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Innovateur T
Incubating Business Transformers
THE “FOCAL” ALGORITHM
NEW VERSION (V2)
Created by Dominique Vian and Christo...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
• Companies and organizations often face apparently insoluble
problems. Most of t...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
• FOCAL is based on :
o Effectuation (Sarasvathy, 2001)
o The near decomposibilit...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
DISCERNING NON-INTUITIVE RESOURCES FOR ACTION
Who am I? ?
What do I know ?
Who do...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
DISCOVERING FOCAL – SOME EXAMPLES
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
THE FOCAL COGNITIVE ALGORITHM
STEP ONE: SPECIFYING THE INITIAL CONTEXT
Who am I ?...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
EXAMPLE : XEROX
Context level 1 : Manufacture and sales of photocopiers
Who are t...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
DIAGRAM OF CHANGE IN CONTEXT LEVEL
Context level 1
Manufacture and sales of
photo...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
EXAMPLE : XEROX
Context level 2 : Photocopies of documents
Who are the key stakeh...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
DIAGRAM OF CHANGE IN CONTEXT LEVEL
Context level 1:
Manufacture and sales of
phot...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
EXAMPLE : XEROX
Context level 3 : Document managment
Who are the key stakeholders...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
PRESENTING THE FOCAL COGNITIVE ALGORITHM
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
THE FOCAL COGNITIVE ALGORITHM
STEP ONE: SPECIFYING THE INITIAL CONTEXT
Who am I?
...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
THE FOCAL COGNITIVE ALGORITHM
Context level 1 : problem scope
Who are the key sta...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
IDENTIFYING A RAISON D’ÊTRE
• There are many raisons d’être. These range from ver...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
THE FOCAL COGNITIVE ALGORITHM
Context level 2 : extended problem scope
Who are th...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
Context level1.2.1.
DIAGRAM OF CHANGE IN CONTEXT LEVEL
Context level 2
Context le...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
A CASE IN POINT
• In some cases, specifying a sub-context leads to its reposition...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
DIAGRAM OF CHANGE IN CONTEXT LEVEL
Context 1.1
Coffee
machine
Context 2 :procurem...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
WHAT DID WE LEARN FROM THIS CASE?
• That the problems were probably too wide rang...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
CAVEAT
• FOCAL requires a good level of knowledge about the situation
under analy...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
ADDITIONAL EXAMPLE – ACCESSIBLE ENERGY FOR
PEOPLE IN INSECURE CIRCUMSTANCES
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
THE FOCAL COGNITIVE ALGORITHM
STEP ONE : SPECIFYING THE INITIAL CONTEXT
Who am I ...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
CONTEXT LEVEL1
Context level 1 : Energy distribution
Who are the key stakeholders...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
DIAGRAM OF CHANGE IN CONTEXT LEVEL
Context 1
Energy distribution
Context level 2 ...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
1.2.1. Renewable energy
production
DIAGRAM OF CHANGE IN CONTEXT LEVEL
Context lev...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
CONTEXT LEVEL 1.2.1
Context level 1.2.1 : Renewable energy production
Who are the...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
1.2.1. Renewable energy production
DIAGRAM OF CHANGE IN CONTEXT LEVEL
Context lev...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
CONTEXT LEVEL 1.2.1.1
Context level 1.2.1.1 : DIY renewable energy production
Who...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
ADDITIONAL EXAMPLE – PESTICIDE SALES
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
THE FOCAL COGNITIVE ALGORITHM
STEP ONE: SPECIFYING THE INITIAL CONTEXT
Who am I?
...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
CONTEXT LEVEL 1
Context level 1 : Manufacture and sales of phytosanitary products...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
DIAGRAM OF CHANGE IN CONTEXT LEVEL
Context level 1
Manufacture and sales of
phyto...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
CONTEXT LEVEL 2
Context level 2 : Crop protection
Who are the key stakeholders (S...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
ADDITIONAL EXAMPLE –AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT
FOR SCHOOLS
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
THE FOCAL COGNITIVE ALGORITHM
STEP ONE: SPECIFYING THE INITIAL CONTEXT
Who am I ?...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
CONTEXT LEVEL1
Context level 1 : Sales, installation and maintenance of audiovisu...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
DIAGRAM OF CHANGE IN CONTEXT LEVEL
Context level 1
Sales installation and
mainten...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
CONTEXT LEVEL 2
Context level 2 : encouragement of good teaching practices
Who ar...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
ADDITIONAL EXAMPLE– SEEKING TOURIST
ATTTACTIONS IN THE FAR NORTH
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
THE FOCAL COGNITIVE ALGORITHM
STEP ONE: SPECIFYING THE INITIAL CONTEXT
Who am I ?...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
CONTEXT LEVEL 1
Context level 1 : Outdoor exhibitions of ice sculptures
Who are t...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
DIAGRAM OF CHANGE IN CONTEXT LEVEL
Context level 1
Outdoor exhibition of ice
scul...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
CONTEXT LEVEL 2
Context level 2 : Ice sculpture exhibitions in the Far North
Who ...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
DIAGRAM OF CHANGE IN CONTEXT LEVEL
Context level 1
Outdoor exhibition of ice
scul...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
CONTEXT LEVEL 3
Context level 3 : An experience in an “extreme cold” environment
...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
BIBLIOGRAPHY
• Sarasvathy S.D. (2001), “Causation and Effectuation: Toward a theo...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
RECOMMENDED READING
• Silberzahn P. (2014), Effectuation : Les principes de l’ent...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
CREATED BY INNOVATEUR T
INNOVATEUR T guides organisations through the transition
...
Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2)
This license lets you build upon our work even for
commercial purposes, as long a...
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Focal algorithm

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Companies and organizations often face apparently insoluble problems. Most of the time, they fail to see solutions because the problem is being considered from a context level that blocks any potential for action.
FOCAL is a method that identifies appropriate context levels; these point to previously unconsidered means for solving the problem(s) in question.
FOCAL helps you to tackle the complexity of a given situation and find a way forward.

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Focal algorithm

  1. 1. Innovateur T Incubating Business Transformers THE “FOCAL” ALGORITHM NEW VERSION (V2) Created by Dominique Vian and Christophe Sempels www.innovateur-t.com
  2. 2. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) • Companies and organizations often face apparently insoluble problems. Most of the time, they fail to see solutions because the problem is being considered from a context level that blocks any potential for action • FOCAL is a method that identifies appropriate context levels; these point to previously unconsidered means for solving the problem(s) in question. • FOCAL helps you to tackle the complexity of a given situation and find a way forward. FOCAL
  3. 3. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) • FOCAL is based on : o Effectuation (Sarasvathy, 2001) o The near decomposibility of complex systems (Simon, 1996) o The combination of these frameworks (effectuation and near decomposability - Sarasvathy and Simon, 2000) o Sensemaking (Weick, 1995) THEORETICAL FRAMEWORKS
  4. 4. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) DISCERNING NON-INTUITIVE RESOURCES FOR ACTION Who am I? ? What do I know ? Who do I know ? What can I do ? Interaction with stakeholders Effectual stakeholder engagement (or lack of engagement) Resources available here and now Effects / possible fields of action Simplified effectual process (adapted from Sarasvaty, 2008) An initial problem in a given context FOCAL
  5. 5. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) DISCOVERING FOCAL – SOME EXAMPLES
  6. 6. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) THE FOCAL COGNITIVE ALGORITHM STEP ONE: SPECIFYING THE INITIAL CONTEXT Who am I ? XEROX,photocopier division What do I do ? Manufacture and sell photocopiers = CONTEXT LEVEL1
  7. 7. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) EXAMPLE : XEROX Context level 1 : Manufacture and sales of photocopiers Who are the key stakeholders (S) ? • B2B clients B2B, distributors, competitors What are the problems? • Patents expire  no more differentiation based on products • Market saturation  fierce competition squeezes prices + need to develop the replacement market (generates lack of pertinence for clients, e.g. because it incites programmed obsolescence) • Increasing costs of parts • Clients want to reduce costs Direct consequences of problems and subsequent information • Nothing to add at this stage What can I do to solve the problems at this context level? • Only traditional, unsatisfactory responses such as marketing or squeezing suppliers • Unsustainable and unsatisfactory Context 1 raison d’être: Copying documents
  8. 8. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) DIAGRAM OF CHANGE IN CONTEXT LEVEL Context level 1 Manufacture and sales of photocopiers Context level2 : Photocopies of documents
  9. 9. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) EXAMPLE : XEROX Context level 2 : Photocopies of documents Who are the key stakeholders (S)? • B2B clients, distributors, competitors What are the problems? • Clients want to minimise both investment costs and operating costs (maintenance, consumables etc.) Direct consequences of problems and subsequent information. Clients always prefer operating costs to investment costs New type of contract that transforms investment costs into operating costs (e.g. leasing) Leasing means the company retains ownership of the machines Retaining ownership makes it possible to implement a circular economy (in itself based on eco-design) to minimise production costs that in turn reduces the cost of leasing What can I do to solve the problem at this context level ? Offer a leasing contract retaining ownership and set up a circular economy system. This results in lower production costs for Xerox and reduced operating costs for clients BUT : there is still an incitement to sell as many leasing contracts as possible (in tension with wish to minimise operating costs for clients)//consumables beyond the scope of action Context 2 raison d’être: Managing documents
  10. 10. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) DIAGRAM OF CHANGE IN CONTEXT LEVEL Context level 1: Manufacture and sales of photocopiers Context level 2: Photocopies of documents Context level 3: Document management
  11. 11. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) EXAMPLE : XEROX Context level 3 : Document managment Who are the key stakeholders (S)? • B2B clients, digitization specialists, business re- engineering specialists What are the problems? • Minimising the operating costs of a document management solution Direct consequences of problems and subsequent information Minimising operating costs presupposes that these costs have been correctly identified and evaluated • Such an audit shows that 1) document management is related to individual behaviour and company processes 2) above a certain volume, managing physical documents is more expensive than managing digitized documents What can I do to solve the problem at this context level ? Offer an integrated document management solution starting with an audit of overall costs of this line of expenditure based on a contract that guarantees savings for the client (easy to sell) Satisfactory solution to the initial problems; end of process
  12. 12. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) PRESENTING THE FOCAL COGNITIVE ALGORITHM
  13. 13. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) THE FOCAL COGNITIVE ALGORITHM STEP ONE: SPECIFYING THE INITIAL CONTEXT Who am I? What do I do? Who satisfies recipients’ needs? What do they do? CONTEXT LEVEL 1 =
  14. 14. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) THE FOCAL COGNITIVE ALGORITHM Context level 1 : problem scope Who are the key stakeholders (S)? • List of stakeholders at this context level What are the problems? • Formulate the problems related to this context level. Express these as established facts • A key step because the problems and what is known about them point the way to higher level contexts. • You must focus on the main problems in this context level: avoid making a laundry list Direct consequences of problems and subsequent information • List the direct consequence of one or several of the problems above • From these consequences, extrapolate additional information that may be relevant to the problems to be solved • What can I do to solve the problem at this context level ? • Do we have any means within the scope of the above problem to solve all or part of the problem(s)? • If so, do these provide a satisfactory solution? If they do, we have found our way. If not we need to continue by modifying the scope of the problem. We do this by investigating one of the raisons d’être of the current context • If there are several raisons’d’être, choose the one that correlates most directly with the initial problems (see below). Raison d’être of context 1 = context level 2
  15. 15. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) IDENTIFYING A RAISON D’ÊTRE • There are many raisons d’être. These range from very concrete (e.g. the raison d’être of a coffee machine is producing a hot drink) to highly conceptual (procuring pleasure, giving energy, taking an imaginary voyage to a coffee producing country etc.) • Depending on the type of specification, each raison d’être extends to a broader or narrower range of possibilities (“producing a hot drink” extends to producing tea, hot chocolate, soup etc. // ” procuring pleasure” extends to an infinite variety of possibilities other than coffee that may lead far away from the initial idea) • If two raisons d’être seem possible, choose the one most directly related to the initial problem(s) at level 1. It is always more advisable to choose a strong (rather than a weak) link between raison d’être and initial problems.
  16. 16. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) THE FOCAL COGNITIVE ALGORITHM Context level 2 : extended problem scope Who are the key stakeholders (S)? • List of new stakeholders in this new context level What are the problems? • Formulate the problems related to this context level. Express these as established facts Direct consequences of problems and subsequent information • List direct consequences of one or several of the problems at hand. From these consequences, extrapolate additional information that may be relevant to the problems to be solved • What can I do to solve the problem at this context level ? • If YES : stop, end of process • If NO : on the basis of additonal information : o Either go up to the next context level investigating one of the raisons d’être (cf.above ) o Or specify a new sub-context Either : Raison d’être of context 2 = context level 3 Or : Sub-context of context 2 = context level 1.2
  17. 17. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) Context level1.2.1. DIAGRAM OF CHANGE IN CONTEXT LEVEL Context level 2 Context level 1.2 Initial context level 1 (becomes context 1.1) Go up 1 (raison d’être) Go down 1 (a sub-context of context 2 Go down 2 (a sub-context of context 1.2
  18. 18. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) A CASE IN POINT • In some cases, specifying a sub-context leads to its repositioning as part of the initial context. This means that the choice of raison d’être in the initial context was too general • Example • Context level 1 : coffee machine • A raison d’être : procuring pleasure • Context level 2 : the procurement of pleasure • Analysis shows that “a pleasant experience over coffee” is included within “ the procurement of pleasure”. It is thus indeed a sub-context of context 2 Let’s look at the diagram…
  19. 19. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) DIAGRAM OF CHANGE IN CONTEXT LEVEL Context 1.1 Coffee machine Context 2 :procurement of pleasure Context 1.2 A pleasant experience over coffee WRONG Context 1 Coffee machine Context 3 : procurement of pleasure Context 2 A pleasant experience over coffee RIGHT Because the coffee machine is an occurrence of the context “a pleasant experience over a coffee”
  20. 20. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) WHAT DID WE LEARN FROM THIS CASE? • That the problems were probably too wide ranging and not focused enough on the main problems that need solving • When listing the main problems, it should be evident that the context “procurement of pleasure” is too broad to correlate directly enough with this specific and restricted list.
  21. 21. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) CAVEAT • FOCAL requires a good level of knowledge about the situation under analysis (Who am I? What do I know? Who do I know?) • FOCAL must be used by at least two people who can share their representations. In fact, each cognitive map* is a representation of reality that should be discussed with others, notably to refine the terminology. It is not easy (nor effective) to use FOCAL in isolation. * Here cognitive map are map of categories
  22. 22. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) ADDITIONAL EXAMPLE – ACCESSIBLE ENERGY FOR PEOPLE IN INSECURE CIRCUMSTANCES
  23. 23. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) THE FOCAL COGNITIVE ALGORITHM STEP ONE : SPECIFYING THE INITIAL CONTEXT Who am I ? A citizen wishing to find an innovative solution to provide low cost energy for those in need Who satisfies the recipients’ need(s)? Energy distributors What do they do? Distribute energy CONTEXT LEVEL1 =
  24. 24. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) CONTEXT LEVEL1 Context level 1 : Energy distribution Who are the key stakeholders (S)? • Energy distributors, network operators, B2B and B2C clients What are the problems? • The price of energy is increasing (+30% forecast by CRE over the next 3 years) • The number of energy insecure people is increasing Direct consequences of problems and subsequent information • Break with fossile fuels (whose costs result in price volatility) • Renewables depend little or not at all on the cost and availability of fuel • Producing ones own renewables could help to reduce energy costs in the long term • What can I do to solve the problem at this context level ? • Organise a collective to negotiate lower prices  limited and unpredictable range of action Raison d’être of context 1 : supplying energy equipment
  25. 25. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) DIAGRAM OF CHANGE IN CONTEXT LEVEL Context 1 Energy distribution Context level 2 : Energy equipment supply Direct consequences of problems and subsequent information. • Break with fossil fuels (whose cost results in price volatility) • Renewables depend little or not at all on the cost and availability of fuel • Producing ones own renewables could help reduce energy costs in the long term Additional information shows that a key component of the context “supplying energy equipment” is producing energy. This component (or sub-context) may be acheived through fossil fuels or renewables. Since we wish to escape from fossil fuels, we can easily see that relevant sub-context is that of producing renewable energy.
  26. 26. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) 1.2.1. Renewable energy production DIAGRAM OF CHANGE IN CONTEXT LEVEL Context level 2 : Energy equipment supply 1.2. Energy production 1.1. Energy distribution
  27. 27. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) CONTEXT LEVEL 1.2.1 Context level 1.2.1 : Renewable energy production Who are the key stakeholders (S)? • Renewable energy equipment producers, energy producers, financers, installers, public information bureaus for energy efficiency What are the problems? • The price of equipment for producing renewable energy is inaccessible for people with energy insecurity (e.g. they could not afford to fund a solar panel grid) Direct consequences of problems and subsequent information. • The price of equipment must be reduced • « Do it yourself » (DIY) has published plans, instructions and videos for producing solar panels or wind turbines very cheaply compared to professional equipment l (e.g. under 50 euros for a solar panel) • What can I do to solve the problem at this context level ? • Find innovative means of funding (highly complex given the low level of resources of people with energy insecurity) Unsatisfactory solution Occurrence of context 1.2.1. : DIY renewable energy production
  28. 28. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) 1.2.1. Renewable energy production DIAGRAM OF CHANGE IN CONTEXT LEVEL Context level 2 : Energy equipment supply 1.2. Energy production 1.1. Energy distribution 1.2.1.1. DIY renewable energy production
  29. 29. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) CONTEXT LEVEL 1.2.1.1 Context level 1.2.1.1 : DIY renewable energy production Who are the key stakeholders (S)? • DIY communities , retired practitioners seeking to help young people develop skills, young unemployed seeking to acquire skills, municipal waste centres • What are the problems? • Need to find raw materials, workforce, skills and machines to manufacture equipment for producing renewable energy Direct consequences of problems and subsequent information Municipal waste centres are full of waste that can be converted into productive raw materials • Unemployed young people could be motivated by taking part in a project that gives them skills and a role to play. • Retired professionals could be motivated to coach these young people • FabLabs could (at least initially) provide the machines needed to manufacture the equipment What can I do to solve the problem at this context level ? • Set up a community of those wishing to transform the resources in municiple waste centres into DIY renewable energy production equipment and install this for energy insecure houeholds • Start the project via crowdfunding • Be paid from the savings of energy insecure houeholds once the equipment is installed (third party investment ) Satisfactory solution to the initial problems: end of process
  30. 30. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) ADDITIONAL EXAMPLE – PESTICIDE SALES
  31. 31. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) THE FOCAL COGNITIVE ALGORITHM STEP ONE: SPECIFYING THE INITIAL CONTEXT Who am I? A company that produces and sells pesticides What do I do? Manufacture and sales of phytosanitary products = CONTEXT LEVEL 1
  32. 32. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) CONTEXT LEVEL 1 Context level 1 : Manufacture and sales of phytosanitary products Who are the key stakeholders (S)? • Farmers, competitors, regulators (represent civil society expectations), NGOs and environmental groups, press, research centres, manufacturers and sellers of pesticide deployment equipment What are the problems? Pesticides generate huge negative externalities for human health and nature.  regulations are becoming stricter, practitioners and the public are aware of the problems Pesticide manufacturers’ income is directly related to the volume of pesticide sprayed  in tension with regulations aiming to reduce the amount of phytosanitary products and promote more sustainable agriculture The equipment is costly for farmers, huge increases in fixed costs further weaken their position  need to curb costs Direct consequences of problems and subsequent information Need to escape from manufacturers’ economic model based on volume • What can I do to solve the problem at this context level ? • It is impossible to encourage low impact or organic farming because of the nature of the economic model that depends directly on the volume of pesticides deployed. Raison d’être context 1 : protecting crops
  33. 33. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) DIAGRAM OF CHANGE IN CONTEXT LEVEL Context level 1 Manufacture and sales of phytosanitary products Context level 2 : Crop protection
  34. 34. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) CONTEXT LEVEL 2 Context level 2 : Crop protection Who are the key stakeholders (S)? • Farmers, direct competitors, indirect competitors (insect predators etc. protective clothing etc.), regulators (representing civil society’s expectations), NGOs and environmental groups, press, research centres, manufacturers and sellers of pesticide deployment equipment What are the problems? • Farmers want to minimise the costs of protection and avoid being undermined (any destruction of crops means a decrease in revenue) Direct consequences of problems and subsequent information • Pesticides are not the only way to protect crops (sexual trapping, parasite predators, physical protection etc.) • Being stuck in an economic model based on volume is not an incentive to change technology • Innovative contracts could help pesticide manufacturers to escape from constraints of volume • What can I do to solve the problem at this context level ? Offer an integrated solution of crop protection paid per acre protected, or based on an “acceptable rate of loss” (with a bonus- malus system)  Pesticide use becomes a cost that has to be minimised  Any less costly alternative is worth pursuing (e.g. free ecological advisory service) and is supported by a new R&D strategy Satisfactory solution to initial problems: end of process
  35. 35. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) ADDITIONAL EXAMPLE –AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT FOR SCHOOLS
  36. 36. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) THE FOCAL COGNITIVE ALGORITHM STEP ONE: SPECIFYING THE INITIAL CONTEXT Who am I ? A company that sells installs and maintains audiovisual equipment for schools What do I do? Sell, install and maintain audiovisual equipment used for teaching = CONTEXT LEVEL 1
  37. 37. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) CONTEXT LEVEL1 Context level 1 : Sales, installation and maintenance of audiovisual equipment for teaching Who are the key stakeholders (S)? • Schools (essentially purchasing departments), equipment manufacturers, related professions (e.g. electricians) What are the problems? • Equipment prices are decreasing (down by 2/3 in 3 years)  drop in turnover and margins • Increasingly strong competition from professions offering equipement new on the market • No differention - products all made in Asia • Impossible to transform service into monetary value (directions for use and technical advice etc. ) • No incitation to maximise product life Direct consequences of problems and subsequent information • Maintaining a feasible and sustainable economic model is compromised • What can I do to solve the problem at this context level ? • Nothing Raison d’être of context 1 : Encouraging good teaching practices
  38. 38. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) DIAGRAM OF CHANGE IN CONTEXT LEVEL Context level 1 Sales installation and maintenance of audivisual equipment for teaching Context level 2 : Encouragement of good teaching practices
  39. 39. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) CONTEXT LEVEL 2 Context level 2 : encouragement of good teaching practices Who are the key stakeholders (S)? • Schools (purchasing departments, teachers, students), equipment manufacturers, specialists in education and pedagogical techniques What are the problems? • However excellent the equipment, there is no guarantee that teachers will really take it on board. If teachers do not take full ownership, there will be no impact on teaching quality and in turn the establishment will consider the investment to be of no measurable added value Direct consequences of problems and subsequent information. • Teachers must be guided so that they take ownership of the material and the impact of this guidance on teaching quality must be measurable. • It is not enough to master the equipment. Teachers must develop fundamentally new pedagogical approaches. • New partnerships in the interests of pedagogical excellence and COPs among teachers will benefit all concerned. What can I do to solve the problem at this context level ? Propose an integrated offer including guidance, promotion and evaluation of pedagogical excellence through technological and pedagogical innovation  The equipment is no longer the centre of the value proposition  Strong cooperation with schools and external partners could be beneficial Satisfactory solution to the initial problems: end of process
  40. 40. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) ADDITIONAL EXAMPLE– SEEKING TOURIST ATTTACTIONS IN THE FAR NORTH
  41. 41. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) THE FOCAL COGNITIVE ALGORITHM STEP ONE: SPECIFYING THE INITIAL CONTEXT Who am I ? An entrepreneur who has combined her two passions: art and the Far North – by developing outdoor exhibitons of ice scultpures What do I do ? Outdoor exhibitions of ice sculptures = CONTEXT LEVEL 1
  42. 42. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) CONTEXT LEVEL 1 Context level 1 : Outdoor exhibitions of ice sculptures Who are the key stakeholders (S)? • Artists, media, art lovers What are the problems? • Given climate change, it could rain in the Far North even in winter. This is precisely what happened to this entrepreneur during an exhibition and all the works were destroyed. Direct consequences of problems and subsequent information • Putting on more outdoor exhibitons is not a sustainable solution because all the art works were totally destroyed by the rain before the exhibition opened. • We could envisage an indoor exhibition of ice sculptures • What can I do to solve the problem at this context level ? • Nothing Raison d’être of context 1 : Exhibiting ice sculptures in the Far North
  43. 43. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) DIAGRAM OF CHANGE IN CONTEXT LEVEL Context level 1 Outdoor exhibition of ice sculptures Context level 2 : Ice sculpture exhibitions in the Far North.
  44. 44. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) CONTEXT LEVEL 2 Context level 2 : Ice sculpture exhibitions in the Far North Who are the key stakeholders (S) ? • Artists, media, art lovers, those who rent out exhibition space or marquees, suppliers of cold production equipment What are the problems? • Renting suitable air conditioned covered space will increase costs and could even compromise the event itself Direct consequences of problems and subsequent information • Renting suitable air conditoned space does not seem to be a viable solution • Solutions exist using “natural” cold (e.g. igloo) • What can I do to solve the problem at this context level ? • Build a giant igloo to house the artworks • BUT the cost of construction willl be hard to recover through the exhibition alone Raison d’être of context 2 : offer an experience in an “extreme cold” environment
  45. 45. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) DIAGRAM OF CHANGE IN CONTEXT LEVEL Context level 1 Outdoor exhibition of ice sculptures Context level 2 : Ice sculpture exhibitions in the Far North Context level 3: An experience in “extreme cold” environment
  46. 46. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) CONTEXT LEVEL 3 Context level 3 : An experience in an “extreme cold” environment • Who are the key stakeholders (S)? • Artists, media, art lovers, igloo makers, event organisers, hotel and catering etc. What are the problems? • An experience based only on exhibiting ice sculptures cannot be profitable in a large sized igloo (niche to narrow) Direct consequences of problems and subsequent information • Diversification could enrich the offer of the experience • It has to go beyond the niche to access a far wider public • What can I do to solve the problem at this context level ? • Build an ice hotel firstly to house the ice sculptures but also to offer a wider range of hotel and catering/gastronomic services (ice bar, ice restaurant, …) Satisfactory solution to initial problems: end of process
  47. 47. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) BIBLIOGRAPHY • Sarasvathy S.D. (2001), “Causation and Effectuation: Toward a theoretical shift from economic inevitability to entrepreneurial contingency”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 26, N° 2, P. 243-288. • Sarasvathy, S.D., Simon, H. A. (2000), “Effectuation, near-decomposability, and the creation and growth of entrepreneurial firms”, First Annual Research Policy Technology Entrepreneurship Conference, University of Maryland. • Simon, H. A. 1996. The architecture of complexity. Sciences of the Artificial, 3rd Edition, Cambridge, MIT Press. • Weick, K.E. (1995), Sensemaking in organizations, Thousands Oaks, London: Sage Publications.
  48. 48. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) RECOMMENDED READING • Silberzahn P. (2014), Effectuation : Les principes de l’entrepreneuriat pour tous, Pearson Edition. • Vian D. (2013), ISMA360, la boussole de l’entrepreneur innovateur, de boeck Edition • Julien F. (2005), Conférence sur l’efficacité, Presses Universitaires de France
  49. 49. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) CREATED BY INNOVATEUR T INNOVATEUR T guides organisations through the transition towards nimble, sustainable, innovative and creative models. It offers training to those who wish to carry out change, enabling them to transform their environment in a complex and uncertain world. For further information : www.innovateur-t.com
  50. 50. Dominique Vian - Christophe Sempels (V2) This license lets you build upon our work even for commercial purposes, as long as you credit us and license your new creations under the identical terms. This license is often compared to “copyleft” free and open source software licenses. All new works based on yours will carry the same license, so any derivatives will also allow commercial use. LICENCE FOR USE

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