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ZnO-cellulose composite paper (with speechbubbles)

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At EMRS 2015 in Lille, France, Marco Lucisano from Innventia held a presentation about how to make paper into an active substrate for large area electronics.

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ZnO-cellulose composite paper (with speechbubbles)

  1. 1. ZnO-cellulose composite paper Production and structure Marco Lucisano, Hjalmar Granberg, Dina Dedic, Anders Mähler, Per-Åke Turesson, Anurak Sawatdee, Mats Sandberg This is a copy of our presentation at EMRS 2015, in Lille, France. I have added speech bubbles to guide you through the slides. Please feel free to contact me if you have questions and comments: marco.lucisano@innventia.com
  2. 2. www.innventia.com © 2015  2 This is a story of two kinds of materials, one generally considered a high-tech material.
  3. 3. www.innventia.com © 2015  3 …and one often described as low tech: paper. This is the storage facility of a paper mill where newsprint is produced.
  4. 4. www.innventia.com © 2015  4 At the heart of the paper mill, the paper machine…
  5. 5. www.innventia.com © 2015  5 3.200.000 m2/y (2010) Now, if we try and estimate the world production of 300 mm silicon wafers in 2010, we would land approximately at 3.2 Mm2, which is a huge surface.
  6. 6. www.innventia.com © 2015  6 3.200.000 m2 = 7 h Yet, a 5 m wide paper machine running at 1500 m/min would produce 3.2 Mm2 of paper in slightly more than 7 hours, not even one work shift.
  7. 7. www.innventia.com © 2015  7 Ubiquitous electronics So, if the technology, science and industrial practice of papermaking could be applied to the production of an active substrate for electronics, then a lot of passive surfaces in today’s world could become active, leading us into a world of ubiquitous electronics.
  8. 8. www.innventia.com © 2015  8 We could start covering all walls of all buildings with solar cell panels.
  9. 9. www.innventia.com © 2015  9 Or paving roads with sensors…
  10. 10. www.innventia.com © 2015  10 Papermaking Now, a basic introduction to papermaking.
  11. 11. www.innventia.com © 2015  11 You need fibres, very often from wood, but other sources are used as well…
  12. 12. www.innventia.com © 2015  12 Minerals, also known as fillers, are used to improve opacity, printing properties and production economy, since they are generally less expensive than the fibres. Kaolin clay, calcium carbonate are two examples of fillers commonly used in papermaking.
  13. 13. www.innventia.com © 2015  13 A number of chemicals are used either to improve the runnability of the process or to give the final product the attributes and properties it needs (strength, colour…).
  14. 14. www.innventia.com © 2015  14 And you will need a lot of water…
  15. 15. www.innventia.com © 2015  15
  16. 16. www.innventia.com © 2015  16 A paper machine is a large piece of process equipment with two main functions: - To produce an even piece web of paper according to specifications, and - To remove all the process water added to operate the process.
  17. 17. www.innventia.com © 2015  17 ZnO in paper So, what about using zink oxide tetrapods in papermaking… Can we load paper with ZnO to produce an active substrate?
  18. 18. www.innventia.com © 2015  18 Zinc Oxide Tetrapods This is what they look like… It is a material available in bulk quantities (good for papermaking) and used for example in shoe soles, car tires and some biomedical applications.
  19. 19. www.innventia.com © 2015  19 Laboratory sheet forming We did a series of laboratory pre-studies to investigate the optimal recipe as to fibres, functional chemistry, dosage strategy…
  20. 20. www.innventia.com © 2015  20 This is what they looked like… Some of the formulations we tested were better then others, in the picture we can clearly see that some are more flocculated than the others. We used the result of the pre-trials to prepare our pilot scale production on the FEX pilot papermachine at Innventia. FEX operates at conditions that are very good replicas of those found in industrial practice. A description of the FEX-machine is available at www.innventia.com/FEX
  21. 21. www.innventia.com © 2015  21
  22. 22. www.innventia.com © 2015  22
  23. 23. www.innventia.com © 2015  23 Trial recipe  Fibres: 70% long fibres (hardwood), 30% short fibres (birch)  Grammage: approx. 80 g/m2  ZnO-content: 0% – 15% – 30% – 45%  Retention aid: Percol 1510, 750 g/ton  Size: AKD, 7500 g/ton (in selected trial points)  Fourdrinier former  Machine speed: 100 m/min
  24. 24. www.innventia.com © 2015  24
  25. 25. www.innventia.com © 2015  25 Zinc Oxide Tetrapods Zinc oxide tetraprods are classified as a ceramic nanomaterial. Debated toxicity among researchers, most pointing to low. Still, precautions are needed until the issue of potential toxicity is solved. Due to the needle shape of the tetrapods particular care is taken when particles are handled in dry state.
  26. 26. www.innventia.com © 2015  26
  27. 27. www.innventia.com © 2015  27 Workers’ safety is paramount and the staff wears face masks with air filters when handling dry ZnO and dry paper.
  28. 28. www.innventia.com © 2015  28
  29. 29. www.innventia.com © 2015  29 Samples reeled wet after the presses, marked before drying.
  30. 30. www.innventia.com © 2015  30 The dryer was enclosed in a ventilated tent, since we assumed that most dust would arise when handling dry paper.
  31. 31. www.innventia.com © 2015  31 Micrographs
  32. 32. www.innventia.com © 2015  32 0% ZnO Micrograph of paper with 0% ZnO.
  33. 33. www.innventia.com © 2015  33 15% ZnO Micrograph of paper with 15% ZnO. Tretrapods and fragments can be observed on the surface of the sample.
  34. 34. www.innventia.com © 2015  34 30% ZnO
  35. 35. www.innventia.com © 2015  35 45% ZnO
  36. 36. www.innventia.com © 2015  36 45% ZnO Micrograph of paper with 45% ZnO at three different magnifications. The images clearely show that ZnO could be retained in the sample. This is important in papermaking…
  37. 37. www.innventia.com © 2015  37 Does it work?
  38. 38. www.innventia.com © 2015  38 ZnO Cellulose composite paper – UV-sensing properties (Mats Sandberg, Monday, May 11th) Photocurrent @ 5V of ZnO- Cellulose composite sheets with different composition Hg lamp 2 mW/ cm2 30% 30%A 45% 45%A 15% 15%A 0% Yes, it does, as shown in this diagram from the presentation “ZnO-cellulose composite paper - UV-sensing properties” by Sandberg, Sawatdee, Peterman, Granberg, and Turesson, also presented at EMRS on Monday, May 11th, 2015. …and with this material we are not simply printing a sensor on top of a passive paper substrate. Here the paper itself is part of the solution.
  39. 39. www.innventia.com © 2015  39 One more thing
  40. 40. www.innventia.com © 2015  40 Paper is not “just paper”. Papermakers have technologies to design sheet structures and use different raw material compositions along the thickness direction of something as thin as newsprint or copy paper. It is called stratified paper. What could be done with stratified paper electronics in 2, 3, 5 or more layers?
  41. 41. www.innventia.com © 2015  41 Researchers in papermaking are also developing paper-like materials with the soft feeling of a fabric, papers that are highly stretchable, and papers on which one can “print stiffness”. All of this on a paper machine! Remember 7 hours to produce 3.200.000 m2! Could this degree of structural design be used for large scale substrates for electronics?
  42. 42. www.innventia.com © 2015  42 And this is an example of a paper material designed to move as a response to its environment. So what about active substrates that move?
  43. 43. www.innventia.com © 2015  43
  44. 44. www.innventia.com © 2015  44 We have shown that we can take a material that is today available in bulk... ZnO tetrapods
  45. 45. www.innventia.com © 2015  45 3.200.000 m2 = 7 h …and use a mature and well trimmed production process, to produce a new materials with new exciting properties.
  46. 46. www.innventia.com © 2015  46 Boosting business with science www.innventia.com … what more can we do combining the old and the new? Where are the first large scale applications and who wants to join forces…

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