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Pe 561 self_confidence


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What is Self-Confidence?
Two main things contribute to self-confidence: self-efficacy and self-esteem.
We gain a sense of self-efficacy when we see ourselves (and others similar to ourselves) mastering skills and achieving goals that matter in those skill areas. This is the confidence that, if we learn and work hard in a particular area, we'll succeed; and it's this type of confidence that leads people to accept difficult challenges, and persist in the face of setbacks.
This overlaps with the idea of self-esteem, which is a more general sense that we can cope with what's going on in our lives, and that we have a right to be happy. Partly, this comes from a feeling that the people around us approve of us, which we may or may not be able to control. However, it also comes from the sense that we are behaving virtuously, that we're competent at what we do, and that we can compete successfully when we put our minds to it.
Some people believe that self-confidence can be built with affirmations and positive thinking. At Mind Tools, we believe that there's some truth in this, but that it's just as important to build self-confidence by setting and achieving goals – thereby building competence. Without this underlying competence, you don't have self-confidence: you have shallow over-confidence, with all of the issues, upset and failure that this brings.
Step 1: Preparing for Your Journey
Step 2: Setting Out
Step 3: Accelerating Towards Success

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Pe 561 self_confidence

  1. 1. SELF-CONFIDENCE: THE KEY TO GET SUCCESSHafiza Kaneez Fatima Qureshi. +92 -324 -34155760
  2. 2. What is self-confidence?
  3. 3. SELF- CONFIDENCE DEFINED True Self-Confidence – is a realistic belief or expectation of achieving success. Self-Confidence is:  not what you hope to do but what you realistically expect to do  not what you tell others but your innermost thoughts about your realistic capabilities,  not pride in past deeds but a realistic judgment about what you are able to do
  4. 4. SELF-EFFICACY DEFINED Self-efficacy – is a realistic belief or expectation about achieving success on a specific task in a specific situation. For example, “I can pole vault 16’6” in this meet.” or “I will hit this game-winning shot.” Self-efficacy is least impacted by personality because it is highly specific, unstable and based on situational factors such as task difficulty, preparation, recent successes/failures and playing conditions.
  5. 5. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TYPES OF CONFIDENCE Confidence is developed “bottom up. Athletes should attempt to enhance self-efficacy by accumulating success experiences in specific situations. Next, as self-efficacy experiences increase , state self- confidence improves. Finally, an accumulation of state self-confidence experiences eventually boosts trait self-confidence. For example, an athlete may have high self-efficacy of rebounding well in an upcoming game but be worried about her ability to play good defense on the opponent’s star player. Making some good stops increases defensive self-efficacy during the game. A strong overall defensive game enhances state self confidence to play well overall in the next game, while 6 good games in a row boosts trait basketball self confidence.
  6. 6. HIERARCHICAL MODEL OF CONFIDENCE Global Level Self-EsteemDomain Level Physical Mental Social ArtisticContext Attractive Sport Physical PhysicalLevel Competence Body Strength Condition
  7. 7. Does self-confidenceenhance performance?
  8. 8. SELF-CONFIDENCE ENHANCES PERFORMANCE Mahoney & Avener (1976) 1976 Olympic qualifiers were more confident than nonqualifiers. Feltz’ (1988) review found moderate to strong relationships between confidence and performance (i.e., mean r = .54). Research finds a reciprocal relationship between self-confidence and performance.
  9. 9. HOW SELF-CONFIDENCE IMPACTS PERFORMANCE lowers anxiety by creating positive expectations of success, increases motivation by raising perceived competence, enhances concentration by eliminating distraction from negative thoughts and personal putdowns.
  10. 10. What are the three types of self-confidence?
  12. 12. OPTIMAL SELF-CONFIDENCE Competence -- possess the knowledge, strategies, skills and abilities necessary for success, Preparation – sufficiently prepared so you can successfully perform those skills and strategies in a particular competitive situation.  Villanova’s 1984 upset of Georgetown in the NCAA Championship Game.
  13. 13. DIFFIDENT ATHLETES . . . confuse “what is” with what they “wish would be” or with what “ought to be,” see themselves as losers and act accordingly, mistakes devastate their competence, self doubts fuel self-fulfilling prophecies that create a vicious negative spiral, focus on their shortcomings and overlook their accomplishments, and are underachievers whose confidence limits their development
  14. 14. TYPES OF OVERCONFIDENCEinflated confidence, and false confidence.
  15. 15. INFLATED CONFIDENCE People who believe they are better than they really are and have an inflated opinion of themselves and their skills. They overestimate their abilities while underestimating their opponents’ skills. Pampering from parents/coaches, playing weak competition, and excessive media hype are its primary causes. Often they are competent but don’t prepare adequately.
  16. 16. FALSE CONFIDENCE act confident on the outside but inside fear failure and are really diffident, pretend to be brash, cocky and arrogant, difficulty admitting errors and filled with excuses, difficult to coach because they won’t accept responsibility for mistakes, and normally prepare hard but lack the competence to be successful.
  17. 17. What is the difference between performanceand outcome confidence?
  18. 18. PERFORMANCE- VERSUS OUTCOME CONFIDENCE Performance Confidence – performers’ belief that they can execute the skills and strategies necessary to perform well and attain their goals. Outcome Confidence – performers’ belief that they will socially compare well and win the competition.
  19. 19. WHY IS PERFORMANCE CONFIDENCE BETTER? Performance standards are more flexible so they can be raised or lowered to consistently achieve optimal difficulty necessary to keep motivation high. Success is also more controllable, enhancing self-determination, and thus prompting performers to take credit for their successes as indicative of increased competence.
  20. 20. What are some specificstrategies you use to boost your self-confidence?
  21. 21. CONFIDENCE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES general confidence development strategies, six confidence development tips for practitioners, and strategies for developing and maintaining confidence during competition.
  22. 22. ENHANCING SELF-CONFIDENCE PerformanceAccomplishments Behaviors Vicarious Experiences Self- Performance Confidence Verbal Persuasion Thoughts PhysiologicalArousal Control
  23. 23. ENHANCING SELF- CONFIDENCEHierarchical Model Interventions Performance 1. Accomplishments 1. Vicarious Experiences 2. 1. Verbal Persuasion 2. 1. Physiological Arousal 2.
  24. 24. GENERAL CONFIDENCEDEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES performance accomplishment  goal-setting, vicarious experiences,  modeling/demonstrations – Namath’s Jets,  imagery – Russell “déjà vu,” verbal persuasion,  reinforcement – enhances feelings of competence,  self talk – confidence script, arousal control.
  25. 25. CONFIDENCE-DEVELOPMENT TIPS FOR PRACTITIONERS develop a systematic goal setting program and log and graph progress, create a personal Hall-of-Fame, design a systematic conditioning program and maximize preparation, use effective modeling strategies, replay past successes and imagine future triumphs, and emphasize confidence-building thoughts.
  26. 26. How do you maintainyour self-confidenceduring competition?
  27. 27. DEVELOPING & MAINTAINING COMPETITIVE CONFIDENCE appraise situations as challenges rather than threats, develop readiness, performance and recovery plans to deal with problems, emphasize problem-focused coping strategies to reduce threat, use emotion-focused coping techniques to feel less threatened, and focus on more controllable process and performance goals.
  28. 28. What is the self-fulfilling prophecy?
  29. 29. SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY Self-Fulfilling Prophecies – occur when coaches’/teachers’ expectations prompt athletes/students to behave or perform in a way that conforms with those expectancies. Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) found that a group teachers believed were “academic late bloomers” made greater educational gains than did a control group for whom they had neutral expectancies. Expectancies of teachers, coaches and parents can significantly raise or lower performers’ self-confidence.
  30. 30. What are the four (4)steps of the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy Process?
  32. 32. SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY PROCESS STEP 1 – Coaches Develop Expectations STEP 2 – Coaches’ Expectations Influence their Treatment of Athletes (i.e., frequency, duration, and quality of interactions) STEP 3 – Athletes’ Learning and Performance Is Impacted by Differential Treatment STEP 4 -- Athletes’ Behavior Conforms to Coaches’ Expectations
  33. 33. STEP 1: COACHES FORM EXPECTATIONS Person Cues  race,  gender  socioeconomic status,  size,  body type, and  style of dress. Performance Information  conditioning and skills tests,  previous performance history,  evaluation of others, and  tryout information.
  34. 34. STEP 2: DIFFERENTIAL EXPECTANCIES IMPACT COACHING BEHAVIORS type, frequency and warmth of interactions, nature of instructional behaviors (e.g., skills taught, difficulty of skills, and persistence) nature of feedback behaviors (e.g., valence, specificity, and corrective content) attributions for success and failure.
  35. 35. STEP 3: COACHES’ BEHAVIOR IMPACTS ATHLETES’ PERFORMANCEquantity and quality of learning,quality of competitive cognitions and performance, andlong-term development.
  36. 36. STEP 4: ATHLETES’ PERFORMANCE CONFORMSWITH COACHES’ EXPECTATIONS Athletes most susceptible to Self- Fulfilling Prophecy effects are . . .  younger,  lessexperienced,  lower in self-esteem,  more coachable, and  value success more.
  37. 37. How do we maximizepositive Self-Fulfilling Prophecy effects?
  38. 38. HOW TO MAXIMIZE POSITIVE SFP EFFECTS1. Determine what sources of information are used to form expectations.2. Realize initial expectancies may be inaccurate, requiring adjustment as performers skill changes.3. Equalize skill-development time across athletes.4. Provide all performers sufficient time to fully master skills.5. Respond to errors with corrective instruction.6. Focus on product as a means to attain product.7. Develop good coach-athlete relationships.8. Create a performance-oriented team climate.