Metal Quality and Technology in Europe means Added Value?

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A presentation by Dr Gary Mahon, Director

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Metal Quality and Technology in Europe means Added Value?

  1. 1. Metal Quality and Technology in Europe means Added Value ? Gary Mahon gary.mahon@innovaltec.com
  2. 2. Scope The European Industry Landscape Evaluating Billet Quality Innovative Scrap Processing Global R&D Trends Managing Knowledge Assets Does Europe have a Sustainable Advantage ? © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 3
  3. 3. EU-25 Aluminium Flow Chart (2005) Sustainability of the European Aluminium Industry 2006, European Aluminium Association. © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 4
  4. 4. Primary Aluminium Regional Balances Expect more Billet from these regions Sustainability of the European Aluminium Industry 2006, European Aluminium Association. © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 5
  5. 5. Extruded Metal Quality Geometric Tolerances Surface Properties Weight per metre Reflectivity Dimensional accuracy Topography Bow Uniformity Flatness Anodising Response Mechanical Properties Defects Strength Die lines Toughness Speed tears Formability Stains Fatigue Pick-up Other Scratches Corrosion resistance Blisters Welded Properties Marks Influenced by billet quality © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 6
  6. 6. Examples of Composition Control on Quality Intermetallics Surface Pick-up 100 125 90 0.09 Mn 80 100 Exit Speed (m/min) 70 60 75 % Alpha 50 0.06 Mn 40 50 30 0.03 Mn 0.03 Mn 20 0.06 Mn 25 0.09 Mn Pick-up 10 OK 0 0 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 wt.% Si wt.% Si Brassard et al Alcan ET’04 © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 7
  7. 7. Metal Cleanliness with Prefil®: Pressure Filtration N-Tec 1400 1200 CLEAN (High Flow Rate) Increasing Inclusion Weight (g) 1000 Content 800 600 High 400 Inclusion Content 200 (Low Flow Rate) 0 0 30 60 90 120 150 Time (s) © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 8
  8. 8. Prefil® Metallographic Inclusion Analysis Aluminium N-Tec Inclusion band Defect Mapping Degasser Transfer Launder Smelter Casting Holder Filter grains Melter Filter Wide Inclusion Band Many Inclusions Al4C3 (TiV)B2 Al Borocarbides Al2O3 films & particles MgO films & particles Spinel films & particles AlN Refractory particles Fe Mn oxides Bone ash Note this is not a comprehensive list © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 9
  9. 9. Example of Analysis of Billet Defect - Cracking Detailed Metallography SEM & EDX Fingerprint against defect library Root-cause analysis 250 µm Grain Structure Al MgO O Water Mg C Ca Si S 10 µm Cl Ca SEM SEI 1 2 3 4 keV EDX spectrum © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 10
  10. 10. Evaluation of Billet Quality – Intermetallics 25 p Alpha: 46 % 20 Beta: 54 % App. Conc. Fe+Mn Alpha Standard 15 Beta Standard 10 5 0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 App. Conc. Si 100 Bottom Middle Top 95 90 % alpha 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 Red superimposed image of Mg2Si Edge Mid radius Center Edge Mid radius Center Edge Mid radius Center © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 11
  11. 11. Evaluation of Billet Quality Billet is the critical starting point for extrusion Quality Expect new Billet Suppliers from developing Countries Evaluation techniques exist to measure billet quality Technical Audit of Suppliers Need to insist that billet suppliers are meeting your requirements © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 12
  12. 12. Environmental Benefits of Aluminium Recycling 100 Aluminium Smelting is highly energy Energy intensive. Required 80 (%) Remelting of recycled aluminium consumes only 5% of the energy 60 required for primary production. 40 Recycling is far less Greenhouse Gas intense. 20 Alcoa utilises about 20% recycled metal 0 for fabricated products. New Recycled Aluminium Aluminium Alcoa is publicly committed to 50% of fabricated products from recycled metal by 2020. Conference Board Session on Sustainability Randy Overbey President, Alcoa Primary Metals Development, June 2005 © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 13
  13. 13. Growth of Old Scrap (Post Use) 16000 Other 14000 Consumer Durables Old scrap (thousand tonnes) 12000 Engineering Packaging 10000 Building 8000 Other Transport Automotive 6000 4000 2000 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2003 2004 2010 2020 Global Aluminium Recycling Committee 2005 © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 14
  14. 14. Up-Cycling of Light Alloys from Recycled Scrap Aim to prevent down-grading of wrought-alloy Old Scrap into casting alloys. Deliver Value-Added products for Recyclers Based on Melt Conditioning by high shear of liquid metal. Family of technologies developed at Brunel University. £1.2M over three years from UK Technology Strategy Board Innoval is Lead Partner and Technical Manager. Started March 2007. © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 15
  15. 15. High-Shear Twin-Screw Melt-Conditioning Feeding DC Caster Centre Edge Mg-alloy AZ31 Φ60mm billet © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 16
  16. 16. Examples of Potential of Melt Conditioning Mg-Alloy AZ91D LM25 (Al-10.3Si-0.3Cu-0.16Mn) 300 8 12 Yield UTS Elongation 7 MC 250 10 HPDC Elongation (%) 6 Yield, UTS (MPa) 200 Elongation (%) 8 5 150 4 6 3 100 4 2 50 2 1 0 0 0 100%Scrap 50%Scrap Primary 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 Fe Content (wt.%) Quality unaffected by scrap recycling Fe tolerance increased by 0.37wt% © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 17
  17. 17. Impact of Technology Development not always in Europe SME’s Independent Global Companies Entrepreneurs Investing in long-term Usually invest most in sustainability of their technology development Development usually operations undertaken in Make financially driven technologically advanced Need to protect and decisions to satisfy regions enforce IPR position to shareholders prevent copying If necessary, will licence Often put plant in lowest globally to get return on Developer has first mover cost region regardless of investment advantage, but for limited where technology lifetime developed Needs a continuous through-put of ideas and innovations © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 18
  18. 18. R&D Policy Response EU Framework 7 Collaborative and International 50% funding (75% for SME’s) Focus on science, technology development and exploitation for benefit of EU UK Technology Strategy Board Collaborative within UK 50% funding Need supply chain in place for exploitation University Education EU is continuing to invest in producing a high number of science and engineering graduates. © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 19
  19. 19. Value-Added Opportunities Design Die Coatings New Profiles & Cost Reduction to enable Processes penetration into new markets New Finishing High Strength Aerospace Alloys Operations Alloys Weldable medium strength 6000-series Alloys Product Differentiation Metal Matrix Composites Technically demanding products © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 20
  20. 20. World Labour Costs by Region Investing in State-of-the-Art Equipment Sustainability of the European Aluminium Industry 2006, European Aluminium Association. © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 21
  21. 21. State-of-the-Art Equipment is Not Sufficient Realisation that investment in world class equipment does not on its own give world class products. Many examples in aluminium rolling mills and extrusion plants. Return on investments taking longer than planned Cannot match quality of world-class products Need expertise that equipment suppliers do not possess Equipment manufacturers looking to partner with product specialists to deliver a complete package © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 22
  22. 22. Managing Knowledge Assets Important to maximise the knowledge that exists in existing employees Staff with valuable knowledge which is not exploited Loss of long-serving, knowledgeable employees Share knowledge of manufacturing to improve product quality Determine gaps in the knowledge base (R&D programme) Standardise operations and develop “Best Practice” Knowledge Management using K-Maps Based on ‘The Voice of the Customer’ or QFD (Quality Function Deployment) Team-based Workshop approach involving – Manufacturing – Technology – Sales © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 23
  23. 23. Knowledge Mapping Matrix How to Build a K-Map Assemble those with knowledge Define Product Attributes Define the Process Stages Define the strength of relationship Develop content via Intranet © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 24
  24. 24. K-Map Summary Level © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 25
  25. 25. K-Map Case Study - Enthovens Pb Battery Recycling Actual Standard Operating Practice captured and agreed by all shifts for the Refinery. 14% increase in output. 3% reduction in fuel use. Improved Team Work throughout Plant. Currently using P-Map to compare Key Performance Indicators and develop “Best Practice” across 10 European sites. © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 26
  26. 26. Summary European extruders currently have a technical advantage To keep this advantage we need to Keep a robust manufacturing infrastructure Maintain high quality throughout the supply chain Invest in innovation and new technology Fund dynamic and exciting aluminium R&D programmes Manage highly qualified and innovative European nationals gary.mahon@innovaltec.com © Innoval Technology Ltd IP07-047, Slide 27

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