Infant and Adult Neurogenesis

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Slides from a presentation dealing with 2 articles to establish if Neurogenesis is present in Infant and Adult human brain

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Infant and Adult Neurogenesis

  1. 1. ADULT AND INFANT NeurogenesisInés Cordón & Ingrid Meucci
  2. 2. What is Neurogenesis ? Proliferation & Stem Cell Migration Progenitor CellsNew neurons generatedfrom neural stem cells andprogenitors cells Oligodendrocyte Astrocyte Neuron
  3. 3. Where does Neurogenesis happen? Lateral Ventricle Hippocampus
  4. 4. The SVZ : SubVentricular Zone In Adult
  5. 5. The RMS : Rostral Migratory Stream
  6. 6. Evidence of Migration in Rodent
  7. 7. DOES NEUROGENESIS DISAPPEAR ?
  8. 8. Technique: Immunohistochemistry Stains Mark DAPI All Cells DCX : Doublecortin Immature neuron PSA-NCAM Migrating neuron Ki67 Cellular proliferation GFAP/Vimentine Astrocytes/Glia
  9. 9. Neurogenesis in Human Lateral ventricle 1 Subventricular Zone Neuroblasts 2 Rostral Migratory StreamOlfactory Bulb 3 Olfactory Tract
  10. 10. 1. Neurogenesis in the SVZ
  11. 11. Horizontal Section of the SVZ Arturo Alvarez- Buylla et al, Nature. ; 478(7369): 382–386. doi:10.1038/nature10487
  12. 12. Immunochemistry of the SVZ During the first 18 months of age Staining Cells Immature Neuron Glia Large number of DCX(+) neurons populate the future gap layer The glia cells processes fill the gap area Arturo Alvarez- Buylla et al, Nature. ; 478(7369): 382–386. doi:10.1038/nature10487
  13. 13. Quantification of Immature Neuron in the SVZ Staining Immature neuron Proliferating subependymal cellSharp decline in proliferating cells and immature neuron Arturo Alvarez- Buylla et al, Nature. ; 478(7369): 382–386. doi:10.1038/nature10487
  14. 14. Conclusion During infant and adult ageInfant Adult Where these cells go ?
  15. 15. 2. Neurogenesis in the RMS
  16. 16. Caracterization of the RMS At 5 months Sagital and Coronal Reconstitution Tributaries of cells Isolated ependymal isletsEvidence of the RMS between the SVZ and the Olfactory Bulb (OB) Out of the sagital plane Arturo Alvarez- Buylla et al, Nature. ; 478(7369): 382–386. doi:10.1038/nature10487
  17. 17. Immunohistochemistry of neurons in the RMS At 5 months Staining Immature neuron Tributaries of Migrating neuron cells Isolated ependymal islets Out of the sagital planeClusters of immature and migrating neurons Arturo Alvarez- Buylla et al, Nature. ; 478(7369): 382–386. doi:10.1038/nature10487
  18. 18. Immunohistochemistry and Electron Microscopie the RMS At 1 week Label Immature neuron A : Immature neuron Glia B : GliaIndividual DCX(+) neuronal chains Ultrastructural analysis of a neuronal chain cross-section Evidence of a chain of immature and migrating neurons within the RMS surrounded by glia Arturo Alvarez- Buylla et al, Nature. ; 478(7369): 382–386. doi:10.1038/nature10487
  19. 19. General Structure of the RMS
  20. 20. Serial Coronal Sections of the Adult RMS Staining Cells Glia Zhengang Yang et al, Cell Research (2011) 21:1534-1550
  21. 21. Horizontal Section of the Adult RMS Staining Glia Immature neuron CellsThe RMS-like pathway exists in the adult human forebrain Zhengang Yang et al, Cell Research (2011) 21:1534-1550
  22. 22. 3. Neurogenesis in the Olfactory Tract
  23. 23. Immunohistochemistry in the Olfactory Tract At 1 day,8 months, 7 yearsCross-Sectional Reconstitutions Staining Immature neuron Cells Migrating neuronDecline of an active RMS with age Arturo Alvarez- Buylla et al, Nature. ; 478(7369): 382–386. doi:10.1038/nature10487
  24. 24. Toluidine Blue Staining in a Longitudinal Section of the OT At 6 monthsCentral chain of immature neurons surrounded by a matrix of astrocytes Arturo Alvarez- Buylla et al, Nature. ; 478(7369): 382–386. doi:10.1038/nature10487
  25. 25. Quantification of cells in the Proximal and Distal RMS At 6 months Proximal RMS Distal RMS There is a decline in the total amount of cells and inimmature neurons between the proximal and distal RMS Arturo Alvarez- Buylla et al, Nature. ; 478(7369): 382–386. doi:10.1038/nature10487
  26. 26. Hypothesis for decline in cell number At 6 Months Staining Immature neuron Migrating and immature neuron A medial migratory stream (MMS) of immature neurons branches from the proximal rostral migratory stream (RMS) in the infant human brain to supply the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) Arturo Alvarez- Buylla et al, Nature. ; 478(7369): 382–386. doi:10.1038/nature10487
  27. 27. Summary Lateral ventricle Subventricular Zone Neuroblasts Rostral Migratory StreamOlfactory Bulb Olfactory Tract
  28. 28. Is really Neurogenesis over in the Human adult brain ?Other pathways like MMS Serial sections (sagital, coronal, horizontal) : DAPI If yes : Immunohistochemistry (DCX, Hud+/Sox10-, NeuN)Apoptosis ? Hybridation in-situ : caspase, P53 ?Which are the transcription factors expressed by the astrocytes ? Transcriptome : microarray Hybridation in-situ for these transcription factor
  29. 29. Thank For Your Attention

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