Cereals form the major source of food.
The composition of cereal grains varies greatly due to
The genetic makeup of the plant
Cereals include rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, barley, etc
They comes under the family gramineae, i.e grass family.
Chemistry of cereal crops deals about chemical constituents :
Nutrients like Ca,P
Cereals are the major part of Indian diet so also known as staple foods.
The 80% percent of the dry matter in grains is carbohydrate, mainly the starch therefore, they are considered as the main energy providing crops.
Cereals provide 350 kcal of energy per 100 grams to the body.
Cereals contain 6-12% of protein
The whole grain form of cereal is more nutritious than milled one as it contains greater levels of B-complex vitamins, dietary fibre and essential fatty acids.
Cereals low in proteins.
High in Nitrogen Free Extract which includes the carbohydrates such as starch, dextrin, soluble sugars.
Starch constitutes more than 90% of NFE.
Grains, hulls and bran – rich in cellulose, pentosans and ash constituents.
germ or embryo – higher oil content, crude protein, sugar and minerals.
Endosperm – starch.
Abundant constituent of cereal plant system (80-95%).
With maturity water content decreases in plant.
Generally cereals rich in carbohydrates.
It ranges from 70-80%.
83% of total dry matter of wheat, barley, rye, maize, sorghum
and rice and 79% of oats.
Carbohydrates in cereal grains include more than 90% of starch.
Dextrin occurs in small amounts.
Bran chiefly contains pentosans and some cellulose and lignin.
Germ tissues have sucrose.
Cereal proteins are simple proteins in composition.
Conjugated proteins like nucleoproteins are concentrated mostly in the germ.
The simple proteins yield α- amino acids on hydrolysis.
Among simple proteins, cereal grains found to have
1) water soluble proteins (albumins)
2) salt soluble proteins (globulins)
3) alcohol soluble proteins (prolamines)
4) acids and alkali soluble proteins (glutuleins)
In cereals 6-12%