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THE ROOTS OF SCRUM
          How the Japanese lean experience changed global
                       software development
        With help from Citrix Online, Google, Yahoo, Microsoft, IBM, Oracle, MySpace,
        Adobe, GE, Siemens, Disney Animation, BellSouth, Nortel, Alcatel-Lucent, GSI
     Commerce, Ulticom, Palm, St. Jude Medical, DigiChart, RosettaStone, Healthwise,
         Sony/Ericsson, Accenture, Trifork, Systematic Software Engineering, Exigen
         Services, SirsiDynix, Softhouse, Philips, Barclays Global Investors, Constant
          Contact, Wellogic, Inova Solutions, Medco, Saxo Bank, Xebia, Insight.com,
           SolutionsIQ, Crisp, Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, Unitarian
         Universalist Association, Motley Fool, Planon, FinnTech, OpenView Venture
       Partners, Jyske Bank, BEC, Camp Scrum, DotWay AB, Ultimate Software, Scrum
     Training Institute, AtTask, Intronis, Version One, OpenView Labs, Central Desktop,
       Open-E, Zmags, eEye, Reality Digital, DST, Booz Allen Hamilton, Scrum Alliance,
      Fortis, DIPS, Program UtVikling, Sulake, TietoEnator, Gilb.com, WebGuide Partner,
        Emergn, NSB (Norwegian Railway), Danske Bank, Pegasystems, Wake Forest
     University, The Economist, iContact, Avaya, Kanban Marketing, accelare, Tam Tam,
       Telefonica/O2, iSense, AgileDigm, Highbridge Capital Management, Wells Fargo
                      Bank, Deutsche Bank, Hansenet/Alice, GlobalCollect




                                                                    © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                                           1
Jeff Sutherland’s History
           1964-1975 - Fighter Pilot, U.S. Air Force
             100 missions over North Vietnam in F4 Phantom
           1975-1983 - Medical School Professor
                Complex adaptive systems research
             Mathematical simulations of cancer cell formation
           1983-2011 - VP/CTO/CEO 11 technology companies
                1983-1993 prototyping new development processes
                1993 created first software Scrum team
                1993-2011 VP/CTO/CEO 7 Scrum companies




                                                         © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                                2
1983 - Software for 150 banks




                 Late     Projects always late
                Upset     Management always upset
               Pressure   Developers under pressure
               Unhappy    Customers unhappy
                              Sources:
                              http://www.softwaremag.com/L.cfm?Doc=newsletter/2004-01-15/Standish
                              http://www.infoq.com/articles/Interview-Johnson-Standish-CHAOS
                              http://www.projectsmart.co.uk/the-curious-case-of-the-chaos-report-2009.html

                                                                         © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                                                      3
Managers did not understand basic
         laws of software development
       Ziv's Uncertainty Principle in Software Engineering - uncertainty
       is inherent and inevitable in software development processes
       and products - Ziv, 1996
       Trying to control an empirical process with a predictive control
       system (waterfall) causes chemical plants to explode (like software
       projects) - Ogunnaike and Ray, 1995




                                                         © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                                4
Radical Change Required
      Making the world a better place
        – Japanese manufacturing - W. Edwards Deming
        – Team process – Silicon Valley entrepreneurs (Creative Initiative)
        – Micro enterprise development – Accion and Grameen Bank
      Process innovation and productivity research
        – Alan Kay and Xerox Parc
        – Takeuchi and Nonaka - knowledge generation/lean
        – IBM Surgical Team (Mythical Man Month)
        – Jim Coplien - ATT Bell Labs Pasteur Project
        – Complex adaptive systems and iRobot subsumption architecture




                                                          © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                                 5
10


         How we invented Scrum:
         Learning about innovation from Xerox Parc




            Personal Workstation     Mouse (SRI)   Ethernet




              Windows Interface    Laser Printer    Smalltalk


                                                        © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2009



Monday, January 3, 2011                                                                6
Alan Kay’s Innovation Strategy

             Incremental - NO
             Cross Discipline - NO
             Extreme data points - ONLY LOOK AT THIS!


                                  X




                                           CSM v10.21 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2009



Monday, January 3, 2011                                                             7
Benchmarked Out of the Box


             Scrum looked at projects off the chart
                  (IBM Surgical Team) F. P. Brooks, The Mythical Man Month: Essays on Software Engineering: Addison-
                  Wesley, 1995.
                  Takeuchi and Nonaka. The New New Product Development Game. Harvard Business Review, 1986
                  J. O. Coplien, "Borland Software Craftsmanship: A New Look at Process, Quality and Productivity," in 5th
                  Annual Borland International Conference, Orlando, FL, 1994.

             Scrum: A Pattern Language for
             Hyperproductive Software Development
                  By M. Beedle, M. Devos, Y. Sharon, K. Schwaber, and J. Sutherland. In Pattern Languages of Program
                  Design. vol. 4, N. Harrison, Ed. Boston: Addison-Wesley, 1999, pp. 637-651.

             Every team can achieve hyperproductivity
                  J. Sutherland, S. Downey, and B. Granvik, "Shock Therapy: A Bootstrap for a Hyper-Productive Scrum" in
                  Agile 2009, Chicago, 2009.
                  C. Jakobsen and J. Sutherland, "Scrum and CMMI – Going from Good to Great: are you ready-ready to be
                  done-done?," in Agile 2009, Chicago, 2009.


                                                                                                      © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2009


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                                                                             8
Scrum is a Simple Framework


       Product                        Scrum                         Product
       Backlog                                                      Owner

       Sprint             Artifacts              Roles    ScrumMaster
       Backlog

       Burndown
                                                                    Team
       Charts
                                      Meetings


                          Sprint      Daily      Sprint
                          Planning    Meeting    Review
                                                           © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                                  9
Team Performance
           ATT Bell Labs Pasteur Project

             Performance = Communication Saturation = Collective
             Team Knowledge
             Daily meeting with few roles = performance
                                    120
                                    100
                     % Saturation




                                    80
                                    60
                                    40
                                    20
                                     0
                                          0      20            40            60             80
                                                      Number of Roles
                 Communication Saturation and Roles. Organizational Patterns of Agile Software Development by
                 Coplien and Harrison (2004)

                                                                                      CSM v 11.07 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2011


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                                                                         10
Brooks Law
                       Adding people to a late project makes it later


                          0.%


                          0-%


                          /.%
                                                                                      !"#$%&'("%
                                                                                      )*+,%
                          /-%
                                                                                      !'$"%

                            .%

                                                                              !'$"%
                            -%                                              )*+,%
                                   /%                                    !"#$%&'("%
                                           0%       1%       2%     .%




                       Optimal team size is 3-7 people

        Source: http://www.qsm.com/process_01.html (491 projects)                     CSM v 11.07 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2011


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                                                                         11
Theory: Scrum Origins
       Project Management Styles
                 Requirements   Analysis     Design      Implementation   Testing




                   Type A – Isolated cycles of work            NASA Waterfall


                                                               Fuji-Xerox Scrum

                  Type B – Overlapping work



                                                               Honda Scrum

                Type C – All at once
           The overlapping of phases does away with traditional notions about division of labor.
           Takeuchi and Nonaka (1986)

                                                                          © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                                                 12
Complex Adaptive System
      Self organization
      No single point of control
      Interdisciplinary teams      J. Sutherland, A. Viktorov, and J. Blount, Adaptive Engineering of
                                    Large Software Projects with Distributed/Outsourced Teams, in
      Emergent behavior            International Conference on Complex Systems, Boston, MA, USA, 2006.

      Outcomes emerge with high dependence on relationship and context
      Team performance far greater than sum of individuals




                                                                         © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                                                13
Scrum Dynamic Model

                               Daily
                              Meeting



                                        Sprint
                                         I
                          R              M       D
                                         P
                          E              E       O
                          A              D       N
                          D              I       E
                                         M
              Value       Y              E             Velocity
                                         N
                                         T
                                         S

                                                     CSM v10.21 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2009



Monday, January 3, 2011                                                                       14
Project State Space

                                                                                  Early
                                                                                Supportive         300-400%
                                                                                   Fun
                          Chaos                                        on
                                                                            e
                                                                                 Ecstatic
                                                                                                   improvement
                                                                     D
                                                                 e
                                                          D on
                                                   a dy
                                              Re
                                      d   y
                               R   ea
                 Late                                                              Better
                Upset                              eady                         Unsupportive         35%
                                              Not R one
               Pressure                        Not D                             Mediocre            improvement
               Unhappy                                                            Happier

     Traditional Project Management                                                 Scrum

                                                                                             © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                                                                    15
Linear scalability




                             CSM v 11.06 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010



Monday, January 3, 2011                                                16
Three Best Practices
            Enabling Specifications generate User Stories
                 A “type of user” needs a “feature” to get “some business value”
                 plus acceptance tests, notes, and an implied conversation.
                          Story point - unit-less number that indicates relative size of a
                          user story compared to a small reference story.
                          Velocity - number of story points that a Scrum team delivers at
                          the end of a Sprint
            Planning Poker - used to estimate User Stories
            Scrum Board - information radiator displaying all three
            Scrum artifacts




                                                                        CSM v 11.07 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2011


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                                                           17
Vodafone Scrum Board




                              18

Monday, January 3, 2011            18
8

         Company Structure




         04/06/10
                             © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                        19
Breaking down command and control
        Emergent strategy self-organizes through local
         actions
          – Distributed cognition and actions
        Scrum team must be allowed to self-organize
          – Autonomous
          – Transcendent
          – Cross-fertilization
        Team chooses own work
          – Individuals manage their own work
          – Management gets out of the way


                                              © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                     20
Managers need to be Leaders
         Leaders can “find” and utilize spontaneously
          formed ba
         Leaders can build ba by providing space for
          interactions
           – Physical space such as meeting rooms
              – Cyberspace such as computer network
              – Mental space such as common goals
         Fostering trust and commitment forms the
          foundation of knowledge creation (self-
          organization)
         Scrum is based on TRUTH, TRANSPARENCY,
          COMMITMENT, and TRUST
                                                      © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                             21
Training management in Lean helps
        them understand Scrum

                          Lean   Traditional




                          #1     Bankrupt




                                          © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                 22
3 Pillars of Lean

            Muri - overburden (invisible cause of waste)
            Mura - unevenness (invisible cause of waste)
            Muda - visible waste




                                                © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                       23
The concept of ba
         Dynamic interaction of individuals and
          organization creates a synthesis in the form of
          a self-organizing team.
         It provides a shared context in which
          individuals can interact with each other.
         Team members create new points of view and
          resolve contradictions through dialogue.
         Ba is shared context in motion where
          knowledge as a stream of meaning emerges.
         Emergent knowledge codified into working software
          self-organizes into a product.


                                                 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                        24
Energy of ba is given by its self-organizing
      nature
         Ba needs to be “energized” with its own
          intention, direction, interest, or mission to be
          effective
         Leaders provide autonomy, creative chaos,
          redundancy, requisite variety, love, care,
          trust and commitment
         Demanding goals and time pressure facilitate
          performance
         Equal access to information at all levels was
          critical
         ScrumMaster and management must “energize” ba
          through facilitating colocation, dynamic interaction,
          face to face communication, transparency, and
          audacious goals.


                                                            © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                                   25
Local action forces self-organization

           Individual self-organizes work
           Team self-organizes around goals
           Architecture self-organizes around working
            code
           Product emerges through iterative adaptation
           Requires participative approach as opposed to
            authoritative approach
           Flat organizational structure




                                               © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                      26
Going from Good to Great with Scrum
    Are you READY READY to be DONE DONE?

    Carsten Ruseng Jakobsen and Jeff Sutherland

Carsten.Ruseng.Jakobsen@systematic.com, jeff@scruminc.com

Monday, January 3, 2011                                     27
Lean Thinking Tools
        P1             P2                            P4          P5                P6                P7
                                         P3
     Eliminate        Amplify                       Fast       Empower            Build            See the
                                     Responsible
       waste         Learning                      Delivery     team           integrity in        Whole
                                      decisions


      Tool 1:                         Tool 7:                    Tool 13:       Tool 17:
     Eliminate        Tool 3:                      Tool 10:                                        Tool 21:
                     Feedback         Options                      Self-        Perceived
       Waste                                         Pull                                          Measures
                                      Thinking                determinatoion     integrity



       Tool 2:                         Tool 8:
                      Tool 4:                      Tool 11:                     Tool 18:
    Value Stream                        Latest                  Tool 14:                           Tool 22:
                     Iterations                     Queue                      Conceptual
      Mapping                        Responsible                Motivation                         Contracts
                                                    Theory                      Integrity
                                      Moment



                      Tool 5:          Tool 9:     Tool 12:
                                                                 Tool 15:       Tool 19:
                   Synchronization     Decision     Cost of
                                                                Leadership     Refactoring
                                       Making        Dealy



                       Tool 6:
                      Setbased                                  Tool 16:        Tool 20:
                    development                                 Expertise         Test




                                                                                    © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                                                           28
Scrum and Lean - Systematic
                                                Value                Flow                  Pull               Perfection

                                         P6 Build Integrity in   P2 Amplify learning P2 Amplify Learning P6 Build Integrity In

                                          T19 Refactoring        T5 Synchronization      T3 Feedback       T18 Conceptual
                          Engineering     T20 Test               T4 Iterations                                 integrity
                                                                                       T6 Setbased
                                                                                          development      T17 Perceived
                                                                                                               integrity


       Tools can                          P1 Eliminate Waste      P4 Fast Delivery    P7 See the whole
                                                                                                           P3 Decide in latest
      be divided                                                                                             Responsible moment
        in three          Management      T1 Eliminate Waste     T11 Queuing Theory T22 Contracts         T7 Options thinking
      dimensions                           T2 Valuestreams       T12 Cost of Delay  T21 Measures           T8 Latest responsible
                                                                                       T10 Pull              Moment
                                                                                                          T9 Beslutningstagning

                                           P5 Empower
                                                    team         P5 Empower team      P5 Empower team      P5 Empower team
                             People
                                          T16 Expertise          T14 Motivation        T15 Leadership     T13 Self-determination




                            These are thinking tools – Projects and employees knows best how to transform them



                                                                                                     © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                                                                            29
Beginner’s Scrum - Systematic
         – 6 month results
               Project effort                                Rework
                                100 %
                       100%
                                                              Work
                          90%
                                                              Process focus
                          80%            CMMI
                                50 %            69 %
                          70%
                                                 9%
                          60%                            SCRUM
                          50%                    a
                          40%                                         35 %
                                                                      4%
                          30%
                                50 %            50 %
                          20%                                         25 %

                        10%
                                                10 %                    6%
                                CMMI 1          CMMI 5               CMMI 5
                                                                     SCRUM

                                                            © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                                   30
Impediments
     Data driven removal of impediments using control charts from 11/2007

      Examples on causes:

      • Special competences
      • Disk full
      • Setup misunderstood
      • COTS failed




        Root cause analysis of time to fix automatically
        generates ScrumMaster’s impediment list.

                                                                   © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                                          31
Next Step: Story Process Efficiency
     When work allocated to sprint is READY, flow and stability is achieved

     100.00%              Flow
      90.00%

      80.00%

      70.00%

      60.00%

      50.00%

      40.00%

      30.00%

      20.00%

      10.00%

       0.00%
               1 3 5 7 9 11131517192123252729313335
                    Ready      NOT Ready


               Objective: 60%                              Objective: 50h


                                                                      © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                                             32
Mature Scrum in Startup Company
                                           Revenue (millions USD)
             50.0




             37.5




             25.0




             12.5




                0
                          2000   2001   2002    2003    2004    2005     2006          2007

                                               PatientKeeper



                                                                       © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                                              33
All at Once Scrum - Pegasystems




                                          © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                 34
Source: Forrester Research December 2008
                          Global Agile Company Online Survey




                                             © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                    35
Japanese Scrum
            Professor W. Edwards Deming helped the
            Japanese create the lean revolution
            Professors Nonaka and Takeuchi brought the
            idea of Scrum back to America
            We now give back to the Japanese people the
            software Scrum now tested in every country by
            more than 100,000 teams
            May the Japanese take software development
            to the next level as they have done in
            manufacturing!



                                               © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                      36
Anything is possible!




                                                  © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                                         37
© Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010


Monday, January 3, 2011                                 38

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Roots of scrum 2011_Jeff Sutherland氏

  • 1. THE ROOTS OF SCRUM How the Japanese lean experience changed global software development With help from Citrix Online, Google, Yahoo, Microsoft, IBM, Oracle, MySpace, Adobe, GE, Siemens, Disney Animation, BellSouth, Nortel, Alcatel-Lucent, GSI Commerce, Ulticom, Palm, St. Jude Medical, DigiChart, RosettaStone, Healthwise, Sony/Ericsson, Accenture, Trifork, Systematic Software Engineering, Exigen Services, SirsiDynix, Softhouse, Philips, Barclays Global Investors, Constant Contact, Wellogic, Inova Solutions, Medco, Saxo Bank, Xebia, Insight.com, SolutionsIQ, Crisp, Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, Unitarian Universalist Association, Motley Fool, Planon, FinnTech, OpenView Venture Partners, Jyske Bank, BEC, Camp Scrum, DotWay AB, Ultimate Software, Scrum Training Institute, AtTask, Intronis, Version One, OpenView Labs, Central Desktop, Open-E, Zmags, eEye, Reality Digital, DST, Booz Allen Hamilton, Scrum Alliance, Fortis, DIPS, Program UtVikling, Sulake, TietoEnator, Gilb.com, WebGuide Partner, Emergn, NSB (Norwegian Railway), Danske Bank, Pegasystems, Wake Forest University, The Economist, iContact, Avaya, Kanban Marketing, accelare, Tam Tam, Telefonica/O2, iSense, AgileDigm, Highbridge Capital Management, Wells Fargo Bank, Deutsche Bank, Hansenet/Alice, GlobalCollect © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 1
  • 2. Jeff Sutherland’s History 1964-1975 - Fighter Pilot, U.S. Air Force 100 missions over North Vietnam in F4 Phantom 1975-1983 - Medical School Professor Complex adaptive systems research Mathematical simulations of cancer cell formation 1983-2011 - VP/CTO/CEO 11 technology companies 1983-1993 prototyping new development processes 1993 created first software Scrum team 1993-2011 VP/CTO/CEO 7 Scrum companies © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 2
  • 3. 1983 - Software for 150 banks Late Projects always late Upset Management always upset Pressure Developers under pressure Unhappy Customers unhappy Sources: http://www.softwaremag.com/L.cfm?Doc=newsletter/2004-01-15/Standish http://www.infoq.com/articles/Interview-Johnson-Standish-CHAOS http://www.projectsmart.co.uk/the-curious-case-of-the-chaos-report-2009.html © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 3
  • 4. Managers did not understand basic laws of software development Ziv's Uncertainty Principle in Software Engineering - uncertainty is inherent and inevitable in software development processes and products - Ziv, 1996 Trying to control an empirical process with a predictive control system (waterfall) causes chemical plants to explode (like software projects) - Ogunnaike and Ray, 1995 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 4
  • 5. Radical Change Required  Making the world a better place – Japanese manufacturing - W. Edwards Deming – Team process – Silicon Valley entrepreneurs (Creative Initiative) – Micro enterprise development – Accion and Grameen Bank  Process innovation and productivity research – Alan Kay and Xerox Parc – Takeuchi and Nonaka - knowledge generation/lean – IBM Surgical Team (Mythical Man Month) – Jim Coplien - ATT Bell Labs Pasteur Project – Complex adaptive systems and iRobot subsumption architecture © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 5
  • 6. 10 How we invented Scrum: Learning about innovation from Xerox Parc Personal Workstation Mouse (SRI) Ethernet Windows Interface Laser Printer Smalltalk © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2009 Monday, January 3, 2011 6
  • 7. Alan Kay’s Innovation Strategy  Incremental - NO  Cross Discipline - NO  Extreme data points - ONLY LOOK AT THIS! X CSM v10.21 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2009 Monday, January 3, 2011 7
  • 8. Benchmarked Out of the Box Scrum looked at projects off the chart (IBM Surgical Team) F. P. Brooks, The Mythical Man Month: Essays on Software Engineering: Addison- Wesley, 1995. Takeuchi and Nonaka. The New New Product Development Game. Harvard Business Review, 1986 J. O. Coplien, "Borland Software Craftsmanship: A New Look at Process, Quality and Productivity," in 5th Annual Borland International Conference, Orlando, FL, 1994. Scrum: A Pattern Language for Hyperproductive Software Development By M. Beedle, M. Devos, Y. Sharon, K. Schwaber, and J. Sutherland. In Pattern Languages of Program Design. vol. 4, N. Harrison, Ed. Boston: Addison-Wesley, 1999, pp. 637-651. Every team can achieve hyperproductivity J. Sutherland, S. Downey, and B. Granvik, "Shock Therapy: A Bootstrap for a Hyper-Productive Scrum" in Agile 2009, Chicago, 2009. C. Jakobsen and J. Sutherland, "Scrum and CMMI – Going from Good to Great: are you ready-ready to be done-done?," in Agile 2009, Chicago, 2009. © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2009 Monday, January 3, 2011 8
  • 9. Scrum is a Simple Framework Product Scrum Product Backlog Owner Sprint Artifacts Roles ScrumMaster Backlog Burndown Team Charts Meetings Sprint Daily Sprint Planning Meeting Review © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 9
  • 10. Team Performance ATT Bell Labs Pasteur Project Performance = Communication Saturation = Collective Team Knowledge Daily meeting with few roles = performance 120 100 % Saturation 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 Number of Roles Communication Saturation and Roles. Organizational Patterns of Agile Software Development by Coplien and Harrison (2004) CSM v 11.07 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2011 Monday, January 3, 2011 10
  • 11. Brooks Law Adding people to a late project makes it later 0.% 0-% /.% !"#$%&'("% )*+,% /-% !'$"% .% !'$"% -% )*+,% /% !"#$%&'("% 0% 1% 2% .% Optimal team size is 3-7 people Source: http://www.qsm.com/process_01.html (491 projects) CSM v 11.07 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2011 Monday, January 3, 2011 11
  • 12. Theory: Scrum Origins Project Management Styles Requirements Analysis Design Implementation Testing Type A – Isolated cycles of work NASA Waterfall Fuji-Xerox Scrum Type B – Overlapping work Honda Scrum Type C – All at once The overlapping of phases does away with traditional notions about division of labor. Takeuchi and Nonaka (1986) © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 12
  • 13. Complex Adaptive System  Self organization  No single point of control  Interdisciplinary teams J. Sutherland, A. Viktorov, and J. Blount, Adaptive Engineering of Large Software Projects with Distributed/Outsourced Teams, in  Emergent behavior International Conference on Complex Systems, Boston, MA, USA, 2006.  Outcomes emerge with high dependence on relationship and context  Team performance far greater than sum of individuals © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 13
  • 14. Scrum Dynamic Model Daily Meeting Sprint I R M D P E E O A D N D I E M Value Y E Velocity N T S CSM v10.21 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2009 Monday, January 3, 2011 14
  • 15. Project State Space Early Supportive 300-400% Fun Chaos on e Ecstatic improvement D e D on a dy Re d y R ea Late Better Upset eady Unsupportive 35% Not R one Pressure Not D Mediocre improvement Unhappy Happier Traditional Project Management Scrum © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 15
  • 16. Linear scalability CSM v 11.06 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 16
  • 17. Three Best Practices Enabling Specifications generate User Stories A “type of user” needs a “feature” to get “some business value” plus acceptance tests, notes, and an implied conversation. Story point - unit-less number that indicates relative size of a user story compared to a small reference story. Velocity - number of story points that a Scrum team delivers at the end of a Sprint Planning Poker - used to estimate User Stories Scrum Board - information radiator displaying all three Scrum artifacts CSM v 11.07 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2011 Monday, January 3, 2011 17
  • 18. Vodafone Scrum Board 18 Monday, January 3, 2011 18
  • 19. 8 Company Structure 04/06/10 © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 19
  • 20. Breaking down command and control  Emergent strategy self-organizes through local actions – Distributed cognition and actions  Scrum team must be allowed to self-organize – Autonomous – Transcendent – Cross-fertilization  Team chooses own work – Individuals manage their own work – Management gets out of the way © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 20
  • 21. Managers need to be Leaders  Leaders can “find” and utilize spontaneously formed ba  Leaders can build ba by providing space for interactions – Physical space such as meeting rooms – Cyberspace such as computer network – Mental space such as common goals  Fostering trust and commitment forms the foundation of knowledge creation (self- organization)  Scrum is based on TRUTH, TRANSPARENCY, COMMITMENT, and TRUST © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 21
  • 22. Training management in Lean helps them understand Scrum Lean Traditional #1 Bankrupt © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 22
  • 23. 3 Pillars of Lean Muri - overburden (invisible cause of waste) Mura - unevenness (invisible cause of waste) Muda - visible waste © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 23
  • 24. The concept of ba  Dynamic interaction of individuals and organization creates a synthesis in the form of a self-organizing team.  It provides a shared context in which individuals can interact with each other.  Team members create new points of view and resolve contradictions through dialogue.  Ba is shared context in motion where knowledge as a stream of meaning emerges.  Emergent knowledge codified into working software self-organizes into a product. © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 24
  • 25. Energy of ba is given by its self-organizing nature  Ba needs to be “energized” with its own intention, direction, interest, or mission to be effective  Leaders provide autonomy, creative chaos, redundancy, requisite variety, love, care, trust and commitment  Demanding goals and time pressure facilitate performance  Equal access to information at all levels was critical  ScrumMaster and management must “energize” ba through facilitating colocation, dynamic interaction, face to face communication, transparency, and audacious goals. © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 25
  • 26. Local action forces self-organization  Individual self-organizes work  Team self-organizes around goals  Architecture self-organizes around working code  Product emerges through iterative adaptation  Requires participative approach as opposed to authoritative approach  Flat organizational structure © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 26
  • 27. Going from Good to Great with Scrum Are you READY READY to be DONE DONE? Carsten Ruseng Jakobsen and Jeff Sutherland Carsten.Ruseng.Jakobsen@systematic.com, jeff@scruminc.com Monday, January 3, 2011 27
  • 28. Lean Thinking Tools P1 P2 P4 P5 P6 P7 P3 Eliminate Amplify Fast Empower Build See the Responsible waste Learning Delivery team integrity in Whole decisions Tool 1: Tool 7: Tool 13: Tool 17: Eliminate Tool 3: Tool 10: Tool 21: Feedback Options Self- Perceived Waste Pull Measures Thinking determinatoion integrity Tool 2: Tool 8: Tool 4: Tool 11: Tool 18: Value Stream Latest Tool 14: Tool 22: Iterations Queue Conceptual Mapping Responsible Motivation Contracts Theory Integrity Moment Tool 5: Tool 9: Tool 12: Tool 15: Tool 19: Synchronization Decision Cost of Leadership Refactoring Making Dealy Tool 6: Setbased Tool 16: Tool 20: development Expertise Test © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 28
  • 29. Scrum and Lean - Systematic Value Flow Pull Perfection P6 Build Integrity in P2 Amplify learning P2 Amplify Learning P6 Build Integrity In T19 Refactoring T5 Synchronization T3 Feedback T18 Conceptual Engineering T20 Test T4 Iterations integrity T6 Setbased development T17 Perceived integrity Tools can P1 Eliminate Waste P4 Fast Delivery P7 See the whole P3 Decide in latest be divided Responsible moment in three Management T1 Eliminate Waste T11 Queuing Theory T22 Contracts T7 Options thinking dimensions T2 Valuestreams T12 Cost of Delay T21 Measures T8 Latest responsible T10 Pull Moment T9 Beslutningstagning P5 Empower team P5 Empower team P5 Empower team P5 Empower team People T16 Expertise T14 Motivation T15 Leadership T13 Self-determination These are thinking tools – Projects and employees knows best how to transform them © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 29
  • 30. Beginner’s Scrum - Systematic – 6 month results Project effort Rework 100 % 100% Work 90% Process focus 80% CMMI 50 % 69 % 70% 9% 60% SCRUM 50% a 40% 35 % 4% 30% 50 % 50 % 20% 25 % 10% 10 % 6% CMMI 1 CMMI 5 CMMI 5 SCRUM © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 30
  • 31. Impediments Data driven removal of impediments using control charts from 11/2007 Examples on causes: • Special competences • Disk full • Setup misunderstood • COTS failed Root cause analysis of time to fix automatically generates ScrumMaster’s impediment list. © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 31
  • 32. Next Step: Story Process Efficiency When work allocated to sprint is READY, flow and stability is achieved 100.00% Flow 90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% 1 3 5 7 9 11131517192123252729313335 Ready NOT Ready Objective: 60% Objective: 50h © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 32
  • 33. Mature Scrum in Startup Company Revenue (millions USD) 50.0 37.5 25.0 12.5 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 PatientKeeper © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 33
  • 34. All at Once Scrum - Pegasystems © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 34
  • 35. Source: Forrester Research December 2008 Global Agile Company Online Survey © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 35
  • 36. Japanese Scrum Professor W. Edwards Deming helped the Japanese create the lean revolution Professors Nonaka and Takeuchi brought the idea of Scrum back to America We now give back to the Japanese people the software Scrum now tested in every country by more than 100,000 teams May the Japanese take software development to the next level as they have done in manufacturing! © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 36
  • 37. Anything is possible! © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 37
  • 38. © Jeff Sutherland 1993-2010 Monday, January 3, 2011 38