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Roots of scrum 2011_Jeff Sutherland氏

  1. 1. THE ROOTS OF SCRUM How the Japanese lean experience changed global software development With help from Citrix Online, Google, Yahoo, Microsoft, IBM, Oracle, MySpace, Adobe, GE, Siemens, Disney Animation, BellSouth, Nortel, Alcatel-Lucent, GSI Commerce, Ulticom, Palm, St. Jude Medical, DigiChart, RosettaStone, Healthwise, Sony/Ericsson, Accenture, Trifork, Systematic Software Engineering, Exigen Services, SirsiDynix, Softhouse, Philips, Barclays Global Investors, Constant Contact, Wellogic, Inova Solutions, Medco, Saxo Bank, Xebia, Insight.com, SolutionsIQ, Crisp, Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, Unitarian Universalist Association, Motley Fool, Planon, FinnTech, OpenView Venture Partners, Jyske Bank, BEC, Camp Scrum, DotWay AB, Ultimate Software, Scrum Training Institute, AtTask, Intronis, Version One, OpenView Labs, Central Desktop, Open-E, Zmags, eEye, Reality Digital, DST, Booz Allen Hamilton, Scrum Alliance, Fortis, DIPS, Program UtVikling, Sulake, TietoEnator, Gilb.com, WebGuide Partner, Emergn, NSB (Norwegian Railway), Danske Bank, Pegasystems, Wake Forest University, The Economist, iContact, Avaya, Kanban Marketing, accelare, Tam Tam, Telefonica/O2, iSense, AgileDigm, Highbridge Capital Management, Wells Fargo Bank, Deutsche Bank, Hansenet/Alice, GlobalCollect © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 1
  2. 2. Jeff Sutherland’s History 1964-1975 - Fighter Pilot, U.S. Air Force 100 missions over North Vietnam in F4 Phantom 1975-1983 - Medical School Professor Complex adaptive systems research Mathematical simulations of cancer cell formation 1983-2011 - VP/CTO/CEO 11 technology companies 1983-1993 prototyping new development processes 1993 created first software Scrum team 1993-2011 VP/CTO/CEO 7 Scrum companies © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 2
  3. 3. 1983 - Software for 150 banks Late Projects always late Upset Management always upset Pressure Developers under pressure Unhappy Customers unhappy Sources: http://www.softwaremag.com/L.cfm?Doc=newsletter/2004-01-15/Standish http://www.infoq.com/articles/Interview-Johnson-Standish-CHAOS http://www.projectsmart.co.uk/the-curious-case-of-the-chaos-report-2009.html © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 3
  4. 4. Managers did not understand basic laws of software development Ziv's Uncertainty Principle in Software Engineering - uncertainty is inherent and inevitable in software development processes and products - Ziv, 1996 Trying to control an empirical process with a predictive control system (waterfall) causes chemical plants to explode (like software projects) - Ogunnaike and Ray, 1995 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 4
  5. 5. Radical Change Required  Making the world a better place – Japanese manufacturing - W. Edwards Deming – Team process – Silicon Valley entrepreneurs (Creative Initiative) – Micro enterprise development – Accion and Grameen Bank  Process innovation and productivity research – Alan Kay and Xerox Parc – Takeuchi and Nonaka - knowledge generation/lean – IBM Surgical Team (Mythical Man Month) – Jim Coplien - ATT Bell Labs Pasteur Project – Complex adaptive systems and iRobot subsumption architecture © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 5
  6. 6. 10 How we invented Scrum: Learning about innovation from Xerox Parc Personal Workstation Mouse (SRI) Ethernet Windows Interface Laser Printer Smalltalk © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2009 Monday, January 3, 2011 6
  7. 7. Alan Kay’s Innovation Strategy  Incremental - NO  Cross Discipline - NO  Extreme data points - ONLY LOOK AT THIS! X CSM v10.21 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2009 Monday, January 3, 2011 7
  8. 8. Benchmarked Out of the Box Scrum looked at projects off the chart (IBM Surgical Team) F. P. Brooks, The Mythical Man Month: Essays on Software Engineering: Addison- Wesley, 1995. Takeuchi and Nonaka. The New New Product Development Game. Harvard Business Review, 1986 J. O. Coplien, "Borland Software Craftsmanship: A New Look at Process, Quality and Productivity," in 5th Annual Borland International Conference, Orlando, FL, 1994. Scrum: A Pattern Language for Hyperproductive Software Development By M. Beedle, M. Devos, Y. Sharon, K. Schwaber, and J. Sutherland. In Pattern Languages of Program Design. vol. 4, N. Harrison, Ed. Boston: Addison-Wesley, 1999, pp. 637-651. Every team can achieve hyperproductivity J. Sutherland, S. Downey, and B. Granvik, "Shock Therapy: A Bootstrap for a Hyper-Productive Scrum" in Agile 2009, Chicago, 2009. C. Jakobsen and J. Sutherland, "Scrum and CMMI – Going from Good to Great: are you ready-ready to be done-done?," in Agile 2009, Chicago, 2009. © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2009 Monday, January 3, 2011 8
  9. 9. Scrum is a Simple Framework Product Scrum Product Backlog Owner Sprint Artifacts Roles ScrumMaster Backlog Burndown Team Charts Meetings Sprint Daily Sprint Planning Meeting Review © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 9
  10. 10. Team Performance ATT Bell Labs Pasteur Project Performance = Communication Saturation = Collective Team Knowledge Daily meeting with few roles = performance 120 100 % Saturation 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 Number of Roles Communication Saturation and Roles. Organizational Patterns of Agile Software Development by Coplien and Harrison (2004) CSM v 11.07 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2011 Monday, January 3, 2011 10
  11. 11. Brooks Law Adding people to a late project makes it later 0.% 0-% /.% !"#$%&'("% )*+,% /-% !'$"% .% !'$"% -% )*+,% /% !"#$%&'("% 0% 1% 2% .% Optimal team size is 3-7 people Source: http://www.qsm.com/process_01.html (491 projects) CSM v 11.07 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2011 Monday, January 3, 2011 11
  12. 12. Theory: Scrum Origins Project Management Styles Requirements Analysis Design Implementation Testing Type A – Isolated cycles of work NASA Waterfall Fuji-Xerox Scrum Type B – Overlapping work Honda Scrum Type C – All at once The overlapping of phases does away with traditional notions about division of labor. Takeuchi and Nonaka (1986) © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 12
  13. 13. Complex Adaptive System  Self organization  No single point of control  Interdisciplinary teams J. Sutherland, A. Viktorov, and J. Blount, Adaptive Engineering of Large Software Projects with Distributed/Outsourced Teams, in  Emergent behavior International Conference on Complex Systems, Boston, MA, USA, 2006.  Outcomes emerge with high dependence on relationship and context  Team performance far greater than sum of individuals © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 13
  14. 14. Scrum Dynamic Model Daily Meeting Sprint I R M D P E E O A D N D I E M Value Y E Velocity N T S CSM v10.21 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2009 Monday, January 3, 2011 14
  15. 15. Project State Space Early Supportive 300-400% Fun Chaos on e Ecstatic improvement D e D on a dy Re d y R ea Late Better Upset eady Unsupportive 35% Not R one Pressure Not D Mediocre improvement Unhappy Happier Traditional Project Management Scrum © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 15
  16. 16. Linear scalability CSM v 11.06 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 16
  17. 17. Three Best Practices Enabling Specifications generate User Stories A “type of user” needs a “feature” to get “some business value” plus acceptance tests, notes, and an implied conversation. Story point - unit-less number that indicates relative size of a user story compared to a small reference story. Velocity - number of story points that a Scrum team delivers at the end of a Sprint Planning Poker - used to estimate User Stories Scrum Board - information radiator displaying all three Scrum artifacts CSM v 11.07 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2011 Monday, January 3, 2011 17
  18. 18. Vodafone Scrum Board 18 Monday, January 3, 2011 18
  19. 19. 8 Company Structure 04/06/10 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 19
  20. 20. Breaking down command and control  Emergent strategy self-organizes through local actions – Distributed cognition and actions  Scrum team must be allowed to self-organize – Autonomous – Transcendent – Cross-fertilization  Team chooses own work – Individuals manage their own work – Management gets out of the way © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 20
  21. 21. Managers need to be Leaders  Leaders can “find” and utilize spontaneously formed ba  Leaders can build ba by providing space for interactions – Physical space such as meeting rooms – Cyberspace such as computer network – Mental space such as common goals  Fostering trust and commitment forms the foundation of knowledge creation (self- organization)  Scrum is based on TRUTH, TRANSPARENCY, COMMITMENT, and TRUST © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 21
  22. 22. Training management in Lean helps them understand Scrum Lean Traditional #1 Bankrupt © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 22
  23. 23. 3 Pillars of Lean Muri - overburden (invisible cause of waste) Mura - unevenness (invisible cause of waste) Muda - visible waste © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 23
  24. 24. The concept of ba  Dynamic interaction of individuals and organization creates a synthesis in the form of a self-organizing team.  It provides a shared context in which individuals can interact with each other.  Team members create new points of view and resolve contradictions through dialogue.  Ba is shared context in motion where knowledge as a stream of meaning emerges.  Emergent knowledge codified into working software self-organizes into a product. © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 24
  25. 25. Energy of ba is given by its self-organizing nature  Ba needs to be “energized” with its own intention, direction, interest, or mission to be effective  Leaders provide autonomy, creative chaos, redundancy, requisite variety, love, care, trust and commitment  Demanding goals and time pressure facilitate performance  Equal access to information at all levels was critical  ScrumMaster and management must “energize” ba through facilitating colocation, dynamic interaction, face to face communication, transparency, and audacious goals. © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 25
  26. 26. Local action forces self-organization  Individual self-organizes work  Team self-organizes around goals  Architecture self-organizes around working code  Product emerges through iterative adaptation  Requires participative approach as opposed to authoritative approach  Flat organizational structure © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 26
  27. 27. Going from Good to Great with Scrum Are you READY READY to be DONE DONE? Carsten Ruseng Jakobsen and Jeff Sutherland Carsten.Ruseng.Jakobsen@systematic.com, jeff@scruminc.com Monday, January 3, 2011 27
  28. 28. Lean Thinking Tools P1 P2 P4 P5 P6 P7 P3 Eliminate Amplify Fast Empower Build See the Responsible waste Learning Delivery team integrity in Whole decisions Tool 1: Tool 7: Tool 13: Tool 17: Eliminate Tool 3: Tool 10: Tool 21: Feedback Options Self- Perceived Waste Pull Measures Thinking determinatoion integrity Tool 2: Tool 8: Tool 4: Tool 11: Tool 18: Value Stream Latest Tool 14: Tool 22: Iterations Queue Conceptual Mapping Responsible Motivation Contracts Theory Integrity Moment Tool 5: Tool 9: Tool 12: Tool 15: Tool 19: Synchronization Decision Cost of Leadership Refactoring Making Dealy Tool 6: Setbased Tool 16: Tool 20: development Expertise Test © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 28
  29. 29. Scrum and Lean - Systematic Value Flow Pull Perfection P6 Build Integrity in P2 Amplify learning P2 Amplify Learning P6 Build Integrity In T19 Refactoring T5 Synchronization T3 Feedback T18 Conceptual Engineering T20 Test T4 Iterations integrity T6 Setbased development T17 Perceived integrity Tools can P1 Eliminate Waste P4 Fast Delivery P7 See the whole P3 Decide in latest be divided Responsible moment in three Management T1 Eliminate Waste T11 Queuing Theory T22 Contracts T7 Options thinking dimensions T2 Valuestreams T12 Cost of Delay T21 Measures T8 Latest responsible T10 Pull Moment T9 Beslutningstagning P5 Empower team P5 Empower team P5 Empower team P5 Empower team People T16 Expertise T14 Motivation T15 Leadership T13 Self-determination These are thinking tools – Projects and employees knows best how to transform them © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 29
  30. 30. Beginner’s Scrum - Systematic – 6 month results Project effort Rework 100 % 100% Work 90% Process focus 80% CMMI 50 % 69 % 70% 9% 60% SCRUM 50% a 40% 35 % 4% 30% 50 % 50 % 20% 25 % 10% 10 % 6% CMMI 1 CMMI 5 CMMI 5 SCRUM © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 30
  31. 31. Impediments Data driven removal of impediments using control charts from 11/2007 Examples on causes: • Special competences • Disk full • Setup misunderstood • COTS failed Root cause analysis of time to fix automatically generates ScrumMaster’s impediment list. © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 31
  32. 32. Next Step: Story Process Efficiency When work allocated to sprint is READY, flow and stability is achieved 100.00% Flow 90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% 1 3 5 7 9 11131517192123252729313335 Ready NOT Ready Objective: 60% Objective: 50h © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 32
  33. 33. Mature Scrum in Startup Company Revenue (millions USD) 50.0 37.5 25.0 12.5 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 PatientKeeper © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 33
  34. 34. All at Once Scrum - Pegasystems © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 34
  35. 35. Source: Forrester Research December 2008 Global Agile Company Online Survey © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 35
  36. 36. Japanese Scrum Professor W. Edwards Deming helped the Japanese create the lean revolution Professors Nonaka and Takeuchi brought the idea of Scrum back to America We now give back to the Japanese people the software Scrum now tested in every country by more than 100,000 teams May the Japanese take software development to the next level as they have done in manufacturing! © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 36
  37. 37. Anything is possible! © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 37
  38. 38. © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 38

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