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Improving Patient
Quality-of-Care with
Recognition and Rewards
Darien T. Kadens, PhD, MBA, Director of Healthcare Research, Sodexo
Michele W. Gazica, JD, MA, Research Fellow, Sodexo
2
The information and concepts contained in this document are the proprietary property of Sodexo.
As such, they cannot be reproduced or utilized without permission. ©2015
Empirical research estimates that medical errors cost an estimated 19.5 billion dollars in healthcare costs and nearly
400,000 patients die annually due to these errors. 1
As a result, the federal government has adopted a new regulation
that creates incentives for hospitals and their staff to improve the quality of patient care. 2
This new regulation ties
patient care to Medicare reimbursements. In other words, how well a hospital provides patient care determines whether
that hospital incurs a penalty or a bonus in the form of a percent reduction or increase of Medicare reimbursement rates.
Penalties and bonuses are calculated based upon a publicly available hospital score, 30% of which is determined by a
satisfaction survey administered to discharged patients. 3
This survey is designed to assess a patient’s perceptions
of the quality of discharge information and caregiver-patient communications; the responsiveness of the hospital staff
to patient needs; the cleanliness of the hospital environment; and the hospital overall.
IMPROVING PATIENT QUALITY-OF-CARE
Keenly aware of this new regulation, many hospitals are refocusing their efforts on improving patient care. Improving
patient care is complex and involves several key areas in the healthcare matrix, from patient check-in, wait time,
medical technology, staff compassion and more, some of which are not within the control of individual employees.
Figure 1 below highlights some of the main components of a patient-centered healthcare experience.
Figure 1: Aspects of Patient-Centered Care
Effective
Communication
Environment
of Care
Personalization
of Care
Access
to Information
Family
Involvement Continuity
of Care
Family
Involvement
Access
to Information
Continuity
of Care
Personalization
of Care
Effective
Communication
Environment
of Care
3
The information and concepts contained in this document are the proprietary property of Sodexo.
As such, they cannot be reproduced or utilized without permission. ©2015
The quality of patient interactions, however, is within the control of hospital staff, particularly front-line employees
such as nurses. Unfortunately, those with the most patient contact – and ability to affect patient satisfaction scores –
may be limited in their responsiveness to patient needs due to competing time pressures, such as workload, training,
and mentoring. Therefore, hospitals must take extra measures to create an organizational culture that embraces and
prioritizes patient-centered care.
In fact, hospitals that expect, support, and reward patient care over other competing demands have employees who
demonstrate greater work satisfaction, organizational commitment, motivation, productivity, and engagement, as well
as decreased absenteeism and turnover. Work engagement, in particular, facilitates patient-centered care behaviors5
6
and is linked to a number of positive outcomes. For example, Aberdeen Group reports that organizations with effective
employee engagement strategies realize a 22% year over year improvement in customer satisfaction and loyalty and a
21% year over year improvement in retention rates, an issue that is of heightened priority in the healthcare industry.
Figure 2: Outcomes of Recognition & Rewards around Patient-Centered Care
Improved
quality of care
Increased
satisfaction
Better health
outcomes
Engagement
Satisfaction
Commitment
Motivation
Feelings of
Support
Productivity
Retention
Lower attrition
Higher
reimbursement
rates
Increased
customer loyalty
Decreased
employee
turnover
Lower
absenteeism
Increased
Profitability
Patient
OutcomesEmployee
OutcomesOrganizational
Outcomes
4
The information and concepts contained in this document are the proprietary property of Sodexo.
As such, they cannot be reproduced or utilized without permission. ©2015
RECOGNITION & REWARDS
One effective engagement strategy is the implementation of a hospital-wide recognition and rewards program. An
effective recognition and rewards program designed to increase patient-centered care not only increases employee work
engagement, but also promotes a supportive environment in which caregivers are treated with the same dignity and
respect that they are expected to show to their patients7
. Furthermore, recognizing and rewarding hospital staff for their
contributions to patient-centered care is linked to improvements in patient outcomes and perceptions of care.
It is important to carefully structure and uniformly administer a recognition and rewards program; otherwise, it will
fail to increase the desired behavior or will be unlikely to result in long-lasting behavioral changes. To be successful, a
recognition and rewards program designed to encourage patient-centered care should include the following design and
implementation basics:8 9
Figure 3: The Basics of a Patient-Centered Care Recognition & Rewards Program
Program Goals Recognition & Rewards Program Communication
SMART
Behavioral-based,
not outcome-based
Paired with goals
Tailored to employee
preferences
Comprehensive &
highly visible
Conveys managerial
commitment
Training Tracking & Evaluation Use of Technology
For healthcare workers
(behaviors)
For managers
(recognizing &
rewarding behaviors)
Ongoing or on a regular
basis
Easy to access and
readily available
offering real-time
insights
As part of the patient
care experience
As part of the
recognition & rewards
program
5
The information and concepts contained in this document are the proprietary property of Sodexo.
As such, they cannot be reproduced or utilized without permission. ©2015
RECOGNITION & REWARDS PROGRAM:
The Basics
Set goals for the program. Organizational goals inform employees what behaviors are valued and expected
within the organization. Extensive research has shown strong relationships among goal-setting, increased
employee motivation in the form of extra effort and goal persistence, and performance. Goals, however, should
be SMART – Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-bound. Goals also should be behavioral-based,
not outcome-based. In other words, patient-centered care goals should be kept distinct from patient outcomes. That
is, employees should receive recognition and rewards for excellence in patient-centered care regardless of whether the
patient’s health improves.
Identify patient-centered care behaviors. In a patient-centered care system, patient needs and preferences
are paramount. Research demonstrates that patients want quality personal relationships and communication10
with and empathy11
from their caregivers. While it is difficult to translate some of these needs into specific
behaviors, there are a number of behaviors that are easily identified and measured; for instance, asking patients
how they would like to participate in their care and being responsive to and respectful of patient needs and preferences.
These are worthy patient-centered care goals that, if met, will naturally lead to improved treatment outcomes and
increased patient satisfaction scores.
Link recognition and rewards to behaviors.
Each incentive should be paired with a specific set of patient-centered care behaviors. In other words, simply
distributing recognition, incentives, and other rewards without pairing them with a clear, consistent set of
behavioral contingencies reduces the potential to achieve the desired outcome and may result in decreased
employee engagement. These pairings should be outlined prior to implementation of the program and uniformly and
consistently distributed. For example, individual-level compliance might be rewarded with praise or a note card, while
unit-level compliance might be rewarded with a plaque or a luncheon.
Tailor recognition and rewards to employee preferences. A range of awards – monetary rewards, gifts,
experiences and non-monetary recognition tools – are ideal to satisfy your various employees’ needs and
desires. Be mindful of how employees want to be recognized. For example, some people are uncomfortable with
public attention and prefer more private, low key recognition. To be effective at reinforcing behavior, recognition
should be timely and specific. This shows that management is paying attention and cares about the employees’ level of
effort.
Communicate. A recognition and rewards program designed to improve patient-centered care goals
must receive a high level of visibility within the hospital. This is best achieved through a comprehensive
communication plan. All hospital employees must understand what the program is designed to accomplish and
how their performance will be measured, evaluated, and rewarded. Research emphasizes that management is key
to these objectives. All levels of management, from senior executives to front-line supervisors, must publicly commit to,
communicate and, more importantly, treat patient-centered care as a priority.12
Train staff members involved in the program. Train all hospital staff to provide exceptional patient-centered
care and provide them with a checklist of patient-centered care behaviors appropriate to their department, unit,
or job type. Also, train leaders, managers, and direct supervisors how to effectively recognize employees for their
outstanding contributions to patient-centered care.
Track & Evaluate. All aspects of the recognition and rewards program should be regularly monitored and
evaluated to ensure that program goals are being achieved. Technology should be leveraged to achieve these
objectives efficiently and effectively. For example, caregivers can be electronically prompted to deliver patient-
centered care at each patient interaction, or “touch point,” and that interaction should be documented for
continuity of care as well as for monitoring and evaluating the program and accurately distributing rewards.
6
The information and concepts contained in this document are the proprietary property of Sodexo.
As such, they cannot be reproduced or utilized without permission. ©2015
Leverage Technology. To further facilitate program goals,
technology also can be leveraged to facilitate patient-
centered care and communicate to the patient that his or
her care experience is a priority. For example, information
technology (IT)-guided disease management and telemonitoring
systems have been shown to have positive effects on health
care process outcomes, disease-specific clinical outcomes,
responsiveness to patient needs and preferences, healthcare
provider-patient collaboration and communication, and access to
medical information.13
As another example, technology can be used to prompt direct
patient feedback while the patient is still under hospital care. This
can be easily done by strategically placing computer kiosks at
every check-out and waiting area throughout the hospital. This
strategy is a great way to gauge patient satisfaction while there is
still time to ameliorate any concerns and to recognize healthcare
workers for quality patient care in real time.
Pairing a strong commitment to patient-centered care with a well-
designed recognition and rewards program helps hospitals provide
exemplary patient care and yields benefits in terms of better
patient clinical outcomes, improved patient satisfaction scores, and
higher employee work engagement levels. Simply put, committing
to patient quality-of-care improves the overall effectiveness of
organizations and the health, safety, and well-being of patients!
Patient safety
programs should
have clear
goals that are
attainable by
all employees
and can be
benchmarked
over time.
7
The information and concepts contained in this document are the proprietary property of Sodexo.
As such, they cannot be reproduced or utilized without permission. ©2015
CASE STUDY
Objective
An academic health system with 6,300 employees based in the Midwest looked toward Sodexo to increase
recognition among its frontline workers. Recognizing staff members who directly connect with patients and
families has become an important concern among healthcare leaders after the HCAHPS legislation was
instituted. The health system specifically wanted to increase employee motivation and engagement, administer
appropriate rewards while offering choice to the employee, and implement a solution that was scalable for
future program implementations.
Implementation
Based on their company values and desired outcomes, Sodexo implemented an employee recognition platform
with an on-the-spot recognition program. From the beginning of the technology development through the
launch of the platform, a communication plan was executed in order to keep employees involved, obtain
their feedback, and attract attention to the program. Managers were able to order in bulk via the inventory
management system on the recognition technology platform, making it easy to deliver on-the-spot recognition
to frontline staff.
Sodexo also provided a way to give daily recognition to frontline workers while bringing measurable tracking
to each occurrence of recognition. Non-monetary printable eCards that tied to each of their corporate values
were created and given to employees who had demonstrated a desired behavior. Furthermore, Sodexo’s platform
incorporated a spotlight module to highlight exemplary employees, as well as an online manager tool kit which
included tips for creating a culture of recognition.
Results
In response to these efforts, program awareness increased among the health care managers and compliance
and consistency for on-the-spot recognition program was established. Managers indicated satisfaction with the
tools provided for more effective and efficient recognition. Employee engagement and satisfaction increased, as
did the number of employees that were recognized. Most importantly, employees indicated that they felt valued
and motivated by the rewards they received, and the company had governance over programs with access to
real-time data on recognition occurring within the organization.
8
The information and concepts contained in this document are the proprietary property of Sodexo.
As such, they cannot be reproduced or utilized without permission. ©2015
References
1
	 James, J. T. (2013). A new, evidence-based estimate of patient harms associated with hospital care. Journal of Patient
Safety, 9(3), 122-128.
2
	 Rau, J. (November 14, 2013). Nearly 1,500 hospitals penalized under Medicare Program Rating Quality. Kaiser
Health News. Retrieved from http://www.kaiserhealthnews.org/stories/2013/november/14/value-based-purchasing-
medicare.aspx
3
	 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). (2013). HCAHPS Fact Sheet. Retrieved from www.hcahpsonline.org.
4
	 Planetree and Picker Institute. (2008). Patient-Centered Care Improvement Guide: Self-Assessment Tool. Retrieved
from http://www.patient-centeredcare.org/inside/chapter3_Form_Self-Assess_Tool1.pdf
5
	 Abdelhadi, N., & Drach-Zahavy, A. (2011). Promoting patient care: Work engagement as a mediator between ward
service climate and patient-centered care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68(6), 1276-1287.
6
	 Laschinger, H. K., & Leiter, M. P. (2006). The impact of nursing work environments on patient safety outcomes: The
mediating role of burnout/engagement. Journal of Nursing Administration, 36(5), 259-267.
7
	 Shaller, D. (2007). Patient-centered care: What does it take? The Commonwealth Fund. Retrieved from http://www.
commonwealthfund.org/usr_doc/Shaller_patient-centeredcarewhatdoesittake_1067.pdf
8
	 Balik, B., Conway, J., Zipperer, L., & Watson, J. (2011). Achieving an Exceptional Patient and Family Experience
of Inpatient Hospital Care. IHI Innovation Series white paper. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Institute for Healthcare
Improvement. Available from www.IHI.org
9
	 Sodexo Motivation Solutions. (2012). Recognizing and Rewarding Hospital Employees. Retrieved from http://
sodexousa.com/usen/Images/Recognizing%20and%20Rewarding%20Hospital%20Employees337-692140.pdf
10
	Little, P., Everitt, H., Williamson, I., Warner, G., Moore, M., Gould, C., Ferrier, K., & Payne, S. (2001). Observational study
of effect of patient centredness and positive approach on outcomes of general practice consultations. British Medical
Journal, 323(7318), 908-911.
11
	Kim, S. S., Kaplowitz, S., & Johnston, M. V. (2004). The effects of physician empathy on patient satisfaction and
compliance. Evaluation & the Health Professions, 27(3), 237-251.
12
	Balik, B., Conway, J., Zipperer, L., & Watson, J. (2011). Achieving an Exceptional Patient and Family Experience
of Inpatient Hospital Care. IHI Innovation Series white paper. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Institute for Healthcare
Improvement. Available from www.IHI.org
13
	Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2012). Enabling Patient-Centered Care through Health Information.
Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/evidence-based-reports/er206-abstract.html
SodexoMotivation.com
1.2 million partners | 4,058 employees | 34 countries
$22 billion in issue volume | 420,000 clients | 31.9 million users
SodexoMotivation.com | 888 663 4437 | sales.sodexopass.usa@sodexo.com

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Improving patient quality of care with recognition and rewards

  • 1. Improving Patient Quality-of-Care with Recognition and Rewards Darien T. Kadens, PhD, MBA, Director of Healthcare Research, Sodexo Michele W. Gazica, JD, MA, Research Fellow, Sodexo
  • 2. 2 The information and concepts contained in this document are the proprietary property of Sodexo. As such, they cannot be reproduced or utilized without permission. ©2015 Empirical research estimates that medical errors cost an estimated 19.5 billion dollars in healthcare costs and nearly 400,000 patients die annually due to these errors. 1 As a result, the federal government has adopted a new regulation that creates incentives for hospitals and their staff to improve the quality of patient care. 2 This new regulation ties patient care to Medicare reimbursements. In other words, how well a hospital provides patient care determines whether that hospital incurs a penalty or a bonus in the form of a percent reduction or increase of Medicare reimbursement rates. Penalties and bonuses are calculated based upon a publicly available hospital score, 30% of which is determined by a satisfaction survey administered to discharged patients. 3 This survey is designed to assess a patient’s perceptions of the quality of discharge information and caregiver-patient communications; the responsiveness of the hospital staff to patient needs; the cleanliness of the hospital environment; and the hospital overall. IMPROVING PATIENT QUALITY-OF-CARE Keenly aware of this new regulation, many hospitals are refocusing their efforts on improving patient care. Improving patient care is complex and involves several key areas in the healthcare matrix, from patient check-in, wait time, medical technology, staff compassion and more, some of which are not within the control of individual employees. Figure 1 below highlights some of the main components of a patient-centered healthcare experience. Figure 1: Aspects of Patient-Centered Care Effective Communication Environment of Care Personalization of Care Access to Information Family Involvement Continuity of Care Family Involvement Access to Information Continuity of Care Personalization of Care Effective Communication Environment of Care
  • 3. 3 The information and concepts contained in this document are the proprietary property of Sodexo. As such, they cannot be reproduced or utilized without permission. ©2015 The quality of patient interactions, however, is within the control of hospital staff, particularly front-line employees such as nurses. Unfortunately, those with the most patient contact – and ability to affect patient satisfaction scores – may be limited in their responsiveness to patient needs due to competing time pressures, such as workload, training, and mentoring. Therefore, hospitals must take extra measures to create an organizational culture that embraces and prioritizes patient-centered care. In fact, hospitals that expect, support, and reward patient care over other competing demands have employees who demonstrate greater work satisfaction, organizational commitment, motivation, productivity, and engagement, as well as decreased absenteeism and turnover. Work engagement, in particular, facilitates patient-centered care behaviors5 6 and is linked to a number of positive outcomes. For example, Aberdeen Group reports that organizations with effective employee engagement strategies realize a 22% year over year improvement in customer satisfaction and loyalty and a 21% year over year improvement in retention rates, an issue that is of heightened priority in the healthcare industry. Figure 2: Outcomes of Recognition & Rewards around Patient-Centered Care Improved quality of care Increased satisfaction Better health outcomes Engagement Satisfaction Commitment Motivation Feelings of Support Productivity Retention Lower attrition Higher reimbursement rates Increased customer loyalty Decreased employee turnover Lower absenteeism Increased Profitability Patient OutcomesEmployee OutcomesOrganizational Outcomes
  • 4. 4 The information and concepts contained in this document are the proprietary property of Sodexo. As such, they cannot be reproduced or utilized without permission. ©2015 RECOGNITION & REWARDS One effective engagement strategy is the implementation of a hospital-wide recognition and rewards program. An effective recognition and rewards program designed to increase patient-centered care not only increases employee work engagement, but also promotes a supportive environment in which caregivers are treated with the same dignity and respect that they are expected to show to their patients7 . Furthermore, recognizing and rewarding hospital staff for their contributions to patient-centered care is linked to improvements in patient outcomes and perceptions of care. It is important to carefully structure and uniformly administer a recognition and rewards program; otherwise, it will fail to increase the desired behavior or will be unlikely to result in long-lasting behavioral changes. To be successful, a recognition and rewards program designed to encourage patient-centered care should include the following design and implementation basics:8 9 Figure 3: The Basics of a Patient-Centered Care Recognition & Rewards Program Program Goals Recognition & Rewards Program Communication SMART Behavioral-based, not outcome-based Paired with goals Tailored to employee preferences Comprehensive & highly visible Conveys managerial commitment Training Tracking & Evaluation Use of Technology For healthcare workers (behaviors) For managers (recognizing & rewarding behaviors) Ongoing or on a regular basis Easy to access and readily available offering real-time insights As part of the patient care experience As part of the recognition & rewards program
  • 5. 5 The information and concepts contained in this document are the proprietary property of Sodexo. As such, they cannot be reproduced or utilized without permission. ©2015 RECOGNITION & REWARDS PROGRAM: The Basics Set goals for the program. Organizational goals inform employees what behaviors are valued and expected within the organization. Extensive research has shown strong relationships among goal-setting, increased employee motivation in the form of extra effort and goal persistence, and performance. Goals, however, should be SMART – Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-bound. Goals also should be behavioral-based, not outcome-based. In other words, patient-centered care goals should be kept distinct from patient outcomes. That is, employees should receive recognition and rewards for excellence in patient-centered care regardless of whether the patient’s health improves. Identify patient-centered care behaviors. In a patient-centered care system, patient needs and preferences are paramount. Research demonstrates that patients want quality personal relationships and communication10 with and empathy11 from their caregivers. While it is difficult to translate some of these needs into specific behaviors, there are a number of behaviors that are easily identified and measured; for instance, asking patients how they would like to participate in their care and being responsive to and respectful of patient needs and preferences. These are worthy patient-centered care goals that, if met, will naturally lead to improved treatment outcomes and increased patient satisfaction scores. Link recognition and rewards to behaviors. Each incentive should be paired with a specific set of patient-centered care behaviors. In other words, simply distributing recognition, incentives, and other rewards without pairing them with a clear, consistent set of behavioral contingencies reduces the potential to achieve the desired outcome and may result in decreased employee engagement. These pairings should be outlined prior to implementation of the program and uniformly and consistently distributed. For example, individual-level compliance might be rewarded with praise or a note card, while unit-level compliance might be rewarded with a plaque or a luncheon. Tailor recognition and rewards to employee preferences. A range of awards – monetary rewards, gifts, experiences and non-monetary recognition tools – are ideal to satisfy your various employees’ needs and desires. Be mindful of how employees want to be recognized. For example, some people are uncomfortable with public attention and prefer more private, low key recognition. To be effective at reinforcing behavior, recognition should be timely and specific. This shows that management is paying attention and cares about the employees’ level of effort. Communicate. A recognition and rewards program designed to improve patient-centered care goals must receive a high level of visibility within the hospital. This is best achieved through a comprehensive communication plan. All hospital employees must understand what the program is designed to accomplish and how their performance will be measured, evaluated, and rewarded. Research emphasizes that management is key to these objectives. All levels of management, from senior executives to front-line supervisors, must publicly commit to, communicate and, more importantly, treat patient-centered care as a priority.12 Train staff members involved in the program. Train all hospital staff to provide exceptional patient-centered care and provide them with a checklist of patient-centered care behaviors appropriate to their department, unit, or job type. Also, train leaders, managers, and direct supervisors how to effectively recognize employees for their outstanding contributions to patient-centered care. Track & Evaluate. All aspects of the recognition and rewards program should be regularly monitored and evaluated to ensure that program goals are being achieved. Technology should be leveraged to achieve these objectives efficiently and effectively. For example, caregivers can be electronically prompted to deliver patient- centered care at each patient interaction, or “touch point,” and that interaction should be documented for continuity of care as well as for monitoring and evaluating the program and accurately distributing rewards.
  • 6. 6 The information and concepts contained in this document are the proprietary property of Sodexo. As such, they cannot be reproduced or utilized without permission. ©2015 Leverage Technology. To further facilitate program goals, technology also can be leveraged to facilitate patient- centered care and communicate to the patient that his or her care experience is a priority. For example, information technology (IT)-guided disease management and telemonitoring systems have been shown to have positive effects on health care process outcomes, disease-specific clinical outcomes, responsiveness to patient needs and preferences, healthcare provider-patient collaboration and communication, and access to medical information.13 As another example, technology can be used to prompt direct patient feedback while the patient is still under hospital care. This can be easily done by strategically placing computer kiosks at every check-out and waiting area throughout the hospital. This strategy is a great way to gauge patient satisfaction while there is still time to ameliorate any concerns and to recognize healthcare workers for quality patient care in real time. Pairing a strong commitment to patient-centered care with a well- designed recognition and rewards program helps hospitals provide exemplary patient care and yields benefits in terms of better patient clinical outcomes, improved patient satisfaction scores, and higher employee work engagement levels. Simply put, committing to patient quality-of-care improves the overall effectiveness of organizations and the health, safety, and well-being of patients! Patient safety programs should have clear goals that are attainable by all employees and can be benchmarked over time.
  • 7. 7 The information and concepts contained in this document are the proprietary property of Sodexo. As such, they cannot be reproduced or utilized without permission. ©2015 CASE STUDY Objective An academic health system with 6,300 employees based in the Midwest looked toward Sodexo to increase recognition among its frontline workers. Recognizing staff members who directly connect with patients and families has become an important concern among healthcare leaders after the HCAHPS legislation was instituted. The health system specifically wanted to increase employee motivation and engagement, administer appropriate rewards while offering choice to the employee, and implement a solution that was scalable for future program implementations. Implementation Based on their company values and desired outcomes, Sodexo implemented an employee recognition platform with an on-the-spot recognition program. From the beginning of the technology development through the launch of the platform, a communication plan was executed in order to keep employees involved, obtain their feedback, and attract attention to the program. Managers were able to order in bulk via the inventory management system on the recognition technology platform, making it easy to deliver on-the-spot recognition to frontline staff. Sodexo also provided a way to give daily recognition to frontline workers while bringing measurable tracking to each occurrence of recognition. Non-monetary printable eCards that tied to each of their corporate values were created and given to employees who had demonstrated a desired behavior. Furthermore, Sodexo’s platform incorporated a spotlight module to highlight exemplary employees, as well as an online manager tool kit which included tips for creating a culture of recognition. Results In response to these efforts, program awareness increased among the health care managers and compliance and consistency for on-the-spot recognition program was established. Managers indicated satisfaction with the tools provided for more effective and efficient recognition. Employee engagement and satisfaction increased, as did the number of employees that were recognized. Most importantly, employees indicated that they felt valued and motivated by the rewards they received, and the company had governance over programs with access to real-time data on recognition occurring within the organization.
  • 8. 8 The information and concepts contained in this document are the proprietary property of Sodexo. As such, they cannot be reproduced or utilized without permission. ©2015 References 1 James, J. T. (2013). A new, evidence-based estimate of patient harms associated with hospital care. Journal of Patient Safety, 9(3), 122-128. 2 Rau, J. (November 14, 2013). Nearly 1,500 hospitals penalized under Medicare Program Rating Quality. Kaiser Health News. Retrieved from http://www.kaiserhealthnews.org/stories/2013/november/14/value-based-purchasing- medicare.aspx 3 Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). (2013). HCAHPS Fact Sheet. Retrieved from www.hcahpsonline.org. 4 Planetree and Picker Institute. (2008). Patient-Centered Care Improvement Guide: Self-Assessment Tool. Retrieved from http://www.patient-centeredcare.org/inside/chapter3_Form_Self-Assess_Tool1.pdf 5 Abdelhadi, N., & Drach-Zahavy, A. (2011). Promoting patient care: Work engagement as a mediator between ward service climate and patient-centered care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 68(6), 1276-1287. 6 Laschinger, H. K., & Leiter, M. P. (2006). The impact of nursing work environments on patient safety outcomes: The mediating role of burnout/engagement. Journal of Nursing Administration, 36(5), 259-267. 7 Shaller, D. (2007). Patient-centered care: What does it take? The Commonwealth Fund. Retrieved from http://www. commonwealthfund.org/usr_doc/Shaller_patient-centeredcarewhatdoesittake_1067.pdf 8 Balik, B., Conway, J., Zipperer, L., & Watson, J. (2011). Achieving an Exceptional Patient and Family Experience of Inpatient Hospital Care. IHI Innovation Series white paper. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Available from www.IHI.org 9 Sodexo Motivation Solutions. (2012). Recognizing and Rewarding Hospital Employees. Retrieved from http:// sodexousa.com/usen/Images/Recognizing%20and%20Rewarding%20Hospital%20Employees337-692140.pdf 10 Little, P., Everitt, H., Williamson, I., Warner, G., Moore, M., Gould, C., Ferrier, K., & Payne, S. (2001). Observational study of effect of patient centredness and positive approach on outcomes of general practice consultations. British Medical Journal, 323(7318), 908-911. 11 Kim, S. S., Kaplowitz, S., & Johnston, M. V. (2004). The effects of physician empathy on patient satisfaction and compliance. Evaluation & the Health Professions, 27(3), 237-251. 12 Balik, B., Conway, J., Zipperer, L., & Watson, J. (2011). Achieving an Exceptional Patient and Family Experience of Inpatient Hospital Care. IHI Innovation Series white paper. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Institute for Healthcare Improvement. Available from www.IHI.org 13 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2012). Enabling Patient-Centered Care through Health Information. Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/evidence-based-reports/er206-abstract.html
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