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Marketing Across Cultures  Inna Bilash     2012
The Table of Content• International Marketing• Intercultural Marketing Communications  through Advertisement• Culture and ...
International MarketingTwo main dimensions of a cultural approach to theinternational marketing:1. A cross-cultural approa...
Culture: Visible and Hidden Dimensions
Sources of the Culture
Collective Fingerprint„Heaven is where    the cooks are French,    the mechanics are German,    the policemen are English,...
Elements of the CultureThe four essential elements of culture are:• Language,• Institutions,• Material productions,• Symbo...
Intercultural Marketing Communications A communication is never language-free. The main tool for communicating marketing m...
Management Process for Marketing Communications
Intercultural Marketing Communications The advertising strategy relates to the types of appeals used, those are:      dire...
Advertising Appeals     US and Japanese advertising strategiesThe Japanese preference for implicit, indirectcommunication ...
The Use of Symbolic and Informational Appeals    Symbolic advertising is more often used in France,    descriptive appeals...
The Information Content of Advertising US television advertising contains less information than Australian, French-Canadia...
The Information Content of Advertising Cross-culturally, print media are more informative than radio and television. In a ...
The Information Content of Advertising Consumers belonging to fatalistic-oriented societies react more easily to persuasiv...
The Culture and Advertising ExecutionThe following domains of advertising execution are:      language;      humour;      ...
The Culture and Advertising ExecutionCompanies standardized in their international ads:     strategy (68 per cent)     exe...
International Advertising Execution                       IBM used the                       character of Charlie         ...
International Advertising Execution                     In Italy a promotion                     campaign for             ...
International Advertising Execution                     When the slogan of                     Kentucky Fried Chicken     ...
International Advertising Execution                       Coors the American                        brewer lost its fizz  ...
International Advertising Execution                      American Airlines                      decided to adverse        ...
International Advertising Execution
Thank you!inna.bilash@gmail.com
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Marketing Across Cultures

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This presentation offers an approach to global marketing, based on the recognition of diversity in world markets and on local consumer knowledge and marketing practices. Understanding international diversity in consumer behaviour, advertising, sales and marketing management becomes the central objective for an international marketing.

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Marketing Across Cultures

  1. 1. Marketing Across Cultures Inna Bilash 2012
  2. 2. The Table of Content• International Marketing• Intercultural Marketing Communications through Advertisement• Culture and Advertisement Strategy• Culture and Advertising Execution
  3. 3. International MarketingTwo main dimensions of a cultural approach to theinternational marketing:1. A cross-cultural approach means comparingnational marketing systems and local commercialcustoms in various countries.2. An intercultural approach is centered on the studyof interaction between business people, buyers andsellers (and their companies) who have differentnational/cultural backgrounds.
  4. 4. Culture: Visible and Hidden Dimensions
  5. 5. Sources of the Culture
  6. 6. Collective Fingerprint„Heaven is where the cooks are French, the mechanics are German, the policemen are English, the lovers are Italian and it is all organized by the Swiss.Hell is where the policemen are German, the mechanics are French, the cooks are British, the lovers are Swiss and it is all organized by the Italians.‟
  7. 7. Elements of the CultureThe four essential elements of culture are:• Language,• Institutions,• Material productions,• Symbolic productions.
  8. 8. Intercultural Marketing Communications A communication is never language-free. The main tool for communicating marketing messages to customer audiences is an advertising. Which elements should be localized and which ones can be similar worldwide?
  9. 9. Management Process for Marketing Communications
  10. 10. Intercultural Marketing Communications The advertising strategy relates to the types of appeals used, those are: direct or indirect, explicit or implicit or rational or emotional. The advertising style in communicating with the audiences of viewers, readers or listeners can be roughly divided into three basic categories: persuasive, informative and oneiric, that is dream-oriented.
  11. 11. Advertising Appeals US and Japanese advertising strategiesThe Japanese preference for implicit, indirectcommunication is reflected by a relative lack of hard-sellappeals.Instead, there are four times as many softsell appeals inJapanese as in US advertisements.In accordance with Japanese values, there also are moreadvertisements that stress tradition and the veneration of theelderly.The product-merit appeal, on the other hand, is dominant inUS advertisements.Japanese cultural values stress status symbols in advertisingwhereas Americans place emphasis on individualdeterminism.
  12. 12. The Use of Symbolic and Informational Appeals Symbolic advertising is more often used in France, descriptive appeals in Korea and associative appeals in the USA and Asian countries. Swedish ads also depend more on symbolic associations than US advertisements. Italian and French advertisements often appear as very dream oriented: viewers and readers are supposedly willing to escape from the real world. Germans, unlike the French or the Italians, are known to have a taste for highly informative advertising. The similarity in advertising strategies only appears in culturally close countries like the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada.
  13. 13. The Information Content of Advertising US television advertising contains less information than Australian, French-Canadian, Spanish, Ecuadorian, Irish, French and German, and Japanese television advertising. Only British TV advertisements seem to contain less information than US advertisements. Comparing the information content of television, radio and print found the highest level of information cues in the United States, followed by Japan and the People‟s Republic of China, whereas South Korean advertising scores lowest in informative content.
  14. 14. The Information Content of Advertising Cross-culturally, print media are more informative than radio and television. In a meta-analysis of 59 studies about information content, an interesting result from a cross-cultural perspective is that advertising in developed countries is more informative than in developing countries. In developed countries advertising copy in general contains more writing and technical information, because most consumers have a high level of literacy and education
  15. 15. The Information Content of Advertising Consumers belonging to fatalistic-oriented societies react more easily to persuasive message and also oneiric messages. Japanese advertisements have very few price, warranty and guarantee cues compared to US advertisements. Korean advertisements include the price 38 per cent of the time, whereas in other countries the average is between 8 per cent (India) and 16 per cent (France). „The British don‟t even want to mention money‟. French commercials present more quality information and new ideas. In Taiwan information about product availability and special offers are significantly higher than average.
  16. 16. The Culture and Advertising ExecutionThe following domains of advertising execution are: language; humour; characters and roles represented; the influence of mores and religion, and visual elements of advertising.Advertisements usually have several text elements(catch-phrase, product description, slogan) and usecolloquial language, very subtle yet precise inmeaning.
  17. 17. The Culture and Advertising ExecutionCompanies standardized in their international ads: strategy (68 per cent) execution (54 per cent) language much less (11 per cent).In order to be effective in a French context, for example, 50per cent of all words in an advertisement should be nounsand verbs, the percentage of words exceeding threesyllables should not be higher than 10 per cent, most of thelong words should be familiar words, and sentences shouldhave an average length of about 10–13 words.A very large percentage of Asian advertisements containsEnglish – and in some rare cases French – words.
  18. 18. International Advertising Execution IBM used the character of Charlie Chaplin and the mode of a silent film in a multinational campaign, the goal of which was to foster corporate image. This allowed the advertisement to be used in any country of the world.
  19. 19. International Advertising Execution In Italy a promotion campaign for Shweppes Tonic Water FAILED when the product name was translated as „Schweppes Toilet Water‟…
  20. 20. International Advertising Execution When the slogan of Kentucky Fried Chicken „It‟s finger likin‟ good!‟ was translated into Chinese for Hong Kong market it came out as …‟eat your fingers off‟.
  21. 21. International Advertising Execution Coors the American brewer lost its fizz in Spain when their hip phrase „Turn It Loose‟ was translated as ¡Suéltate con Coors! = “Get Diarrhea”
  22. 22. International Advertising Execution American Airlines decided to adverse the luxurious aspect of flying business class to Mexican customers. Ads should focus on leather seats: „Fly in leather!‟ = „Vuelo en Cuero‟ BUT „en cuero‟ is a slang term for „in the nude‟…
  23. 23. International Advertising Execution
  24. 24. Thank you!inna.bilash@gmail.com

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