Adaptive Organisations – Interweaving the Deliberate and EmergentAbstractToday’s business world is an increasingly complex...
1. Background and ContextThe volatility of today’s business environment acts a catalyst for the constant emergence of newp...
monitoring and adjustment with a predetermined deliberate orientation. Even though there may besome external sensing, the ...
introduced by Mintzberg (1994) and echoed in slightly different terms by Scheer (2007) with his ideason stability and flex...
those involved in strategic planning and its implementation are following common goals" (Porter,1980).3.3 Emergent Strateg...
4. Business ProcessesGiven the rapidly changing demands of an            organisation’s business environment and the manyc...
4.2 Emergent Business ProcessesNew processes are constantly emerging during the execution of daily business. The term used...
organisation performs. Roberts (2004) posits that "certain strategies and organizational designs do fitone another and the...
Scheer, 2007). One extreme position is characterised by deliberate, deliberation and stability while theother is character...
management of the organisations transaction and business processes requirements. They follow avery rigid structure, for ex...
EDA are supported by a number of different vendor platforms such as IBMs (2006). This platformsupports a purely emergent a...
In addition, SAP understands that the traditional enterprise architectures (ERP) that only support thedeliberate approach ...
These principles are further reiterated by Van Praag (2007). However, Van Praag (2007) adds anotherpillar to the adaptive ...
business requirements to IT. IT implementation models are closer to the implementation of thesoftware and are platform spe...
adaptive systems can be leveraged to support the development of an adaptive organisation bysupporting adaptive processes a...
ReferencesBenner, M. (2009). Dynamic or Static Capabilities? Process Management Practices and Response to    Technological...
Keen, P. G. (1997) The process edge: creating value where it counts, Harvard Business School Press,    Boston Massachusett...
Porter, M. E. (1980) Competitive strategy: Techniques for analyzing industries and competitors, Free    Press, New York, I...
Figure 1Overarc ching Research Framework                   r         o                                   18  
Figure 2Organissation Adaption Model                   i                                                                  ...
Figure 3Organis      sation Adapti Framework: from con                  ion     o           nception to realisation, inter...
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  1. 1. Adaptive Organisations – Interweaving the Deliberate and EmergentAbstractToday’s business world is an increasingly complex, interconnected environment where organisationsconduct global business. It is characterised by rapid, unpredictable change resulting in turmoil thatimpacts all levels of an organisation. Traditional deliberate strategies, based on cycles of stability andpredictability, are no longer relevant for todays business environments. Emergent strategies havebeen advocated as the solution. However, the thesis of this research is that organisations need tointerweave the deliberate with the emergent. A review of research and industry literature suggestslarge gaps exist in terms of strategies, processes, structures, and information systems that intrinsically,fundamentally, and seamlessly interweave deliberate and emergent aspects to support adaptiveorganisations. In this thesis we investigate and propose how interweaving of the deliberate andemergent could be conceived and realised in terms of strategy, processes, organisational structures,and information systems. The research is interdisciplinary in nature and spans management,operations, and information systems.   
  2. 2. 1. Background and ContextThe volatility of today’s business environment acts a catalyst for the constant emergence of newproblems and market opportunities. For example, product lifecycles that used to be measured in termsof years are now taking months if not weeks. This market instability, characterised by the everincreasing rate of change, necessitates change in the way organisations conduct their business (Dale,2007; Heinrich & Betts, 2003). Change in terms of the way business is conducted means there is acorresponding change in business models and the business processes that support these models.One way organisations can respond to the challenges of rapid change is to consider its impact at threetiers of abstraction. First, macro level changes that impact an organisation and its strategic direction.Second, macro and micro level changes that can affect the organisations business processes (BP) andorganisational structure, or the way business is conducted. And third, changes to the InformationSystems (IS) that are required to implement and support the business processes and changing strategy.Most organisations manage their strategy, business processes, the organisational structure, and theirinformation systems in a disparate way rather than adopting a cohesive approach. This lack ofcohesion can result in serious problems for the organisation if it is unable to respond and adapt torapidly changing business conditions. Commonly, technology is understood as an enabler to solveproblems, for example machines and software have been used to significantly increase efficiencies ofmany organisational processes. In a predictable environment the traditional approach of definingstrategy, designing processes, and implementing software solutions is an appropriate response.However, in a rapidly changing environment, organisations are under fierce pressure to adapt to theenvironmental change. 2. Deliberate or Emergent or Adaptive?There are many current frameworks that express the elements of strategy, business process,organisational structure and information systems but most of these frameworks focus on an internalalignment of those elements (for example, Kumaran et al 2007). The alignment is the cyclical 1  
  3. 3. monitoring and adjustment with a predetermined deliberate orientation. Even though there may besome external sensing, the alignment cycle does not take this into account. The alignment is done in avery deliberate way and therefore considered to be a deliberate approach in terms of the managementorientation.The deliberate approach, as a certain orientation of management, is also recognised by Scheer (2007).However, he suggests that an organisation may balance the deliberate approach with an emergentapproach to offset the dynamics occurring in its internal and external environment. He proposes amodel that illustrates the intensity of control versus connectivity between groups both internally andexternally. This model suggests that organisations with traditional, top down, hierarchicalmanagement structures have high levels of intensity of control and low connectivity. Theseorganisations are inflexible and succeed in stable environments. They follow a deliberate approach.While there are organisations at the bleeding edge that are very reactive and flexible, their levels ofconnectivity are very high while the intensity of control is very low. These organisations follow anemergent approach.Scheer (2007) suggests that the best place to be is on the edge of chaos where organisations balanceflexibility and stability. This equates to a balance between the deliberate and emergent approach.The edge of chaos equates to what is meant by the adaptive approach as defined in this research, thedeliberate-emergent approach. 3. The adaptive approachThere are two key dimensions to the following discussion of the literature. One is the elements of anorganisation and the other is the deliberate versus the emergent orientation of management. Thisdeliberate versus the emergent approach is applied to the four key elements of an organisationproposed by Scott-Morton MIT90’s framework (1991): strategy, business processes, organisationalstructures and technology (information systems). So the MIT90’s framework acts as an over archingstructure in the research. The second dimension used is the concept of deliberate and emergent 2  
  4. 4. introduced by Mintzberg (1994) and echoed in slightly different terms by Scheer (2007) with his ideason stability and flexibility. The structure of the discussions is organised against these two dimensions(axes) as illustrated in Figure 1. Each of the four key elements of an organisation (Scott-Morton,1991) is discussed in terms of deliberate, emergent and adaptive in the following sections. [Figure 1 about here]3.1 StrategyThe Oxford Dictionary defines strategy as a "plan designed to achieve a particular long-term aim"(Pearsall, 2001). However, Mintzberg (1987) suggests that in a business context a strategy is morethan just a plan. He suggests that it is a pattern that is found in a stream of actions, a market position,and the organisations perspective. Mintzberg and Walters (1985) introduced the idea of a strategy asconsisting of two elements: deliberate strategy and emergent strategy. This view is supported byOcasio and Joseph (2008) they defined strategy as "a framework, either implicit or explicit, thatguides the organisations choice of action". They suggest this broad view of strategy is both "plannedand emergent, resulting from strategic design, the evolution of a pattern of decisions, or a combinationof the above".3.2 Deliberate StrategyA deliberate strategy is a strategy that is carefully planned and controlled by the organisation. Thetraditional strategies are deliberate strategies. The reasons for this are that these strategies begin withan idea, a plan is then developed, the plan is communicated, and some form of action(s) follows. Thepurpose of what can be considered as a traditional strategy is to create and maintain a long termdefinable position that results in competitive advantage within the market (Mintzberg & Waters,1985; Eisenhardt & Brown, 1998). A seminal and definitive work on corporate strategy CompetitiveAdvantage (Porter, 1980) discussed what is now known as Porters Strategy Models. It could beargued that Porters work on competitive strategy focuses on deliberate strategies as his definition isthat a formal corporate strategy "provides a coherent model for all business units and ensures that all 3  
  5. 5. those involved in strategic planning and its implementation are following common goals" (Porter,1980).3.3 Emergent StrategyEmergent strategies are those strategies that have developed as part of a "pattern in a stream ofactions" and are divorced from any preconceived plan (Mintzberg, 1987; Hamel & Prahalad, 2005).This strategy is the ability of the organisation to be responsive to the environment in order to maintainits competitive position. Bonnet and Yip (2009) refer to strategic agility, it is the ability anorganisation has to constantly, "sense, assess and react to market conditions". They suggest that intodays turbulent markets strategic agility is necessary rather than the idea of sustainable competitiveadvantage.The foregoing discussion has discussed the key concepts of deliberate strategy and emergent strategyin their pure form. A pure deliberate strategy is when the organisation proposes and then locks itselfinto a course of action toward a future destination that it ultimately reaches. In contrast, the pure formof an emergent strategy lacks intention but despite lack of intention there is "order and consistencyover time" (Mintzberg & Walters, 1985).3.4 Adaptive StrategyThere are not many current strategies that are purely deliberate or purely emergent (Mintzberg, 1994).A strategy that results in competitive advantage today may not result in competitive advantagetomorrow as so much is happening at an ever increasing speed. "Competing on the edge" (Eisenhardt& Brown, 1998) refers to a strategic approach that requires an organisational ability to changeconstantly over time in response to a relentlessly changing environment. Reacting to the environmentis important but anticipating and even setting the pace of change is more so as time pacing is relevantto strategy. In an adaptive (deliberate-emergent) strategy, time encompasses both the notion of"stretching out the past" together with probing into the future in order to obtain a strategy that is bothdeliberate and emerging (Eisenhardt & Brown, 1998). 4  
  6. 6. 4. Business ProcessesGiven the rapidly changing demands of an organisation’s business environment and the manychallenges that this uncertainty brings, organisations are focusing on their business processes as ameans to deliver the specific results that are required to meet the environmental or organisation needs.Given that business processes exist to serve the customer, it can therefore be perceived as a key tosustainable competitive advantage. Keen (1997) supports this view and purports that there are fourmain reasons for viewing BP improvement as a strategic imperative. First, organisations have thepropensity to be far more adaptable than previously thought. Second, the changing nature of changerequires organisations to balance and compete on the edge that lies between flexibility and stability.Third, BP makes a major contribution to the development of organisation specific, dynamiccapabilities (competencies) and fourth, the significant effect of IT advances on the critically importantcoordination and transaction costs.4.1 Deliberate Business ProcessesA number of methodologies and frameworks have been proposed by academics and consultants tomanage the transformation process of business process. However, most of these advocate a structureddeliberate approach that consumes a lot of time, money and effort to often produce only mediocregains (Billington & Davidson, 2008). For example, the Process Lifecycle (Rosemann, 2001) follows astep wise approach from the initial identification of the current as-is process through to thedevelopment of the improved to-be process that is then implemented. The cycle is completed bymonitoring and control of the new and improved implemented process. However, the sense andrespond adaption cycle, using the process lifecycle management approach, is a static approachbecause it does not accommodate mid-cycle change. Therefore, the sense, respond and adapt aspect ofthe life cycle orientation is limited by the very nature of the cycle itself. 5  
  7. 7. 4.2 Emergent Business ProcessesNew processes are constantly emerging during the execution of daily business. The term used todescribe these new, evolving, knowledge-intensive business processes is emergent business processes(EBP). Emergent business processes are organisational activity patterns described by Markus,Majchrzak and Gasser (2002) as processes in which, "problem interpretations, deliberations with nobest structure or sequence, and actions unfold unpredictably". A defining characteristic of theseemergent business processes is that they cannot be predefined as their models are based onaccumulated experience and evolve from the execution of business events. (Marjanovic, 2005; Dale,2007).4.3 Adaptive Business ProcessesA number of authors have used Jazz music improvisation a metaphor for the adaptive management ofbusiness processes. Scheer (2007) explains that a good jazz group, made up of skilled musicians(experts) who when playing together are constantly communicating in the same time and place. Eachplaying is listening and responding to each other with particular emphasis on the soloist. Each playerresponds to the soloist’s development of the melody. During an improvisation the soloist uses thestructure of the lead music lead sheet as a scaffold and within that scaffold creates new melodies onthe spot. Applying the jazz metaphor to the management of business processes, the jazz groupsprocess of improvisation is analogous to a source of constant emergent processes. While the scaffoldthat the soloist uses determined by the music sheet is analogous to deliberate processes. Therefore, themetaphor of jazz improvisation can be used to illustrate the management of adaptive processes. 5. Organisational StructuresAn organisational structure exists for management and control purposes. It defines the work roles andhow activities are grouped together (Lasher, 2005). The way an organisation is structured hasimplications for how strategy is translated throughout the organisation and ultimately how the 6  
  8. 8. organisation performs. Roberts (2004) posits that "certain strategies and organizational designs do fitone another and the environment, and thus produce good performance, and others do not."5.1 Deliberate Organisational StructuresMany organisations are structured as a functional organisation that supports a deliberate approach.Bryan and Joyce (2007) argue that most organisations are designed for a past industrial age wherevertical integrated structures were designed for efficient operations. These vertically integratedstructures exhibit high levels of hierarchical authority and control and are more suited to a stableenvironment.Furthermore, Labovitz and Rosansky (1997) suggest that traditional, hierarchical organizationalstructures are designed to break up managerial tasks into pieces: departments and divisions. Thissegmentation makes it difficult to integrate the organisations strategy, business processes and systemsinto a cohesive working whole. The organisational structure actually becomes a barrier to change andimproved performance.5.2 Emergent Organisational StructuresA virtual organisation structure is an emerging organisational form where employees interact witheach other almost completely using telecommunication systems. A virtual organisation structureallows for high levels of connectivity both among the individuals members of the organisation andwith the environment. It is an extremely flexible structure that allows an organisation to be reactiveand innovative.5.3 Adaptive Organisational StructuresOrganisations with traditional top down hierarchical management structures have high levels ofintensity of control and low connectivity and thus are restricted to being very deliberate.Organisations at the bleeding edge are very reactive, connectivity between parties and the externalenvironment is very high. Neither of these extreme positions is good (Eisenhardt & Brown, 1998; 7  
  9. 9. Scheer, 2007). One extreme position is characterised by deliberate, deliberation and stability while theother is characterised by chaos, flexibility and possibly innovation and even anarchy. A Matrixorganisational structure however supports both the emergent and deliberate management orientation.The matrix structure consists of the horizontal management and control lines of a product orientatedstructure combined with the vertical lines of a functional structure. Furthermore, the managementreporting lines are extremely flexible. Therefore, it can be argued that it is not a choice between beingstable or flexible it is about being stable and flexible. This research suggests that an organisationdevelop the ability to be deliberate and emergent, stable and flexible and at the same time be anadaptive organisation. 6. Information SystemsTo effectively support an organisations business processes, and in turn business strategy, anintegrated information systems (IS) infrastructure is absolutely essential. There are variousInformation Systems that go towards supporting processes in an organisation. Scheer (1998) suggestsan integrated organisation IS infrastructure with five organisational levels. All the informationsystems at each level are traditional application systems that monitor processes (not activities) at thelowest level. Furthermore, Scheers (1998) Integrated Information Systems is a classic example of avery deliberate, top down strategy approach. The organisations strategy drives the analysis, controland monitoring cycle, in which information from the monitoring processes at the bottom level is fedback up and so on and so forth.6.1 Deliberate Information SystemsOver the past twenty years organisations have implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP)systems. These information systems are integrated organisation-wide systems and are a technologicalresponse to the integrated information systems environment proposed by Scheer (1998). These ERPsystems have replaced the stand alone business information systems applications in manyorganisations. These systems are predominantly based on a very deliberate approach to the 8  
  10. 10. management of the organisations transaction and business processes requirements. They follow avery rigid structure, for example the SAP R/3 ERP system, which has been implemented by manyorganisations, is an example of a typical traditional ERP system. In one sense tradition ERP systemsare extremely flexible because they can be configured to suit many different enterprises across manydifferent industries. On the other hand once configured and implemented they are quite difficult tochange. This inflexibility means that once implemented the system cannot altered with ease inresponse to a subsequent change in the enterprises strategy and/or business processes (Portougal &Sundaram, 2006). Therefore, traditional SAP systems and the ways you implement the system is anexample of a very deliberate approach. The systems and the processes do not allow for emergentphenomena to be easily supported.While we have used traditional SAP architecture as an example, generally most traditional applicationsoftware have a very deliberate orientation and mainly support deliberate processes and deliberatestrategies. Most software platforms and solutions are quite deliberate, for example PeopleSoftEnterprise Applications, JD Edwards OneWorld, and Baan IV Solution to name a few (Nah, 2002).These systems do not support the emergent nor adaptive approach. It is only the more recentarchitectures that are trying to support emergent and adaptive approaches in terms of proceduralresponses (the way in which you implement the system) and technological responses. Moreover,custom made applications for particular organisations and contexts are even more deliberate in theirorientation.6.2 Emergent Information SystemsMore and more one is seeing information systems that support a purely emergent approach. Theseinformation systems possess what is termed in literature and industry as an Event Driven Architecture(EDA). From a conceptual perspective the EDA components and sub-systems are totally decoupled(not dependant on other software applications) and mostly asynchronous. They support eventprocessing in real time and thus support an emergent approach. 9  
  11. 11. EDA are supported by a number of different vendor platforms such as IBMs (2006). This platformsupports a purely emergent approach because it does not come with any pre-defined services butprovides complete application functionality to create any services as and when required. The platformsupports the creation of primitive as well as composite services. If something changes the primitiveand/or composite services can either be changed or a new service (primitive or composite) can becreated from scratch. Unlike the SAP and Oracle platforms, the IBM platform does not come with acore repository of predefined services to support processes. However, primitive and compositeservices can be bought from a service provider such as SAP, Oracle or other external sources on anas-needed basis. This makes the platform extremely flexible and reactive because services can eitherbe created from scratch or acquired and plugged in. Therefore, the IBM platform can be viewedprimarily as one that supports the modelling, design, management, and deployment of services and assuch designed well to react to emergent behaviour.6.3 Adaptive Information SystemsThe pathway to competitive differentiation according to SAP (2009) is through Business NetworkTransformation termed as BPM 2.0 and beyond. BPM 2.0 and beyond in SAPs opinion will beachieved through flexibly enabling the business process lifecycle by leveraging components and sub-systems such as Business Rules, Business Activity Monitoring and System to System (S2S) BPM.These are all technologies whose express purpose is to support emergent behaviour.However, SAP recognises that the EDA as a standalone architecture that supports the pure emergentapproach is not able to achieve the key business drivers for business transformation on its own. It alsorecognises that an adaptive organisation also needs modelling, simulation, and analysis and a balancebetween human tasks and S2S BPM total automation. In terms of adaptive systems, S2S BPMautomation is important because the more S2S there is potentially meaningful events emerge quickertogether with adaptation. At the same time, extreme levels of S2S may lead to lack of visibility aboutwhen human intervention is required to prevent catastrophic events unfolding. Therefore, there oughtto be a balance among H2H (human2human), S2H, or H2S automation. 10  
  12. 12. In addition, SAP understands that the traditional enterprise architectures (ERP) that only support thedeliberate approach are obsolete. Therefore, SAP proposes an Enterprise Service OrientatedArchitecture (ESOA) that comprises of EDA components/systems and Enterprise Modelling,Simulation and Analysis, and Process collaboration capabilities components/sub-systems that supportthe adaptive approach.There are also hybrid systems architectures such as Oracles that support EDA and consequently theemergent approach. These information systems posses a whole host of components/sub-systems thatexplicitly supports the EDA paradigm such as Business Activity Monitoring (BAM), Complex EventProcessing (CEP) and Business Rules Management (BRM). These architectures support Mintzbergsvision of emergent strategies through the constant monitoring and analysis of meaningful events(patterns of behaviour) within the organisation’s event cloud. In addition, many of these hybridinformation systems have support for the deliberate approach through explicitmodules/components/sub-systems to support Business Process Management (BPM). For example,support for the deliberate (BPM) and the emergent (BAM) is well illustrated by Oracles architecture.6.4 Design Principles of Adaptive Information SystemsGeneric frameworks proposed by industry heavy-weights such as Sun reiterate similar principles forarchitectures to support adaptive information systems. They emphasise the need to have architecturesthat are process driven, user centric, service oriented, and loosely coupled. And it is especially thisloosely coupled aspect that helps organisations in being emergent and reactive to what is happening.This loose coupling enables one to rapidly decompose and recompose service chains to supportrapidly changing process requirements. User centricity emphasises the need for flexible userinterfaces that can be personalised, role-based, adaptable and adaptive, evolving as the users and userneeds change. Highly adaptable process flows enable the rapid composition of new flows as well asthe modification of existing flows. Such flows can be in the realm of transactions, decisions, and/orcollaborations. These four principles can be considered to be the cornerstones of adaptivearchitectures. 11  
  13. 13. These principles are further reiterated by Van Praag (2007). However, Van Praag (2007) adds anotherpillar to the adaptive organisation. He suggests that modern, distributed, real time enterprisearchitectures will be powered by SOA as well as EDA patterns in combination as appropriate. Hegoes onto suggest that the real time enterprise architecture will be a fusion of these differentapproaches. 7. Organisation Adaption Model and FrameworkThis research suggests that organisations can be thought of in terms of Scott-Mortons MIT90sFramework (1991) but they should also have the ability to formulate strategies that can be translatedinto adaptive processes and adaptive structures. These adaptive processes and structures should beinhabited by adaptive individuals in composite flexible roles and the four elements together supportedby systems and technologies that have inherent capabilities of adapting (Figure 2). [Figure 2 about here]Many models for organisational adaptation have been suggested but most of these models are eithermanagement oriented or technology oriented. Bhattacharya et al.s framework (2007) and Kumaran etal. s (2007) transformational approach are some of the few models for organisational adaptation thatinterweave managerial concerns with technological responses in an integrated and holistic fashion.Bhattacharya et al.s (2007) framework differentiates four different models on different levels ofabstraction. The strategy level model is at the highest level of abstraction, where business objectivesare specified. These objectives drive the operational models. These models describe the structure oforganisational routines. In order to support organisational routines with information technology (IT),solution composition models are designed that combine necessary information technologyfunctionality and the operational models. Solution composition models can be seen as an intermediatelayer between business and information technology; rather than having to deal with implementationspecifics, "solution architects" can operate on a more abstract level that simplifies the matching of 12  
  14. 14. business requirements to IT. IT implementation models are closer to the implementation of thesoftware and are platform specific.A synthesis of the above concepts and frameworks with respect to adaptation and strategy-drivenprocesses, organisational structures, and systems leads us to propose a model for organisationaladaptation (Figure 3). This model explicitly considers the transformation of strategy into businessprocesses and appropriate organisational structures. It considers the translation of these processes andstructures into potential solutions that compose and integrate components and services to delivereffective and flexible implementations. Execution and monitoring of the implementation andcontextual events enables us to pro-actively manage the performance of the organisation through threedistinct mechanisms; corrective (single-loop learning), optimising (double-loop learning), andaligning (double and triple-loop learning).   [Figure 3 about here] 8. ConclusionThe subject of organisational adaptation as a means to survive has been a research topic for academicresearchers over the past two decades. There is a good amount of published literature that supportsthe theme of organisations being adaptive and responding to the changing environment. Thisliterature can be found in a number of different research domains within a number of topic areas andculminates in a mature body of knowledge that supports the theme that organisations need to adapt tosurvive. An adaptive organisation, in essence, has the ability to sense and respond to changes in theenvironment ensuring its survival.Recent interest in adaptive organisations is particularly apparent in the IS industry. Industrypractitioners are actively engaged in promoting and writing about information systems andtechnologies that support adaptive organisation. However, it appears this interest is not supported tothe same degree in the academic arena. Furthermore, there is little understanding of how these 13  
  15. 15. adaptive systems can be leveraged to support the development of an adaptive organisation bysupporting adaptive processes and organisational structures and adaptive strategies. The literature review highlighted the fact that while there is reasonable amount of literature in thearea of adaptive strategy there is very sparse literature in the area of adaptive processes and adaptiveorganisational structures. The literature review also highlighted the fact that there is significantamount of momentum from system vendors in the area of adaptive systems. However, there is verylittle research on how adaptive strategy can be supported by adaptive business processes andorganisation structures and how all these can be supported by adaptive systems.Furthermore, there is even less research on how to translate adaptive strategy to adaptive process andorganisational structure to adaptive systems. And back from system to structure to process to strategyin an interwoven, seamless fashion. By interweaving these components in a seamless way,organisations can behave in very deliberate manner as well as in an emergent fashion and still bepartially directed by a deliberate approach towards strategy.While we have some ideas about what is an adaptive organisation and we have proposed an incipientmodel and framework to support our investigations, these need to be augmented in much greaterdetail, validated, extended and refined.  14  
  16. 16. ReferencesBenner, M. (2009). Dynamic or Static Capabilities? Process Management Practices and Response to Technological Change. The Journal of Product Innovation Management, ISSN 0737-6782, 26 (5) 473 - 486.Bhattacharya,K., Gerede,C.E., Hull, R., Liu,R. and Su, J. (2007). Towards Formal Analysis of Artifact-Centric Business Process Models. BPM 2007, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4714 Springer 2007, ISBN 978-3-540-75182-3, 288-304.Billington, C., & Davidson, R. (2008). Want To Improve Your Below-Average Business Processes? – Innovate Don’t Invent. Perspectives for Managers, ISSN 1027-7404, (159), 1. Bonnet, D. and Yip, G. (2009) Strategy convergence, Business Strategy Review, ISSN 0955-6419, 20 (2) 50-55.Bryan, L. L. and Joyce, C. I. (2007) Better strategy through organizational design, McKinsey Quarterly, ISSN 0047-5394, 2 (07) 21-29.Dale, S. (2007) Holistic BPM: From Theory to Reality, In Keynote Presentation, 5th International Conference on Business Process Management, ISSN 0302-9743, (BPM, 2007).Eisenhardt, K. M. and Brown S. L. (1998) Competing on the edge: Strategy as structured chaos, Long Range Planning, ISSN 0024-6301, 31(5) 786-789.Hamel, G. and Prahalad, C. K. (2005) Strategic Intent, Harvard Business Review, ISSN 0017-8012, 83 (7/8) 148-161.Herrmann M., Golden. R. (2006). SOA: Choreography and Orchestration. http://jboss/jbossworld/2006/soa-for-the-real-world/HERRMANN_CO-Layer_final.pdf.Heinrich, C. E. and Betts, B. (2003) Adapt or die: transforming your supply chain into an adaptive business network, John Wiley & Sons Inc, ISBN 0471265438.IBM. (2006). Making Business Better: Business Process Management With SOA - Facilitating Innovation Through Improved Productivity. http://whitepapers.techrepublic.com.com/search.aspx?compid=2773&tag=content;leftCol.IBM. (2006). Making Business Better:business process management with SOA. 15  
  17. 17. Keen, P. G. (1997) The process edge: creating value where it counts, Harvard Business School Press, Boston Massachusetts, ISBN 9780875845883.Kumaran, S., Bishop, P., Chao, T., Dhoolia, P., Jain, P., Jaluka, R., et al. (2007). Using a model- driven transformational approach and service-oriented architecture for service delivery management. IBM Systems Journal, ISSN 0018-8670 , 46(3), 513Labovitz, G. and Rosansky, V. (1997) The power of alignment: How great companies stay centered and accomplish extraordinary things, Wiley, New York, ISBN 978-0-471-17790-6.Lasher, W. R. (2005). Process to profits : strategic planning for a growing business, South-Western Educational Pub, ISBN 0324223870.Marjanovic, O. (2005) Towards IS supported coordination in emergent business processes, Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, 11 (5) 476-487.Markus, M. L., Majchrzak, A. and Gasser, L. (2002). A design theory for systems that support emergent knowledge processes, 26 (3) MIS Quarterly, ISSN 0276-7783, 179-212.Mintzberg, H. (1987) The strategy concept I: five Ps for strategy. California Management Review, ISSN 0008-1256, 30 (1) 11-24.Mintzberg, H. (1994) The rise and fall of strategic planning : reconceiving roles for planning, plans, planners, Free Press: New York, Maxwell Macmillan, Toronto Canada, ISBN 0029216052.Mintzberg, H., Ahlstrand, B. and Lampel, J. (2005) Strategy bites back: It Is Far More, and Less, than You Ever Imagined, Prentice Hall, New York, ISBN 0131857770.Mintzberg, H. and Waters, J. A. (1985) Of strategies, deliberate and emergent, Strategic management journal, ISSN 01432095, 6 (3) 257-272.Nah, F. F. H. (2002). Enterprise resource planning solutions and management: IRM Press, ISBN 1931777063.Ocasio, W., & Joseph, J. (2008). Rise and Fall - or Transformation? The Evolution of Strategic Planning at the General Electric Company, 1940-2006. Long Range Planning, ISSN 0024- 630141(3), 248.Pearsall, J. (2001). The Concise Oxford English Dictionary: Oxford University Press, ISBN 13 978- 0199558452. 16  
  18. 18. Porter, M. E. (1980) Competitive strategy: Techniques for analyzing industries and competitors, Free Press, New York, ISBN 0684841487.Portougal, V., & Sundaram, D. (2005). Business processes: operational solutions for SAP implementation: IRM Press, ISBN 1591409799.Roberts, J. (2004) The Modern Firm: Organizational Design for Performance and Growth, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0198293763.Rosemann, M. (2001) Business Process Lifecycle Management. Queensland, University of Technology, White paper, 1-29.SAP (2009). Business Process Cycle: Implement Phase, 2009, http://www.sdn.sap.com/irj/bpx/implement.Scheer, A. W. (1998) Business process engineering: reference models for industrial enterprises, study edition, Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany, ISBN 3-540-58234-7.Scheer, C. H. (2007) Jazz Improvisation and Management, Aris Expert Paper, IDS Scheer AG, 2010, http://www.google.co.nz/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=3&ved=0CB0QFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2F www.ids-scheer.de%2Fset%2F6473%2FARIS_-_Scheer_-_Jazz-Improvisation_- _AEP_en.pdf&ei=UkVdTKDuN5O-sQOZ3JiqCw&usg=AFQjCNH4lq9Z- iU3ZLmawooquFsfvYdFwg.Scott Morton, M. S. S. (1991). The Corporation of the 1990s: Oxford Univ. Press, ISBN 0-87584- 237-2.van Praag, F. (2007). Service Oriented Architecture, 2009, http://www.cjugaustralia.org/slides/200610SOA/CJUG%20Way%20to%20SOA.ppt  17  
  19. 19. Figure 1Overarc ching Research Framework r o 18  
  20. 20. Figure 2Organissation Adaption Model i     19  
  21. 21. Figure 3Organis sation Adapti Framework: from con ion o nception to realisation, interweaving the deliberate and g aemergen nt 20  

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