks do not like fluctuations, accepted. This could be due to the media seizing programme through its strong WWF connec- especially in profits. This identifies a clear upon negative stories whilst disregarding the mainly tions and dialogues aims to transform the worlds need for the industry to manage variables positive stories aquaculture has to offer. This may seafood markets and promote farming practices which cause this variation making consistency be particularly true for some activists and NGOs that minimise their impact on the environment a key factor for future investment who misinform the public with incorrect facts and and communities. Others certification groups such • Yet aquaculture faces a Catch 22 scenario; figures preventing growth of the industry. The as GAA and Global GAP, etc. do similar. The to attract investment and grow the industry groups noted that the NGO businesses, whilst standards they all have (which vary from group to needs to be healthy but to be healthy capital 36 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013
  11. 11. FEATURE is urgently required. Perhaps the industry to market whilst maintaining food safety and trace- 2. Financial capital needs to observe the economic aspects ability at the global level. Build the industry by encouraging consoli- educating the financial sector with reliable The EU and Canada have extremely strict rules dation and cooperation through all sectors to information which investors can then use as and regulations for new products making it difficult increase scale and minimise risk. Encourage and a tool to market innovative products. Asia takes a more assist BioMarine to be a catalyst for engagement • The industry needs to be self-sustaining. relaxed approach so who is right, Europe and between investment and industry with the aim to This could be done through consolidation Canada or Asia? foster innovative approaches and help the funding achieving a larger scale and also limit the One of the benefits of a strict approach is it and nurturing of new concepts and technology. risk by investing in different markets across encourages responsible sourcing and processing, • Consolidate industry to achieve scale and geographical regions and different species. reduction in environmental impact and enables a limit risk An interesting idea was the formation of general baseline amongst member states. • Bring industry and investment together in an ‘Aquaculture Bank’ which could then But those in Europe, for example, reclaim a order to educate and engage the financial provide micro-financing for global projects level playing field, where imported product from sectors and investors and initiatives third countries should match the high safety and • Promote specific innovation in funding environmental standards that European produc- • Build on the current limitation of financing at Human resources ers are constrained to comply with? In fact it was all levels The first priority when discussing this topic queried that EU Standards are not reached by was to identify the human resources needed as many countries in EU creating unfair situation in 3. Human resourcesthe industry requires a diverse range of specific their own jurisdiction. Create the industry around a professional skills sets. This gives rise to job area bottlenecks. Future plans could include the development approach that encourages the best people For example there are numerous researchers in of aquaculture parks associated with renewable available to be determined to enter and fish nutrition, however in areas such as fish health energy projects and offshore, or zoning for aqua- engage. Work globally on skills shortages ensur-and genetics this is not the case. This kind of job culture purposes either within the EEZ or on ing that gaps are identified and communicated. logjam emphasises the need for strong communi- the high seas. This kind of regulation must have Build a framework of human resources that cation and possibly bottleneck funding and invest- enforcement though. Done successfully this would enables the industry to have solid foundation ment in order to maximise these capabilities. enable certification schemes that aim to achieve for the future. We need to ensure the development of maximum environmental responsibility to aid the • Identify and promote the shortages in skill high quality aquaculture at all levels, and this can consumer in a practical, positive manner. sets; e.g. vets, genetics reproduction, process-only be achieved through education. This could A question was raised relating to aquaculture v ing, production, etcbe accomplished through vocational courses and soccer! Soccer is the world’s game and is control- • Create a directory of education resources industry sponsored internships, scholarships or led by FIFA and no matter in the world where the and industry internshipsprojects which should be adequately advertised game is played it is played consistently by the same • Consider promotion of people moving from through directories. rules and regulations. Why cannot that system fishing to aquaculture. The industry should also work with govern- be the goal for aquaculture? The world needs • Development of education at all levelsments on the replacement opportunity from aquaculture as much, if not more, than soccer yet people employed in fisheries to engagement in we play on uneven playing fields, to different rules 4. Regulation and legislationaquaculture as there are several wins in this. People and regulations and then suffer further with trade Through BioMarine continue to invite peo-are used to the products and the value chain barrier issues. Surely we can do better than this? ple and organisations to ‘stretch the envelope’ system; they have a seafood culture and encourage on regulation and legislation building on suc-both industries to work closer together as well as Recommendations cesses and highlighting failures in order to build solving labour issues. a truly global industry that delivers excellence 1. Public acceptance for the global population. Continue to improve Regulation and legislation Structure the industry around an international international regulatory aspects, adopting inno- While some see regulations and legislation as that could foster the promotion of best practices vative approaches and ensuring sufficient space the main limit of innovation, others see it as an and build a global education platform covering is made available for sustainable aquaculture opportunity to get out of the cyclic nature that internal and external activities ensuring consistent growth.aquaculture presents by evening out production messages are locked in right through from farm • Build on strong image through food safety – making the industry a lot more attractive for to fork. a consistent safe productinvestment. • Formulation of global group with the ability • Space is important – engage in marine Perhaps one of the main limitations is access to promote and speak on industry issues planning and maximise innovation in usage to sites and issues with space, especially on the • Be proactive, positive and promote all of spacemarine coastline where aquaculture must share aspects of aquaculture in consistent fashion • Use environmental modelling to support space which is also used for coastal fisheries, • Invest in early education for children, both decisionsmaritime transport, tourism, renewable energy, internal and external training/education and • Promote examples of good legislationetc. industry workforce development • Be aware of access and benefit sharing – Another important issue is bringing products • Support accreditation and best practice relates to Nagoya Protocol Companies attending this Think Tank: ADM - Alltech - Aqua Bio Technology ASA - A-Spark Good Ventures - BioMar - Cargill - CCMar - CyberColloids - DSM Nutritional Products - Eurofins - European Commission - Government of Portugal - Grette Law - Imperial College, London - INVE aquaculture - Innovation PEI - Invivo-NSA - JPI Oceans - The Research Council of Norway - Marelife - Mitsui & Co. - Novus International - Olmix Group - Plymouth University - Polytechnic Institute of Leiria - Prince Edward Island BioAlliance - PwC - Roquette Group - Roscoff Marine Station France - Scripps Institution of Oceanography UCSD - Seventure Partners - Skretting ARC - SPF-Diana Aquativ - UK Parliament - Univeristy College Cork - University of Aveiro January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 37
  12. 12. FEATURE The Big Aquaculture Debate by David Peggs, Research Masters Student, Plymouth University, UK Moderator - Dr Tiago de Pitta e Cunha, Advisor to the Portuguese Mike Velings, Founder A-Spark Good President on Maritime Affairs Ventures, The NetherlandsTiago de Pitta e Cunha: What are the strategic guidelines for aquaculture and how do they relate to funding?Bernard Friess: Generally there is a growth in job opportunities.However, this may be stagnating and the EU is highly segregated and regional differences are large. The EU has good animal health and food standards generally and has many promis-ing assets for industries to become successful. Bernhard Friess, Director ‘Atlantic,This is shown through the large EU funding for Francisco Gomes, Executive Manager of Outermost Regions and Arctic’ in DGresearch. Novus Aquaculture Business Unit, USA Mare, European CommissionThe administration and regulations are propor-tionate to businesses. Admin policies operating today are fair and we strive to work closely other established industries such as salmon to with businesses to finely balance the growth push through faster new species? and success of businesses on one hand, whilst To summarise, the three main areas for action making sure the health and safety/regulations/ are regulation, consolidation, innovation. environmentally friendly products etc on the other hand are in place to keep the EU’s high Tiago de Pitta e Cunha: Aquaculture often standards. faces criticism about sustainability. Is this the case?Furthermore, innovation is an important part of growth and success thus acting as a catalyst for Torben Svejgaard: People are always talking businesses to prosper. about fish in – fish out ratio. It is important to continually show research regarding aquacul- Torben Svejgaard, CEO, BioMar Group,Tiago: Aquaculture is growing and is predicted Denmark tures sustainability promise and create close to supply 65 percent of protein by 2030, what dialog between researchers, industries and needs to be done to ensure sustainability, stakeholders alike. Make sure we communicate overcoming barriers, regulations etc? to the wider public what actually aquaculture Francisco Gomes: First, governments must and aquaculture research does. for sustainability are a must for future private reach out to businesses and really discuss the investors and the aqua industry must make The aquaculture industry must not hide from possibility of removing some of the red tape it easier for both investors and the public to the issues such as problems with sustainability. hindering progress. access these goals. For example, we use soya as a major com-There is no clear regulatory framework in the Torben Svejgaard: Going back to the criticism ponent of many aqua feeds, but is using soya US in my experience. To set up projects it that aquaculture is unsustainable, we here are sustainable? If research suggests otherwise, then takes an average of perhaps three years. I could all talking about long-term goals. If this is not let’s look at the other options. We need to set one up in just a few months in Vietnam, for sustainability, then what is? continuously evolve as an industry and try to example. There are obvious problems relating always improve the way in which we carry out Tiago de Pitta e Cunha: How can aquaculture to policies and regulations for start-up projects processing, research and marketing etc. grow through governmental policy? How do at the moment. we sort out the bottlenecks? Tiago de Pitta e Cunha: More investment is The industry - consolidation is a key aspect. need for aquaculture, how can this occur? Bernard Friess: It is well known that wild We need more flexibility in funding from fund- fisheries have been exploited and the need for ing bodies. Asia could provide a lot of answers Mike Velings: There are only a few private aquaculture to alleviate these stocks is essential. and potential ways forward regarding policies, vinvestors globally. Public and investors do not More aquaculture equals less pressure on the funding etc. Innovation, as an industry we must know enough about the aquaculture industry. oceans and of course this is a good thing. innovate faster and more efficiently. For investors this can mean risks and therefore they are reluctant to put money into aquacul- We must go back and look into the obstacles Global barriers - important market protec- ture innovations. which hinder the growth of aquaculture and tion. Trade of products must progress faster. review them more closely. Accelerate and differentiate between indus- Communication is getting better but needs tries. There are many different species used to progress quicker in order to make future Also we need to identify the levers for inno-and they are all different, shrimp are different investors and the general public more knowl- vation and find out how they work in order from salmon, etc. What can we learn from edgeable about aquaculture. Long-term goals to support them which will in turn help the 38 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013
  13. 13. FEATURE From audience Manuel Pinto de Abreu, Secretary of State of the Sea, Portugal stated: Investment, innovation and regula- tions need to be looked at in more detail. A new legal framework is needed so that applicants need only apply once speeding up the process. Regions need to focus on relevant species and explore new opportu- nities in innovation. In Portugal we import 600,000 tonnes of fish and a lot of which we could farm ourselves. Within one year the regulations and red tape will be reformed to make this possible. Torben Svejgaard: We as an industry cannot sit back and hope that the regulations change, In terms of disease, we have only large vac- we need to be innovative in research and keep cine companies for the aquaculture industry. moving forward as an industry. We need more specialised veterinary people for aquaculture. We need more herbivo- Bernard Friess: We must make investments rous species. What can we learn from Asia and create innovation and work to change the of alternative species. In terms of IMTA public perception that farmed fish are bad and more research is needed into the dynamics wild fish good. involved and whether or not the profits can be high enough. Comment from audience: Tiago de Pitta e Cunha: Fish feeds, where are we now? • “We need to consider the possibility of taking advantage of species from lower Torben Svejgaard: The last 10-15 years we’ve trophic levels as the effects of such would seen a large decrease in the use of fishmeal in be negligible.” feeds by replacing them with plant based alter-growth of the aquaculture industry. It is also • “The industry needs novel innovation in natives such as soybean meal. The fishmeal con-very important to set up regional advisories. order to create faster moving research.” tent could perhaps go down to zero percent in Tiago de Pitta e Cunha: How do we support the near future, for some species at least. In response:innovation in aquaculture. What is the future Francisco Gomes: Farmers are the basis for However, fish oil is more of an issue and needs for integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA), the aquaculture industry. Most are conserva- to be addressed. Approval of new products in renewable energy and off-shore aquaculture? tive and are of the mind-set that if methods the EU takes much more time than it should Francisco Gomes: There is definitely a lack of and this is hindering the process of creating work then why change them. Think bigger funding for innovation. We must look at funda- new alternative feed ingredients. We need and perhaps focus on the next generation mental research through universities and then more innovation with regards to functionality as well as the current generation. There is a apply this research appropriately. of products. general lack of trust due to past mismanage- ment of fisheries, so we need to look after And we must look more closely at the mecha- Tiago de Pitta e Cunha: Red tape, what comes the resources and it is paramount that we nisms of how a product works not just sitting next? Do regulations need to change before prove that the business of aquaculture is back on the knowledge that it works. But we investors invest or do investors need to invest sustainable.must ask how does it work and how can we in change?therefore improve it in the future. Tiago de Pitta e Cunha: Closing thoughts Mike Velings: As investors we look at the global - It seems the aquaculture industry has a Off-shore and recirculation inland systems have perspective, we are not going to invest where long way to go in terms of changing poli-potential but it’s all about efficiency. This needs there are too many regulations, in the EU for cies and changing public perceptions. But to grow in order to make these areas profitable. example, when we can get much more for our what is clear is that we need to have long money and faster returns in places with less term plans for sustainability and at least We must look at other species of fish especially stringent regulations. three of the main areas are as Francisco herbivorous species. In nutrition and alternative proteins, we need to ask the question about the The EU needs to change their regulations in mentioned earlier consolidation, innovation sources we use now, are these the right/only order to grow and keep up with other markets and regulation and the aspects to which are alternatives and what are the other options. in aquaculture. encompassed. January-February 2013 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 39
  14. 14. FEATUREThink Tank 5 Marine Ingredients –Marine micro algae and nutritionThe objective of this Think Tank was to discuss the use of microalgae and macroalgae in nutrition and as nutraceuticals.Moderator Note taker:Dr Maria Hayes, Natural Products Chemist, Teagasc Food Mark Rawling, PhD student at Plymouth University, UKResearch Centre, Ashton, IrelandSponsorSofiproteolW ith the world’s population human consumers through dietary inter- micro-algal producers is the area of animal continuing to grow by vention in animal products. For example, nutrition. Protein resources are in demand about 60 million people per feeding a pig/chicken/cow/hen seaweed/ globally and marine algae may provide a new, year, demand for sustain- seaweed ingredients to increase the level novel and alternative protein source to the able, efficient food production continues of fatty acids (EPA/DHA) or bioactive currently available dairy and terrestrial plant to grow. Ever increasing strain is being protein in meat/milk/egg products that protein resources. placed on agricultural systems’ capacity are more acceptable to the consumer, However, the group concluded that future to deliver affordable food and nutritional particularly in countries such as France research into the use of marine macro-algal/products. Not surprisingly, the World Health where nutraceuticals are not fully accepted micro-algal protein sources is required as Organisation has identified diminishing food macro-algae in particular, can contain antin-security as a major threat to mankind over Discussion utritional factors and plant lectins. coming decades. The group discussed the importance of An advantage for micro-algal derived pro- discovering novel and unique uses for micro tein is that they may not have anti-nutritional The oceans may provide a solution. That and macroalgal products and resources to factors such as phlorotannins and plant lectins was the premise that this task force set out its justify the economic costs associated with associated with them and, therefore, would discussion on micro algae and its nutritional harvesting and processing marine derived be suitable for use in animal feed and animal opportunities. ingredients. nutrition. Seaweed farms alone have the capacity to grow massive amounts of nutrient-rich food. And while seaweeds are not a major source of food at present, they are one of the fastest growing plants in the world. Seaweed can grow 9-12 feet in three months. This Think Tank discussed a number of topics including: • Environmental and economic opportunities • Algal biomass suited to production of animal feed and high value human foods and additives • Both micro algae and macro algae are well established sources of such nutrition • Increasing algae food and feed pro- duction, by expanding upon existing markets and by creating new ones, to be significant This will be necessary if industry players The group decided however that in • Use of proteins from micro and macro- want to compete with other sources/compa- some instances macro-algal protein is suit- algae and associated drawbacks regard- nies producing nutraceuticals and functional able for animal nutrition. For example, ing their use which include harvesting. foods from non marine resources such as sheep in the Orkney Islands of Scotland are The group decided that aquaculture dairy companies. known to graze on seaweed and in fact, could provide a solution Think Tank participants agreed that a seaweed is the primary source of nutrition • Transfer of seaweed proteins/oils to future area of growth for macro-algal and for these animals. Furthermore, there are 40 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2013